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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231177/the-goal-of-adequate-nutrition-can-it-be-made-affordable-sustainable-and-universal
#1
REVIEW
Ian McFarlane
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area...
November 30, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230268/potential-climate-change-health-risks-from-increases-in-heat-waves-abnormal-birth-outcomes-and-adverse-maternal-health-conditions
#2
Gulcan Cil, Trudy Ann Cameron
We investigate the risks presented by heat waves for adverse health conditions for babies and expectant mothers when these mothers have been exposed to heat waves during gestation or during the period just prior to conception. Rather than just birth weight and gestational age, we focus on less common metrics such as abnormal conditions in the newborn (fetal distress, reliance on a ventilator, and meconium aspiration) and adverse health conditions in the mother (pregnancy-related hypertension, uterine bleeding during pregnancy, eclampsia, and incompetent cervix)...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228144/incorporating-one-health-into-medical-education
#3
EDITORIAL
Peter M Rabinowitz, Barbara J Natterson-Horowitz, Laura H Kahn, Richard Kock, Marguerite Pappaioanou
One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221872/analysis-of-food-safety-and-security-challenges-in-emerging-african-food-producing-areas-through-a-one-health-lens-the-dairy-chains-in-mali
#4
Rachel Cheng, Alberto Mantovani, Chiara Frazzoli
Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221372/neglecting-legumes-has-compromised-human-health-and-sustainable-food-production
#5
Christine H Foyer, Hon-Ming Lam, Henry T Nguyen, Kadambot H M Siddique, Rajeev K Varshney, Timothy D Colmer, Wallace Cowling, Helen Bramley, Trevor A Mori, Jonathan M Hodgson, James W Cooper, Anthony J Miller, Karl Kunert, Juan Vorster, Christopher Cullis, Jocelyn A Ozga, Mark L Wahlqvist, Yan Liang, Huixia Shou, Kai Shi, Jingquan Yu, Nandor Fodor, Brent N Kaiser, Fuk-Ling Wong, Babu Valliyodan, Michael J Considine
The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike...
August 2, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221138/-epidemiology-of-urinary-lithiasis-in-spain-new-scenarios
#6
Julia Carrasco Valiente, Enrique Gómez Gómez, María José Requena Tapia
Renal lithiasis is one of the most common disorders in modern society, constituting an important health problem that associates a great economic burden. The nature of stone disease varies according to age and sex, being also influenced by dietary and lifestyle factors, and climatic variations among others. In spite of the advances made in the management of this pathology, it continues being a disease with a high recurrence rate. In recent years, several studies have pointed out that its prevalence is rising especially in developed countries...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220835/effects-of-abiotic-factors-on-ecosystem-health-of-taihu-lake-china-based-on-eco-exergy-theory
#7
Ce Wang, Jun Bi, Brian D Fath
A lake ecosystem is continuously exposed to environmental stressors with non-linear interrelationships between abiotic factors and aquatic organisms. Ecosystem health depicts the capacity of system to respond to external perturbations and still maintain structure and function. In this study, we explored the effects of abiotic factors on ecosystem health of Taihu Lake in 2013, China from a system-level perspective. Spatiotemporal heterogeneities of eco-exergy and specific eco-exergy served as thermodynamic indicators to represent ecosystem health in the lake...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220746/readiness-to-adopt-a-performance-measurement-system-for-substance-abuse-treatment-findings-from-the-service-quality-measures-initiative
#8
B Myers, P Petersen Williams, K Johnson, R Govender, R Manderscheid, J R Koch
BACKGROUND: A performance measurement system - the Service Quality Measures (SQM) initiative - has been developed to monitor the quality of South Africa (SA)'s substance abuse treatment services. Identifying factors associated with readiness to adopt this system may inform strategies to facilitate its robust implementation. OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with readiness to adopt a performance measurement system among SA substance abuse treatment providers...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214473/pacific-island-health-inequities-forecast-to-grow-unless-profound-changes-are-made-to-health-systems-in-the-region
#9
Don Matheson, Kunhee Park, Taniela Sunia Soakai
Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals.Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members...
February 20, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212848/major-vectors-and-vector-borne-diseases-in-small-ruminants-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Kassahun Asmare, Takele Abayneh, Berhanu Sibhat, Dessie Shiferaw, Barbara Szonyi, Randi I Krontveit, Eystein Skjerve, Barbara Wieland
Vector-borne diseases are among major health constraints of small ruminant in Ethiopia. While various studies on single vector-borne diseases or presence of vectors have been conducted, no summarized evidence is available on the occurrence of these diseases and the related vectors. This systematic literature review provides a comprehensive summary on major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Search for published and unpublished literature was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212606/the-implementation-of-health-promotion-in-primary-and-community-care-a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-prescribe-vida-saludable-strategy
#11
Catalina Martinez, Gonzalo Bacigalupe, Josep M Cortada, Gonzalo Grandes, Alvaro Sanchez, Haizea Pombo, Paola Bully
BACKGROUND: The impact of lifestyle on health is undeniable and effective healthy lifestyle promotion interventions do exist. However, this is not a fundamental part of routine primary care clinical practice. We describe factors that determine changes in performance of primary health care centers involved in piloting the health promotion innovation 'Prescribe Vida Saludable' (PVS) phase II. METHODS: We engaged four primary health care centers of the Basque Healthcare Service in an action research project aimed at changing preventive health practices...
February 17, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-towards-a-conceptual-framework
#12
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, Rashid U Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate and effects, is likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207078/emerging-infectious-diseases-animals-and-future-epidemics
#13
Herbert L DuPont
Emerging and reemerging infections have become prevalent in the United States since the 1970s, causing illness, death, and fear among the public. The published literature was reviewed to offer a perspective on risk factors for disease acquisition and to allow a prediction of the next microbial assault after Ebola and Zika. Four well-integrated factors likely will contribute simultaneously: animals colonized or infected by pathogens capable of human transmission, microbes recurrently changing their virulence, a growing number of susceptible people, and climatic and environmental factors encouraging disease transmission...
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202924/reevaluating-canada-s-policy-for-blood-donations-from-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm
#14
Bellal Jubran, Maxime Billick, Gabriel Devlin, Jeremy Cygler, Bertrand Lebouché
During the HIV/AIDS epidemic of the 1980s, most of the developed world instituted a permanent ban on blood donations from men who have sex with men (MSM). In recent years, public health agencies across Europe and North America are reconsidering and rescinding these restrictions. We examine the Canadian climate, where MSM may donate blood only after a 5-year deferral period. We review circumstances of the initial ban on MSM blood donations and recent social, legal, and economic changes that have encouraged Canadian public health officials to consider policy reform...
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193230/analysis-of-the-policymaking-process-in-burkina-faso-s-health-sector-case-studies-of-the-creation-of-two-health-system-support-units
#15
Andre Zida, John N Lavis, Nelson K Sewankambo, Bocar Kouyate, Kaelan Moat, Jessica Shearer
BACKGROUND: Burkina Faso has made a number of health system policy decisions to improve performance on health indicators and strengthen responsiveness to health-related challenges. These included the creation of a General Directorate of Health Information and Statistics (DGISS) and a technical unit to coordinate performance-based financing (CT-FBR). We analysed the policymaking processes associated with the establishment of these units, and documented the factors that influenced this process...
February 13, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191617/impacts-of-extremely-high-temperature-and-heatwave-on-heatstroke-in-chongqing-china
#16
Yonghong Li, Chengcheng Li, Shuquan Luo, Jinyu He, Yibin Cheng, Yinlong Jin
Few studies have reported the quantitative association between heat and heatstroke (HS) occurrence, particularly in China. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the association between high temperature/heatwave and HS occurrence in Chongqing. The daily HS data from 2009 to 2013 of Chongqing were extracted from Chongqing Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A Zero-inflated Poisson regression model (ZIP) with a logistic distribution was used to quantitatively analyze the impacts of the daily maximum temperature (Tmax) over the threshold on HS occurrence by gender, age, and severity of HS, after controlling for covariates including day of the week (DOW), relative humidity, and daily temperature range...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183058/in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-investigation-of-the-genotoxic-potential-of-waters-from-rivers-under-the-influence-of-a-petroleum-refinery-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#17
Raquel Vaz Hara, Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales
In recent years concern about the chemical composition of wastewater generated by the oil refining industry has increased, even after its treatment. These wastewaters contain substances that can harm both the entire aquatic ecosystem and the health of any exposed organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of the effluent generated by the largest Brazilian petroleum refinery, the effectiveness of the treatments used by the refinery, and whether its effluent can compromise the water quality of the river where it is discarded...
January 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182667/environmental-and-social-change-drive-the-explosive-emergence-of-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#18
REVIEW
Sofia Ali, Olivia Gugliemini, Serena Harber, Alexandra Harrison, Lauren Houle, Javarcia Ivory, Sierra Kersten, Rebia Khan, Jenny Kim, Chris LeBoa, Emery Nez-Whitfield, Jamieson O'Marr, Emma Rothenberg, R Max Segnitz, Stephanie Sila, Anna Verwillow, Miranda Vogt, Adrienne Yang, Erin A Mordecai
Since Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected in Brazil in 2015, it has spread explosively across the Americas and has been linked to increased incidence of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In one year, it has infected over 500,000 people (suspected and confirmed cases) in 40 countries and territories in the Americas. Along with recent epidemics of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which are also transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the emergence of ZIKV suggests an ongoing intensification of environmental and social factors that have given rise to a new regime of arbovirus transmission...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182303/variable-effects-of-climate-on-forest-growth-in-relation-to-climate-extremes-disturbance-and-forest-dynamics
#19
Malcolm S Itter, Andrew O Finley, Anthony W D'Amato, Jane R Foster, John B Bradford
Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics-changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth responses to climate is particularly important given stand structure and composition can be modified through management to increase forest resistance and resilience to climate change...
February 9, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169865/climate-change-and-public-health-surveillance-toward-a-comprehensive-strategy
#20
Anthony Drummond Moulton, Paul John Schramm
CONTEXT: Climate change poses a host of serious threats to human health that robust public health surveillance systems can help address. It is unknown, however, whether existing surveillance systems in the United States have adequate capacity to serve that role, nor what actions may be needed to develop adequate capacity. OBJECTIVE: Our goals were to review efforts to assess and strengthen the capacity of public health surveillance systems to support health-related adaptation to climate change in the United States and to determine whether additional efforts are warranted...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
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