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C Fowler, R J M Lynch, D Shingler, D Walsh, C Carson, A Neale, R J Willson, A Brown
OBJECTIVE: To assess Scanning Electron Microscopy in Back-Scattered Emission mode (BSE-SEM) for measurement of lesion mineral content as a function of depth. Direct comparison is made with Transverse Micro-Radiography (TMR) and Surface Micro-Hardness (SMH) on carious and erosive lesions. DESIGN: Caries lesions prepared from sound bovine enamel at 37 °C and pH 4.6 in unsaturated (7d) or part-saturated (8d, 4.1 mM Ca2+ , 8 mM Pi) lactic acid /methyl cellulose gel system, followed by TMR analysis...
June 13, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Didem Dagdeviren, Zana Kalajzic, Douglas J Adams, Ivo Kalajzic, Alan Lurie, Maija I Mednieks, Arthur R Hand
OBJECTIVE: To determine if spaceflight and microgravity affect non-weight bearing bones and development and mineralization of teeth, reasoning that combining an organ and a cellular level approach can lead to greater insights about these effects. DESIGN: Mandibles and incisors of mice flown on the US STS-135 space shuttle mission and the Russian Bion-M1 satellite were studied using micro-computed tomography and immunohistochemistry. Ground controls were mice housed in standard vivarium cages and flight habitats...
June 7, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Mari Kaneko, Satoshi Fujita, Noriyoshi Shimizu, Mitsuru Motoyoshi, Masayuki Kobayashi
During orthodontic treatment, binding teeth, may change the topographically organized representation of teeth in the cerebral cortex. To test the hypothesis that experimental tooth movement (ETM) changes the somatotopy of an individual tooth arrangement in the somatosensory cortex, we examined the spatiotemporal features of cortical excitatory propagation in response to mechanical stimulation of the maxillary incisor or molar using optical imaging in late adolescent rats without or with ETM. The ETM models consisted of 1d, 3d, and 7d ETM in which a closed-coil spring was ligated between the maxillary first molar and incisors...
June 18, 2018: Brain Research
F Schwendicke, G Göstemeyer, M Stolpe, J Krois
We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of amalgam alternatives-namely, incrementally placed composites (IComp), composites placed in bulk (BComp), and glass ionomer cements (GIC). In a sensitivity analysis, we also included composite inlays (CompI) and incrementally placed bulk-fills (IBComp). Moreover, the value of information (VOI) regarding the effectiveness of all strategies was determined. A mixed public-private-payer perspective in the context of Germany was adopted. Bayesian network meta-analyses were performed to yield effectiveness estimates (relative risk [RR] of failure)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
C de Baat, P G M A Zweers, A Vissink
Medications and self care products may have adverse effects on the gingiva. These adverse effects can be divided into inflammation, intrinsic discolouration, irritation, trauma, cytotoxicity, lichenoid reaction, and proliferation. This article deals with the first 6 types of adverse effects mentioned: a subsequent article will deal with the last type mentioned. Since contraceptives were introduced, there have been indications that they cause or promote gingivitis, but with the current contraceptives this adverse effect is rarely seen...
June 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Somayeh Kakehbaraei, Hadi Seyedarabi, Ali Taghavi Zenouz
Teeth segmentation is an important task in computer-aided procedures and clinical diagnosis. In this paper, we propose an accurate and robust algorithm based on watershed and morphology operators for teeth and pulp segmentation and a new approach for enamel segmentation in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Proposed method consists of five steps: acquiring appropriate CBCT image, image enhancement, teeth segmentation using the marker-controlled watershed (MCW), enamel segmentation by global threshold, and finally, utilizing the MCW for pulp segmentation...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
Mizuho Yamazaki, Masaru Mezawa, Keisuke Noda, Yasunobu Iwai, Sari Matsui, Hideki Takai, Yohei Nakayama, Yorimasa Ogata
One of the major causes of tooth loss is chronic inflammation of the periodontium, the tissues surrounding the tooth. Amelotin (AMTN) is a tooth enamel protein which is expressed in maturation-stage ameloblasts and also in the internal basal lamina of junctional epithelium, a unique epithelial structure attached to the tooth surface which protects against the constant microbiological challenge to the periodontium. Localization of AMTN suggests that its function could be involved in the dentogingival attachment...
June 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Marco Annunziata, Luigi Guida, Livia Nastri, Angelantonio Piccirillo, Linda Sommese, Claudio Napoli
Prevention of alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction may be useful for implant rehabilitation of the edentulous site minimizing the future need for bone augmentation procedures. A number of studies have investigated the efficacy of autologous platelet concentrates for the preservation of the alveolar bone volume after tooth extraction. Although encouraging results have been published, the available data are still controversial. The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the effect of platelet concentrates on alveolar socket preservation after tooth extraction...
May 2018: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
Santiago Sanz-Quinto, Raúl López-Grueso, Gabriel Brizuela, Andrew A Flatt, Manuel Moya-Ramón
Sanz-Quinto, S, López-Grueso, R, Brizuela, G, Flatt, AA, and Moya-Ramón, M. Influence of training models at 3,900-m altitude on the physiological response and performance of a professional wheelchair athlete: A case study. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This case study compared the effects of two training camps using flexible planning (FP) vs. inflexible planning (IP) at 3,860-m altitude on physiological and performance responses of an elite marathon wheelchair athlete with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
M F Abid, M A Simpson, I A Barbosa, M Seppala, M Irving, P T Sharpe, M T Cobourne
OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic basis of severe tooth agenesis in a family of three affected sisters. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A family of three sisters with severe tooth agenesis was recruited for whole-exome sequencing to identify potential genetic variation responsible for this penetrant phenotype. The unaffected father was tested for specific mutations using Sanger sequencing. Gene discovery was supplemented with in situ hybridization to localize gene expression during human tooth development...
June 21, 2018: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
Ian Needleman, Raul Garcia, Nikos Gkranias, Keith L Kirkwood, Thomas Kocher, Anna Di Iorio, Federico Moreno, Aviva Petrie
BACKGROUND: Rate of progression of periodontitis has been used to inform the design of classifications of periodontal diseases. However, the evidence underpinning this topic is unclear and no systematic review has yet been conducted. OBJECTIVES: The focused question for this systematic review was: in adults, what is the progression of periodontitis in terms of clinical attachment loss, radiographic bone loss, and tooth loss? DATA SOURCES: Highly sensitive electronic search was conducted for published data in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and unpublished grey literature in OpenGrey up to February 2016...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Maurizio S Tonetti, Henry Greenwell, Kenneth S Kornman
BACKGROUND: Authors were assigned the task to develop case definitions for periodontitis in the context of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. The aim of this manuscript is to review evidence and rationale for a revision of the current classification, to provide a framework for case definition that fully implicates state-of-the-art knowledge and can be adapted as new evidence emerges, and to suggest a case definition system that can be implemented in clinical practice, research and epidemiologic surveillance...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Panos N Papapanou, Mariano Sanz, Nurcan Buduneli, Thomas Dietrich, Magda Feres, Daniel H Fine, Thomas F Flemmig, Raul Garcia, William V Giannobile, Filippo Graziani, Henry Greenwell, David Herrera, Richard T Kao, Moritz Kebschull, Denis F Kinane, Keith L Kirkwood, Thomas Kocher, Kenneth S Kornman, Purnima S Kumar, Bruno G Loos, Eli Machtei, Huanxin Meng, Andrea Mombelli, Ian Needleman, Steven Offenbacher, Gregory J Seymour, Ricardo Teles, Maurizio S Tonetti
A new periodontitis classification scheme has been adopted, in which forms of the disease previously recognized as "chronic" or "aggressive" are now grouped under a single category ("periodontitis") and are further characterized based on a multi-dimensional staging and grading system. Staging is largely dependent upon the severity of disease at presentation as well as on the complexity of disease management, while grading provides supplemental information about biological features of the disease including a history-based analysis of the rate of periodontitis progression; assessment of the risk for further progression; analysis of possible poor outcomes of treatment; and assessment of the risk that the disease or its treatment may negatively affect the general health of the patient...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Christoph H F Hämmerle, Dennis Tarnow
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present paper was to review factors and conditions that are associated with hard and soft-tissue deficiencies at implant sites. IMPORTANCE: Hard- and soft-tissue deficiencies at dental implants are common clinical findings. They can lead to complications and compromise implant survival and, hence, may require therapeutic interventions. It is, therefore, important to understand the etiology of hard and soft-tissue deficiencies. Based on this understanding, strategies should be developed to correct hard and soft-tissue deficiencies with the aim of improving clinical outcomes of implant therapy...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Søren Jepsen, Jack G Caton, Jasim M Albandar, Nabil F Bissada, Philippe Bouchard, Pierpaolo Cortellini, Korkud Demirel, Massimo de Sanctis, Carlo Ercoli, Jingyuan Fan, Nicolaas C Geurs, Francis J Hughes, Lijian Jin, Alpdogan Kantarci, Evanthia Lalla, Phoebus N Madianos, Debora Matthews, Michael K McGuire, Michael P Mills, Philip M Preshaw, Mark A Reynolds, Anton Sculean, Cristiano Susin, Nicola X West, Kazuhisa Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: A variety of systemic diseases and conditions can affect the course of periodontitis or have a negative impact on the periodontal attachment apparatus. Gingival recessions are highly prevalent and often associated with hypersensitivity, the development of caries and non-carious cervical lesions on the exposed root surface and impaired esthetics. Occlusal forces can result in injury of teeth and periodontal attachment apparatus. Several developmental or acquired conditions associated with teeth or prostheses may predispose to diseases of the periodontium...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
David Herrera, Belén Retamal-Valdes, Bettina Alonso, Magda Feres
OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate the existing literature on acute lesions occurring in the periodontium (periodontal abscesses [PA], necrotizing periodontal diseases [NPD], and endo-periodontal lesions [EPL]) to determine the weight of evidence for the existence of specific clinical conditions that may be grouped together according to common features. The ultimate goal is to support an objective classification system. IMPORTANCE: Although PA, NPD, and EPL occur with relatively low frequency, these lesions are of clinical relevance, because they require immediate management and might severely compromise the prognosis of the tooth...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Monisha Billings, Birte Holtfreter, Panos N Papapanou, Gabriela Lopez Mitnik, Thomas Kocher, Bruce A Dye
OBJECTIVE: We used epidemiologic data of clinical periodontal status from two population-based samples in two countries, United States and Germany, to examine 1) the impact of age on the relative contribution of recession and pocketing on the distribution of clinical attachment loss, and 2) whether it is feasible to define age-dependent thresholds for severe periodontitis. METHODS: The analytical sample was based on persons aged ≥30 and included 10,713 individuals in the United States, participants in NHANES 2009 to 2014, and 3,071 individuals in Pomerania, Germany, participants in the SHIP-Trend 2008 to 2012...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Carlo Ercoli, Jack G Caton
OBJECTIVES: This narrative review summarizes the current evidence about the role that the fabrication and presence of dental prostheses and tooth-related factors have on the initiation and progression of gingivitis and periodontitis. FINDINGS: Placement of restoration margins within the junctional epithelium and supracrestal connective tissue attachment can be associated with gingival inflammation and, potentially, recession. The presence of fixed prostheses finish lines within the gingival sulcus or the wearing of partial, removable dental prostheses does not cause gingivitis if patients are compliant with self-performed plaque control and periodic maintenance...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Jingyuan Fan, Jack G Caton
OBJECTIVES: This narrative review determines the effects of occlusal trauma and excessive occlusal forces on the periodontium, including the initiation and progression of periodontitis, abfraction, and gingival recession. Case definitions, diagnostic considerations, and the effects of occlusal therapy are also reviewed and discussed. IMPORTANCE: The role of occlusal trauma in the initiation and progression of periodontitis remains a controversial subject in periodontology...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
F Lobbezoo, J Ahlberg, K G Raphael, P Wetselaar, A G Glaros, T Kato, V Santiago, E Winocur, A De Laat, R De Leeuw, K Koyano, G J Lavigne, P Svensson, D Manfredini
In 2013, consensus was obtained on a definition of bruxism as repetitive masticatory muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible and specified as either sleep bruxism or awake bruxism. In addition, a grading system was proposed to determine the likelihood that a certain assessment of bruxism actually yields a valid outcome. This study discusses the need for an updated consensus and has the following aims: (i) to further clarify the 2013 definition and to develop separate definitions for sleep and awake bruxism; (ii) to determine whether bruxism is a disorder rather than a behaviour that can be a risk factor for certain clinical conditions; (iii) to re-examine the 2013 grading system; and (iv) to develop a research agenda...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
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