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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925970/current-status-of-rift-valley-fever-vaccine-development
#1
REVIEW
Bonto Faburay, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, D Scott McVey, William C Wilson, Juergen A Richt
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that presents a substantial threat to human and public health. It is caused by Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus and the family Phenuiviridae within the order Bunyavirales. The wide distribution of competent vectors in non-endemic areas coupled with global climate change poses a significant threat of the transboundary spread of RVFV. In the last decade, an improved understanding of the molecular biology of RVFV has facilitated significant progress in the development of novel vaccines, including DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) vaccines...
September 19, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923460/the-mortality-burden-of-hourly-temperature-variability-in-five-capital-cities-australia-time-series-and-meta-regression-analysis
#2
Jian Cheng, Zhiwei Xu, Hilary Bambrick, Hong Su, Shilu Tong, Wenbiao Hu
BACKGROUND: Unstable weather, such as intra- and inter-day temperature variability, can impair the health and shorten the survival time of population around the world. Climate change will cause Earth's surface temperature rise, but has unclear effects on temperature variability, making it urgent to understand the characteristics of the burden of temperature variability on mortality, regionally and nationally. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to quantify the mortality risk of exposure to short-term temperature variability, estimate the resulting death toll and explore how the strength of temperature variability effects will vary as a function of city-level characteristics...
September 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915935/secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry-the-application-in-the-analysis-of-atmospheric-particulate-matter
#3
REVIEW
Di Huang, Xin Hua, Guang-Li Xiu, Yong-Jie Zheng, Xiao-Ying Yu, Yi-Tao Long
Currently, considerable attention has been paid to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) investigation due to its importance in human health and global climate change. Surface characterization, single particle analysis and depth profiling of PM is important for a better understanding of its formation processes and predicting its impact on the environment and human being. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a surface technique with high surface sensitivity, high spatial resolution chemical imaging and unique depth profiling capabilities...
October 9, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904964/plague-a-millenary-infectious-disease-reemerging-in-the-xxi-century
#4
REVIEW
A J Dos Santos Grácio, Maria Amélia A Grácio
Plague, in the Middle Ages known as Black Death, continues to occur at permanent foci in many countries, in Africa, Asia, South America, and even the USA. During the last years outbreaks were reported from at least 3 geographical areas, in all cases after tens of years without reported cases. The recent human plague outbreaks in Libya and Algeria suggest that climatic and other environmental changes in Northern Africa may be favourable for Y. pestis epidemiologic cycle. If so, other Northern Africa countries with plague foci also may be at risk for outbreaks in the near future...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887819/climate-change-global-health-and-nursing-scholarship
#5
EDITORIAL
Eileen Sullivan-Marx, Linda McCauley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887672/the-impact-of-sustained-hot-weather-on-risk-of-acute-work-related-injury-in-melbourne-australia
#6
Judith Anne McInnes, Ewan M MacFarlane, Malcolm R Sim, Peter Smith
It has been reported that weather-related high ambient temperature is associated with an increased risk of work-related injury. Understanding this relationship is important because work-related injuries are a major public health problem, and because projected climate changes will potentially expose workers to hot days, including consecutive hot days, more often. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of exposure to sustained periods of hot weather on work-related injury risk for workers in Melbourne, Australia...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887502/synergies-between-urban-heat-island-and-heat-waves-in-athens-greece-during-an-extremely-hot-summer-2012
#7
Dimitra Founda, Mattheos Santamouris
Heat waves (HWs) are recognized as a serious threat for human health worldwide, with urban areas being more vulnerable due to the urban heat island (UHI) effect and population density. Yet, in the climate change context, HWs are becoming more frequent, stronger and longer, which, coupled with intensifying urbanization exacerbates thermal risk for urban residents. Despite the profound impact of this global phenomenon there is no clear consensus so far on possible synergies between UHIs and HWs. The study sheds light on the complex synergies between UHIs and HWs focusing on coastal sites...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886502/nature-based-solutions-in-the-eu-innovating-with-nature-to-address-social-economic-and-environmental-challenges
#8
Nicolas Faivre, Marco Fritz, Tiago Freitas, Birgit de Boissezon, Sofie Vandewoestijne
Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882186/more-fishers-and-fewer-martens-due-to-cumulative-effects-of-forest-management-and-climate-change-as-evidenced-from-local-knowledge
#9
Pauline Suffice, Hugo Asselin, Louis Imbeau, Marianne Cheveau, Pierre Drapeau
BACKGROUND: Monitoring of fur-bearing species populations is relatively rare due to their low densities. In addition to catch data, trappers' experience provides information on the ecology and status of the harvested species. Fisher (Pekania pennanti) and American marten (Martes americana) are mustelids that are sensitive to forest management and therefore considered to be ecological indicators of forest health. Fisher populations have increased in eastern North America since the early 2000s and this could have resulted in a northeastern extension of the species' range and increased overlap with marten's range...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881409/an-emerging-new-risk-analysis-science-foundations-and-implications
#10
Terje Aven
To solve real-life problems-such as those related to technology, health, security, or climate change-and make suitable decisions, risk is nearly always a main issue. Different types of sciences are often supporting the work, for example, statistics, natural sciences, and social sciences. Risk analysis approaches and methods are also commonly used, but risk analysis is not broadly accepted as a science in itself. A key problem is the lack of explanatory power and large uncertainties when assessing risk. This article presents an emerging new risk analysis science based on novel ideas and theories on risk analysis developed in recent years by the risk analysis community...
September 7, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880944/spatiotemporal-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-libya
#11
Ahmad Amro, Hamida Al-Dwibe, Aisha Gashout, Olga Moskalenko, Marlena Galafin, Omar Hamarsheh, Marcus Frohme, Anja Jaeschke, Gabriele Schönian, Katrin Kuhls
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. In this paper, we describe the eco-epidemiological parameters of CL during the armed conflict period from January 2011 till December 2012. Current spatiotemporal distributions of CL cases were explored and projected to the future using a correlative modelling approach. In addition the present results were compared with our previous data obtained for the time period 1995-2008. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated 312 CL patients who presented to the Dermatology Department at the Tripoli Central Hospital and came from 81 endemic areas distributed in 10 districts...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866404/fresh-water-marine-and-terrestrial-cyanobacteria-display-distinct-allergen-characteristics
#12
Naama Lang-Yona, Anna Theresa Kunert, Lothar Vogel, Christopher Johannes Kampf, Iris Bellinghausen, Joachim Saloga, Anne Schink, Kira Ziegler, Kurt Lucas, Detlef Schuppan, Ulrich Pöschl, Bettina Weber, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
During the last decades, global cyanobacteria biomass increased due to climate change as well as industrial usage for production of biofuels and food supplements. Thus, there is a need for thorough characterization of their potential health risks, including allergenicity. We therefore aimed to identify and characterize similarities in allergenic potential of cyanobacteria originating from the major ecological environments. Different cyanobacterial taxa were tested for immunoreactivity with IgE from allergic donors and non-allergic controls using immunoblot and ELISA...
August 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858826/updated-global-estimates-of-respiratory-mortality-in-adults-%C3%A2-30years-of-age-attributable-to-long-term-ozone-exposure
#13
Christopher S Malley, Daven K Henze, Johan C I Kuylenstierna, Harry W Vallack, Yanko Davila, Susan C Anenberg, Michelle C Turner, Mike R Ashmore
BACKGROUND: Relative risk estimates for long-term ozone (O3) exposure and respiratory mortality from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (ACS CPS-II) cohort have been used to estimate global O3-attributable mortality in adults. Updated relative risk estimates are now available for the same cohort based on an expanded study population with longer follow-up. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the global burden and spatial distribution of respiratory mortality attributable to long-term O3 exposure in adults ≥30y of age using updated effect estimates from the ACS CPS-II cohort...
August 28, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858749/life-cycle-consequences-of-internalising-socio-environmental-externalities-of-power-generation
#14
Diego García-Gusano, I Robert Istrate, Diego Iribarren
Current national energy sectors are generally unsustainable. Within this context, energy policy-makers face the need to move from economy- to sustainability-oriented schemes. Beyond the integration of the sustainability concept into energy policies through the implementation of techno-economic, environmental and/or social restrictions, other approaches propose the use of externalities -based on life-cycle emissions- to deeply take into account sustainability in the design of the future energy system. In this sense, this work evaluates the consequences of internalising socio-environmental externalities associated with power generation...
August 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858497/direct-measurements-of-gas-particle-partitioning-and-mass-accommodation-coefficients-in-environmental-chambers
#15
Jordan Edward Krechmer, Douglas A Day, Paul J Ziemann, Jose L Jimenez
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a major contributor to fine particulate mass and wield substantial influences on the Earth's climate and human health. Despite extensive research in recent years, many of the fundamental processes of SOA formation and evolution remain poorly understood. Most atmospheric aerosol models use gas/particle equilibrium partitioning theory as a default treatment of gas-aerosol transfer, despite questions about potentially large kinetic effects. We have conducted fundamental SOA formation experiments in a Teflon environmental chamber using a novel method...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858346/response-of-the-phytoplankton-community-to-water-quality-in-a-local-alpine-glacial-lake-of-xinjiang-tianchi-china-potential-drivers-and-management-implications
#16
Xiaotian Lu, Shuai Song, Yonglong Lu, Tieyu Wang, Zhaoyang Liu, Qifeng Li, Meng Zhang, Sarvajayakesavalu Suriyanarayanan, Alan Jenkins
Eutrophication has become one of the most serious threats to aquatic ecosystems in the world. With the combined drivers of climate change and human activities, eutrophication has expanded from warm shallow lakes to cold-water lakes in relatively high latitude regions and has raised greater concerns over lake aquatic ecosystem health. A two-year field study was carried out to investigate water quality, phytoplankton characteristics and eutrophication status in a typical alpine glacial lake of Tianchi, a scenic area and an important drinking water source in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, in 2014 and 2015...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857972/are-you-making-an-impact-evaluating-the-population-health-impact-of-community-benefit-programs
#17
Catherine M Rains, Greta Todd, Nicole Kozma, Melody S Goodman
CONTEXT: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes a change to the IRS 990 Schedule H, requiring nonprofit hospitals to submit a community health needs assessment every 3 years. Such health care entities are challenged to evaluate the effectiveness of community benefit programs addressing the health needs identified. OBJECTIVE: In an effort to determine the population health impact of community benefit programs in 1 hospital outreach department, researchers and staff conducted an impact evaluation to develop priority areas and overarching goals along with program- and department-level objectives...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857058/climate-conditions-workplace-heat-and-occupational-health-in-south-east-asia-in-the-context-of-climate-change
#18
Tord Kjellstrom, Bruno Lemke, Matthias Otto
Occupational health is particularly affected by high heat exposures in workplaces, which will be an increasing problem as climate change progresses. People working in jobs of moderate or heavy work intensity in hot environments are at particular risk, owing to exposure to high environmental heat and internal heat production. This heat needs to be released to protect health, and such release is difficult or impossible at high temperatures and high air humidity. A range of clinical health effects can occur, and the heat-related physical exhaustion leads to a reduction of work capacity and labour productivity, which may cause substantial economic losses...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857057/health-sector-responses-to-address-the-impacts-of-climate-change-in-nepal
#19
Meghnath Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane Dhimal, Raja Ram Pote-Shrestha, David A Groneberg, Ulrich Kuch
Nepal is highly vulnerable to global climate change, despite its negligible emission of global greenhouse gases. The vulnerable climate-sensitive sectors identified in Nepal's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2010 include agriculture, forestry, water, energy, public health, urbanization and infrastructure, and climate-induced disasters. In addition, analyses carried out as part of the NAPA process have indicated that the impacts of climate change in Nepal are not gender neutral...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857056/health-risks-of-climate-change-in-the-world-health-organization-south-east-asia-region
#20
Kathryn J Bowen, Kristie L Ebi
Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
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