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Eeg monitoring

Brin Freund, James J Gugger, Alexandra Reynolds, William O Tatum, Jan Claassen, Peter W Kaplan
PURPOSE: Periodic discharges (PDs) are EEG patterns denoting brain dysfunction and ictal tendency. Their exact meaning regarding etiology and outcomes is not well known. In particular, bilateral independent PDs (BIPDs) are poorly described. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study evaluating neuroimaging, epileptic, clinical, and EEG correlates of BIPDs. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients studied with a mean Glasgow Coma Scale 6...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Vedavathi Kunnanayaka, Puneet Jain, Suvasini Sharma, Anju Seth, Satinder Aneja
Background: West syndrome is a catastrophic epilepsy syndrome characterized by infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and developmental arrest or regression. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the role of pyridoxine in the management of infantile spasms. Setting and Design: This was a pilot, randomized, open-label trial conducted at a tertiary level hospital from November 2012 to March 2014. Materials and Methods: Children aged 3 months to 3 years presenting with infantile spasms in clusters (at least 1 cluster/day) with hypsarrhythmia or its variants on electroencephalogram (EEG) were enrolled...
March 2018: Neurology India
Firas Bannout, Sheri Harder, Michael Lee, Alexander Zouros, Ravi Raghavan, Travis Fogel, Kenneth De Los Reyes, Travis Losey
The neurosurgical treatment of skull base temporal encephalocele for patients with epilepsy is variable. We describe two adult cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with spheno-temporal encephalocele, currently seizure-free for more than two years after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and lesionectomy sparing the hippocampus without long-term intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. Encephaloceles were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmed by maxillofacial head computed tomography (CT) scans...
March 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
Marie Luise Schreiter, Witold Chmielewski, Christian Beste
There is a strong inter-relation of cognitive and emotional processes as evidenced by emotional conflict monitoring processes. In the cognitive domain, proactive effects of conflicts have widely been studied; i.e. effects of conflicts in the n-1 trial on trial n. Yet, the neurophysiological processes and associated functional neuroanatomical structures underlying such proactive effects during emotional conflicts have not been investigated. This is done in the current study combining EEG recordings with signal decomposition methods and source localization approaches...
March 9, 2018: NeuroImage
Melle J W van der Molen, Anita Harrewijn, P Michiel Westenberg
The current study examined neural and behavioral responses to social evaluative feedback processing in social anxiety. Twenty-two non-socially and 17 socially anxious females (mean age = 19.57 years) participated in a Social Judgment Paradigm in which they received acceptance/rejection feedback that was either congruent or incongruent with their prior predictions. Results indicated that socially anxious participants believed they would receive less social acceptance feedback than non-socially anxious participants...
March 7, 2018: Biological Psychology
Richard H Epstein, Joni M Maga, Michael E Mahla, Eric S Schwenk, Marc J Bloom
BACKGROUND: Processed electroencephalogram (EEG) monitors help assess the hypnotic state during general anesthesia or sedation. Maintaining the bispectral index (BIS) or state entropy (SE) between 40 and 60 has been recommended to mitigate anesthesia awareness. Nonetheless, SEs > 70 were frequently observed at end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations unlikely to allow awareness. We sought to determine the prevalence of elevated discordant measurements during BIS and SE monitoring. METHODS: Electronic data collected over 11 months at two academic hospitals were retrospectively reviewed...
March 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
M Chavez, F Grosselin, A Bussalb, F De Vico Fallani, X Navarro-Sune
OBJECTIVE: the recent emergence and success of electroencephalography (EEG) in low-cost portable devices, has opened the door to a new generation of applications processing a small number of EEG channels for health monitoring and brain-computer interfacing. These recordings are, however, contaminated by many sources of noise degrading the signals of interest, thus compromising the interpretation of the underlying brain state. In this paper, we propose a new data-driven algorithm to effectively remove ocular and muscular artifacts from single-channel EEG: the surrogate-based artifact removal (SuBAR)...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Bjørn E Juel, Luis Romundstad, Frode Kolstad, Johan F Storm, Pål G Larsson
Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether properties of 1-s segments of spontaneous scalp EEG activity can be used to automatically distinguish the awake state from the anesthetized state in patients undergoing general propofol anesthesia. Methods: Twenty five channel EEG was recorded from 10 patients undergoing general intravenous propofol anesthesia with remifentanil during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. From this, we extracted properties of the EEG by applying the Directed Transfer Function (DTF) directly to every 1-s segment of the raw EEG signal...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jana Annina Müller, Birger Kollmeier, Stefan Debener, Thomas Brand
The aim of this study was to investigate whether attentional influences on speech recognition are reflected in the neural phase entrained by an external modulator. Sentences were presented in 7 Hz sinusoidally modulated noise while the neural response to that modulation frequency was monitored by electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in 21 participants. We implemented a selective attention paradigm including three different attention conditions while keeping physical stimulus parameters constant. The participants' task was either to repeat the sentence as accurately as possible (speech recognition task), to count the number of decrements implemented in modulated noise (decrement detection task), or to do both (dual task), while the EEG was recorded...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Zhenhu Liang, Cheng Huang, Yongwang Li, Darren F Hight, Logan J Voss, Jamie W Sleigh, Xiaoli Li, Yang Bai

 Objective. Significant spectral characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns exist in individual patients during re-establishing consciousness after general anesthesia. However, these EEG patterns cannot be quantitatively identified using commercially available depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitors. This study proposed an effective classification method and indices to classify these patterns among patients.
 Approach. Four types of emergence EEG patterns were identified based on EEG data set from 52patients undergoing sevoflurane general anesthesia from two hospitals...
March 7, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Josef Parvizi, Sabine Kastner
Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), also known as electrocorticography when using subdural grid electrodes or stereotactic EEG when using depth electrodes, is blossoming in various fields of human neuroscience. In this article, we highlight the potentials of iEEG in exploring functions of the human brain while also considering its limitations. The iEEG signal provides anatomically precise information about the selective engagement of neuronal populations at the millimeter scale and the temporal dynamics of their engagement at the millisecond scale...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Marcos Daou, Keith R Lohse, Matthew W Miller
Recent evidence suggests practicing a motor skill with the expectation of teaching it enhances learning by increasing information processing during motor preparation. However, the specific motor preparatory processes remain unknown. The present study sought to address this shortcoming by employing EEG to assess participants' motor preparatory processes while they completed a golf putting pretest, and then practiced putting with the expectation of (a) teaching another participant how to putt the next day (teach group, n = 30), or (b) being tested on their putting the next day (test group, n = 30)...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Orhan Bican, Charles Cho, Leslie Lee, Viet Nguyen, Scheherazade Le, Jeremy Heit, Jaime Lopez
A middle-aged patient underwent staged endovascular embolization of a Spetzler-Martin grade V right parietal arteriovenous malformation(AVM).In the fifth endovascular embolization, after methohexital 10 mg injection into a right posterior choroidal artery feeding the AVM nidus, there was an immediate change in the electroencephalogram (EEG) with simultaneous loss of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the bilateral upper and lower extremities and a delayed change in somatosensory evoked potential responses (SSEPs)...
February 25, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Davide Gheza, Rudi De Raedt, Chris Baeken, Gilles Pourtois
Effort expenditure has an aversive connotation and it can lower hedonic feelings. In this study, we explored the electrophysiological correlates of the complex interplay of reward processing with cost anticipation. To this aim, healthy adult participants performed a gambling task where the outcome (monetary reward vs. no-reward) and its expectancy were manipulated on a trial by trial basis while 64-channel EEG was recorded. Crucially, on some trials, the no-reward outcome could be transformed to a rewarding one, pending effort expenditure by means of an orthogonal dot clicking task, enabling us to compare at the electrophysiological level reward processing when cost was anticipated or not...
February 26, 2018: NeuroImage
Thea Radüntz
Electroencephalogram (EEG) registration as a direct measure of brain activity has unique potentials. It is one of the most reliable and predicative indicators when studying human cognition, evaluating a subject's health condition, or monitoring their mental state. Unfortunately, standard signal acquisition procedures limit the usability of EEG devices and narrow their application outside the lab. Emerging sensor technology allows gel-free EEG registration and wireless signal transmission. Thus, it enables quick and easy application of EEG devices by users themselves...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Guo-Shuai Yang, Xiao-Yan Zhou, Xue-Fang An, Xuan-Jun Liu, Yan-Jun Zhang, Dan Yu
Stroke is considered an underlying etiology of the development of seizures. Stroke leads to glucose and oxygen deficiency in neurons, resulting in brain dysfunction and injury. Mild hypothermia is a therapeutic strategy to inhibit stroke‑induced seizures, which may be associated with the regulation of energy metabolism of the brain. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member (GLUT)‑1 are critical for energy metabolism. Furthermore, mTOR overactivation and GLUT‑1 deficiency are associated with genetically acquired seizures...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Somayeh B Shafiei, Ahmed Aly Hussein, Sarah Feldt Muldoon, Khurshid A Guru
Mutual trust is important in surgical teams, especially in robot-assisted surgery (RAS) where interaction with robot-assisted interface increases the complexity of relationships within the surgical team. However, evaluation of trust between surgeons is challenging and generally based on subjective measures. Mentor-Trainee trust was defined as assessment of mentor on trainee's performance quality and approving trainee's ability to continue performing the surgery. Here, we proposed a novel method of objectively assessing mentor-trainee trust during RAS based on patterns of brain activity of surgical mentor observing trainees...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
W O Tatum, G Rubboli, P W Kaplan, S M Mirsatari, K Radhakrishnan, D Gloss, L O Caboclo, F W Drislane, M Koutroumanidis, D L Schomer, D Kastelijn-Nolst Trenite, Mark Cook, S Beniczky
Electroencephalography (EEG) remains an essential diagnostic tool for people with epilepsy (PWE). The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology produces new guidelines as an educational service for clinicians to address gaps in knowledge in clinical neurophysiology. The current guideline was prepared in response to gaps present in epilepsy-related neurophysiological assessment and is not intended to replace sound clinical judgement in the care of PWE. Furthermore, addressing specific pathophysiological conditions of the brain that produce epilepsy is of primary importance though is beyond the scope of this guideline...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Jose L Contreras-Vidal, Magdo Bortole, Fangshi Zhu, Kevin Nathan, Anusha Venkatakrishnan, Gerard E Francisco, Rogelio Soto, Jose L Pons
OBJECTIVE: Advancements in robot-assisted gait rehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces (BMI) may enhance stroke physiotherapy by engaging patients while providing information about robot-induced cortical adaptations. We investigate the feasibility of decoding walking from brain activity in stroke survivors during therapy using a powered exoskeleton integrated with an electroencephalography (EEG)-based BMI. DESIGN: The H2 powered exoskeleton was designed for overground gait training with actuated hip, knee and ankle joints...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Shadnaz Asgari, Hana Moshirvaziri, Fabien Scalzo, Nima Ramezan-Arab
Cardiac arrest (CA) is the leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Early and accurate prediction of CA outcome can help clinicians and families to make a better-informed decision for the patient's healthcare. Studies have shown that electroencephalography (EEG) may assist in early prognosis of CA outcome. However, visual EEG interpretation is subjective, labor-intensive, and requires interpretation by a medical expert, i.e., neurophysiologists. These limiting factors may hinder the applicability of such testing as the prognostic method in clinical settings...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
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