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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055086/acute-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-1-2-inhibition-improves-functional-recovery-and-vascular-changes-after-ischemic-stroke-in-rat-monitored-by-9-4-t-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Maryam Mostajeran, Friedrich Wetterling, Frank W Blixt, Lars Edvinsson, Saema Ansar
AIM: The aim was to evaluate the beneficial effect of early mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK)1/2 inhibition administered at a clinical relevant time-point using the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model and a dedicated rodent magnetic resonance imaging system (9.4T) to monitor cerebrovascular changes non-invasively for two weeks. METHOD: Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male rats for two hours followed by reperfusion. The specific MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 was administered i...
October 21, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054973/chronic-femoral-artery-ligation-exaggerates-the-pressor-and-sympathetic-nerve-responses-during-dynamic-skeletal-muscle-stretch-in-decerebrate-rats
#2
Evan A Kempf, Korynne S Rollins, Tyler D Hopkins, Alec L Butenas, Joseph M Santin, Joshua R Smith, Steven W Copp
Mechanical and metabolic signals arising during skeletal muscle contraction reflexly increase sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure (i.e., the exercise pressor reflex). In a rat model of simulated peripheral artery disease (PAD) in which a femoral artery is chronically (~72 hours) ligated, the mechanically-sensitive component of the exercise pressor reflex during 1 Hz dynamic contraction is exaggerated compared to that found in normal rats. Whether this is due to an enhanced acute sensitization of mechanoreceptors by metabolites produced during contraction or involves a chronic sensitization of mechanoreceptors is unknown...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054972/endothelial-function-is-impaired-in-the-cutaneous-microcirculation-of-adults-with-psoriasis-through-reductions-in-nitric-oxide-dependent-vasodilation
#3
Billie K Alba, Jody L Greaney, Sara B Ferguson, Lacy M Alexander
Psoriasis is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Deficits in conduit arterial function are evident in psoriatics, but potential impairments in microcirculatory endothelial function remain unclear. We hypothesized that cutaneous microvascular dysfunction would be detectable in otherwise healthy psoriatics. Two intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in (non-lesional) forearm skin of 9 patients with moderate plaque psoriasis (3M, 6F; 39±5 yr; 16±2 %BSA) and 9 non-psoriatic controls (3M, 6F; 38±5 yr) for local delivery of 1) lactated Ringer's (control) and 2) 10mM L-ascorbate (non-specific antioxidant)...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054861/regulation-of-human-feto-placental-endothelial-barrier-integrity-by-vascular-endothelial-growth-factors-competitive-interplay-between-vegf-a165a-vegf-a165b-pigf-and-ve-cadherin
#4
Vincent Pang, David O Bates, Lopa Leach
The human placenta nourishes and protects the developing fetus whilst influencing maternal physiology for fetal advantage. It expresses several members of the VEGF family including the pro-angiogenic/pro-permeability VEGF-A165a isoform, the anti-angiogenic VEGF-A165b, placental growth factor (PIGF) and their receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. Alterations in the ratio of these factors during gestation and in complicated pregnancies have been reported; however the impact of this on feto-placental endothelial barrier integrity is unknown...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054590/double-fluorescent-labelling-of-a-bipolar-epithelial-cell-in-vitro-the-outer-hair-cell
#5
Csaba Harasztosi, Entcho Klenske, Susanne Badum, Emese Harasztosi, Anthony W Gummer
BACKGROUND: Fluorescence membrane markers are efficient tools for visualizing the dynamics of membrane recycling processes in living cells. The outer hair cell (OHC) - a bipolar epithelial cell in the cochlea - possesses endocytic activity at both its apical and basal poles. The best visual overview of transcytosis in the OHC is achieved when the cell is isolated, so that both the apical and the basal poles are in the same focal plane to allow confocal imaging. Until now, fluorescent markers were applied to the extracellular environment of isolated OHCs without distinguishing the apical and basal poles...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054448/brain-ischemia-ct-and-mri-techniques-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#6
REVIEW
Pedro Vilela, Howard A Rowley
Imaging plays a central role for intravenous and intra-arterial arterial ischemic stroke treatment patient selection. Computed tomography (CT) / CT angiography or magnetic resonance (MR) / MR angiography imaging are used to exclude stroke mimics and haemorrhage, to determine the cause and mechanism of stroke, to define the extension of brain infarct and to identify the arterial occlusion. Imaging may identify the patients that will be benefit more from revascularization therapies independently of the conventional therapeutic time window allowing individualized treatment decisions and improving individual patient outcome...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054354/strategies-to-reduce-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-of-the-limb
#7
REVIEW
Kavit R Amin, Jason K F Wong, James E Fildes
An important and often underinvestigated contributor to solid organ transplant rejection is ischemia reperfusion injury. This pathophysiological response releases damaging reactive oxygen species and cell stress signals that initiate inflammation, which has a critical role in priming the immune system for allorecognition. In time, this renders graft dysfunction and how this response is mediated in composite tissues remains unknown. Current protocols are drawn from solid organ transplantation with little scientific basis as to how this informs current hand transplantation practices...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054230/near-complete-obliteration-of-the-left-hemithorax-by-congenital-lobar-emphysema-in-an-adult
#8
Nakesha King, Shilpa S Ramesh, Michael Essandoh, Robert E Merritt
Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare pulmonary malformation typically diagnosed during infancy and is characterized by bullous disease. A 28-year-old woman, who presented with 1 week of progressive dyspnea and chest pain, was found to have left hemithoracic lung hyperinflation with perfusion deficit upon radiographic evaluation. Bullous disease was found intraoperatively to originate from 1 lower lobe segment. Normal parenchymal lung expansion occurred following resection of the affected segment. Therefore, we present a rare case of congenital lobar emphysema resulting in near-complete occupancy of the left hemithorax and diagnosed in a previously asymptomatic adult without history of predisposing factors...
November 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054200/the-role-of-acute-circulatory-support-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-complicated-by-cardiogenic-shock
#9
REVIEW
Michele Esposito, Yousef Bader, Robert Pedicini, Catalina Breton, Andrew Mullin, Navin K Kapur
In the setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock, three primary treatment objectives include providing circulatory support, ventricular unloading, and restoring myocardial perfusion. In addition to primary percutaneous coronary intervention, each of these three objectives can be achieved with appropriate use of an acute mechanical circulatory support (AMCS) pump. Over the past decade, utilization of percutaneously-delivered AMCS devices including the Impella axial-flow catheter, TandemHeart left atrial-to-femoral artery bypass system, and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) has grown exponentially...
September 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054135/alterations-in-the-timing-of-huperzine-a-cerebral-pharmacodynamics-in-the-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-setting
#10
Ugur Damar, Roman Gersner, Joshua T Johstone, Kush Kapur, Stephen D Collins, Steven Schachter, Alexander Rotenberg
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect the pharmacodynamics of centrally acting drugs. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) is a safe and noninvasive measure of cortical GABA-mediated cortical inhibition. Huperzine A (HupA) is a naturally-occurring acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with newly discovered potent GABA-mediated antiepileptic capacity, which is reliably detected by ppTMS. To test whether TBI alters cerebral HupA pharmacodynamics, we exposed rats to fluid percussion injury (FPI), and tested whether ppTMS metrics of cortical inhibition differ in magnitude and temporal pattern in injured rats...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053905/distinct-predictive-role-of-collateral-status-on-clinical-outcome-in-variant-stroke-subtypes-of-acute-large-arterial-occlusion
#11
Xuting Zhang, Meixia Zhang, Wenhong Ding, Shenqiang Yan, David S Liebeskind, Min Lou
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have showed that robust collateral flow has a relationship with good clinical outcome, however, different stroke subtypes were lumped together. This study explored the relationship between baseline collaterals and the onset-to-imaging time (OIT), and the correlation between pre-treatment collateral status and clinical outcome among different subtypes. METHOD: We reviewed prospectively collected data from consecutive acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with acute middle cerebral artery occlusion who received reperfusion therapy...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053782/seizure-onset-zone-localization-using-postictal-hypoperfusion-detected-by-arterial-spin-labelling-mri
#12
Ismael Gaxiola-Valdez, Shaily Singh, Tefani Perera, Sherry Sandy, Emmy Li, Paolo Federico
Neurological dysfunction following epileptic seizures is a well-recognized phenomenon. Several potential mechanisms have been suggested to explain postictal dysfunction, with alteration in cerebral blood flow being one possibility. These vascular disturbances may be long lasting and localized to brain areas involved in seizure generation and propagation, as supported by both animal and human studies. Therefore, measuring perfusion changes in the postictal period may help localize the seizure onset zone. Arterial spin labelling is a non-invasive, rapid and reproducible magnetic resonance imaging technique that measures cerebral perfusion...
September 28, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053753/3d-morphological-analysis-of-the-mouse-cerebral-vasculature-comparison-of-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-methods
#13
Joe Steinman, Margaret M Koletar, Bojana Stefanovic, John G Sled
Ex vivo 2-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) with optical clearing enables vascular imaging deep into tissue. However, optical clearing may also produce spherical aberrations if the objective lens is not index-matched to the clearing material, while the perfusion, clearing, and fixation procedure may alter vascular morphology. We compared in vivo and ex vivo 2PFM in mice, focusing on apparent differences in microvascular signal and morphology. Following in vivo imaging, the mice (four total) were perfused with a fluorescent gel and their brains fructose-cleared...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053491/safety-and-feasibility-of-early-physical-therapy-for-patients-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenator-university-of-maryland-medical-center-experience
#14
Chris L Wells, Jenny Forrester, Joshua Vogel, Raymond Rector, Ali Tabatabai, Daniel Herr
OBJECTIVES: To examine the feasibility and safety of mobilizing patients while on extracorporeal membranous oxygenation support. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Medical and Surgical ICUs in a large tertiary care hospital in the United States. PATIENTS: Adults supported on extracorporeal membranous oxygenation from January 2014 to December 2015. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We reviewed the medical records from physical therapy, perfusion, and intensivists to obtain the number and type of physical therapy interventions and discharge status; extracorporeal membranous oxygenation type and description of support, cannulation sites; and risk management details of adverse effects, if any...
October 19, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053169/whole-body-physiologically-based-modelling-of-beta-blockers-in-the-rat-events-in-tissues-and-plasma-following-an-intravenous-bolus-dose
#15
S Y A Cheung, T Rodgers, L Aarons, I Gueorguieva, G L Dickinson, S Murby, C Brown, B Collins, M Rowland
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been increasingly applied in drug development to describe kinetic events of therapeutic agents in animals and human. The advantage of such modelling is the ability to incorporate vast amounts of physiological information, such as organ blood flow and volume, to ensure that the model is as close to reality as possible. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Prior PBPK model development of enantiomers of a series of seven racemic betablockers, namely acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, pindolol and propranolol, together with S-timolol in rat was based on tissue and blood concentration data at steady state...
October 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053071/prevention-of-postoperative-visual-field-defect-after-the-occipital-transtentorial-approach-anatomical-study
#16
Satoshi Matsuo, Serhat Baydin, Abuzer Güngör, Erik H Middlebrooks, Noritaka Komune, Koji Iihara, Albert L Rhoton
OBJECTIVE A postoperative visual field defect resulting from damage to the occipital lobe during surgery is a unique complication of the occipital transtentorial approach. Though the association between patient position and this complication is well investigated, preventing the complication remains a challenge. To define the area of the occipital lobe in which retraction is least harmful, the surface anatomy of the brain, course of the optic radiations, and microsurgical anatomy of the occipital transtentorial approach were examined...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051844/oct-angiography-an-upcoming-non-invasive-tool-for-diagnosis-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#17
Luiz Roisman, Raquel Goldhardt
PURPOSE: To review the most recent findings, characteristics, faults and future perspectives of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). RECENT FINDINGS: In dry AMD, OCTA is useful on the evaluation of choriocapillaris perfusion and detection of naïve quiescent non-exudative choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In wet AMD, OCTA can provide detailed anatomic and morphologic information of CNVs, which may help to understand why and how they develop and become active...
June 2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051833/anatomical-and-functional-correlation-in-susac-syndrome-multimodal-imaging-assessment
#18
Alexandre G B Azevedo, Luiz H Lima, Léo Müller, Flávio Rezende Filho, Cláudio Zett, André Maia, Luiz Roisman
BACKGROUND: Susac's syndrome (SuS) is an uncommon disease characterized by retinal microangiopathy that may be assessed more accurately with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), a new imaging technique which provides a retinal microvasculature map. The purpose of this case report is to describe the multimodal imaging findings of SuS correlating OCTA with functional tests. CASE PRESENTATION: Retrospective review of one case with clinical and imaging evidence of SuS...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051737/lack-of-contribution-of-p66shc-and-its-mitochondrial-translocation-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-cardioprotection-by-ischemic-preconditioning
#19
Kerstin Boengler, Péter Bencsik, János Palóczi, Krisztina Kiss, Márton Pipicz, Judit Pipis, Péter Ferdinandy, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter, Rainer Schulz
Whereas high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to cardiac damage following ischemia and reperfusion (IR), low amounts function as trigger molecules in the cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The mitochondrial translocation and contribution of the hydrogen peroxide-generating protein p66shc in the cardioprotection by IPC is unclear yet. In the present study, we investigated the mitochondrial translocation of p66shc, addressed the impact of p66shc on ROS formation after IR, and characterized the role of p66shc in IR injury per se and in the cardioprotection by IPC...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051391/trace-eyeblink-conditioning-is-associated-with-changes-in-synaptophysin-immunoreactivity-in-the-cerebellar-interpositus-nucleus-in-guinea-pigs
#20
Rui Li, Qi Li, Xiao-Lei Chu, Tao Tao, Lan Li, Cheng-Qi He, Fang-You Gao
Synaptic plasticity plays a role during trace eyeblink conditioning (TEBC). Synaptophysin (Syn) is a major integral transmembrane protein, located particularly in the synaptic vesicles, and is considered a molecular marker of synapses. In addition, Syn immunoreactivity is an important indicator of synaptic plasticity. In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to assess changes in Syn expression in the cerebellar IN of guinea pigs exposed to TEBC and pseudoconditioning. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between Syn immunoreactivity and the percentage of trace-conditioned responses...
October 19, 2017: Bioscience Reports
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