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climate change and health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431264/intercomparison-of-methods-to-estimate-black-carbon-emissions-from-cookstoves
#1
Candela de la Sota, Moustapha Kane, Javier Mazorra, Julio Lumbreras, Issakha Youm, Mar Viana
Black carbon is the second largest contributor to climate change and also poses risks to human health. Despite the need for black carbon (BC) emissions estimates from residential biomass burning for cooking, quantitative data are still scarce. This scarcity is mainly due to the scattered location of the stoves, as well as relatively costly and complex analytical methods available. Two low cost and easy-to-use optical methods, a cell-phone based system and smoke stain reflectometry, where compared to elemental carbon (EC) concentrations by the Sunset OCEC Analyzer (TOT)...
April 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430140/-eat-as-if-you-could-save-the-planet-and-win-sustainability-integration-into-nutrition-for-exercise-and-sport
#2
Nanna Meyer, Alba Reguant-Closa
Today's industrial food production contributes significantly to environmental degradation. Meat production accounts for the largest impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. While food production and consumption are important aspects when addressing climate change, this article focuses predominantly on dietary change that promotes both health for planet and people with focus on athletes. Healthy, sustainable eating recommendations begin to appear in various governmental guidelines. However, there remains resistance to the suggested reductions in meat consumption...
April 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429985/attitude-of-us-obstetricians-and-gynaecologists-to-global-warming-and-medical-waste
#3
Cassandra Thiel, Paula Duncan, Noe Woods
Objectives Global warming (or climate change) is a major public health issue, and health services are one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in high-income countries. Despite the scale of the health care sector's resource consumption, little is known about the attitude of physicians and their willingness to participate in efforts to reduce the environmental impact of health services. Methods A survey of 236 obstetricians and gynaecologists at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Western Pennsylvania, USA...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427454/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-africa-current-and-future-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Sylvia Afriyie Squire, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhoeal illness. Adequate knowledge of the molecular diversity and geographical distribution of these parasites and the environmental and climatic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of these parasites in Africa. Cryptosporidium is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea and increased mortality in African countries and both parasites negatively affect child growth and development...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424507/heat-stress-in-dairy-cattle-alters-lipid-composition-of-milk
#5
Z Liu, V Ezernieks, J Wang, N Wanni Arachchillage, J B Garner, W J Wales, B G Cocks, S Rochfort
Heat stress, potentially affecting both the health of animals and the yield and composition of milk, occurs frequently in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions. A simulated acute heat stress experiment was conducted in controlled-climate chambers and milk samples collected before, during and after the heat challenge. Milk lipid composition, surveyed using LC-MS, showed significant changes in triacylglycerol (TAG) and polar lipid profiles. Heat stress (temperature-humidity index up to 84) was associated with a reduction in TAG groups containing short- and medium-chain fatty acids and a concomitant increase in those containing long-chain fatty acids...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421177/variation-in-population-vulnerability-to-heat-wave-in-western-australia
#6
Jianguo Xiao, Tony Spicer, Le Jian, Grace Yajuan Yun, Changying Shao, John Nairn, Robert J B Fawcett, Andrew Robertson, Tarun Stephen Weeramanthri
Heat waves (HWs) have killed more people in Australia than all other natural hazards combined. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of HWs and leads to a doubling of heat-related deaths over the next 40 years. Despite being a significant public health issue, HWs do not attract the same level of attention from researchers, policy makers, and emergency management agencies compared to other natural hazards. The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors that might lead to population vulnerability to HW in Western Australia (WA)...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419386/association-between-salinity-and-hospital-admission-for-hypertension-an-ecological-case-control-study-in-the-mekong-delta-region-in-vietnam
#7
Mohammad Radwanur Rahman Talukder, Shannon Rutherford, Cordia Chu, Trung Hieu Nguyen, Dung Phung
Background: Drinking water in the Mekong Delta Region (MDR) is highly vulnerable to salinity intrusion and this problem is expected to increase with the projected climate change and sea level rise. Despite this, research on health effects of saline contaminated water is scarce in this region. This study examines the risk of hospital admission for hypertension in salinity-affected areas of the MDR. Methods: Cases and controls were obtained from national/provincial hospital admission records for 2013...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418737/public-health-emergency-response-in-taiwan
#8
Yi-Feng Su, Cheng-Hao Wu, Tsui-Feng Lee
In recent years, growth of international travel and trade, as well as climate change, has resulted in the frequent emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases such as Ebola, Zika, and MERS. In 2016, Taiwan used the Joint External Evaluation (JEE) tool to evaluate its public health emergency response capacities and understand important areas for improvement. This article presents Taiwan's disaster and public health emergency response organizational structure, real-time integrated information, response processes, and command center structure...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415000/changes-in-copper-toxicity-towards-diatom-communities-with-experimental-warming
#9
Soizic Morin, Anne Sophie Lambert, Elena Planes Rodriguez, Aymeric Dabrin, Marina Coquery, Stephane Pesce
Biological communities in aquatic environments most commonly face multiple stress, where natural and anthropogenic stressors often act jointly. Their interactions are most easily assessed using short cycle organisms such as periphytic diatoms. In this experiment, we analyzed the combined effects of copper exposure and warming on diatom successions over 6 weeks. Natural biofilm collected in winter was left to grow in mesocosms exposed or unexposed to realistic Cu concentrations at four different temperatures...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413725/trypanosoma-cruzi-reservoir-triatomine-vector-co-occurrence-networks-reveal-meta-community-effects-by-synanthropic-mammals-on-geographic-dispersal
#10
Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña, Leopoldo Valiente-Banuet, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Christopher R Stephens, Janine M Ramsey
Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species' nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409088/city-scale-climate-change-policies-do-they-matter-for-wellbeing
#11
Rosemary Hiscock, Arja Asikainen, Jouni Tuomisto, Matti Jantunen, Erkki Pärjälä, Clive E Sabel
Climate change mitigation policies aim to reduce climate change through reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions whereas adaption policies seek to enable humans to live in a world with increasingly variable and more extreme climatic conditions. It is increasingly realised that enacting such policies will have unintended implications for public health, but there has been less focus on their implications for wellbeing. Wellbeing can be defined as a positive mental state which is influenced by living conditions...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407275/agriculturally-important-microbial-biofilms-present-status-and-future-prospects
#12
REVIEW
Kulandaivelu Velmourougane, Radha Prasanna, Anil Kumar Saxena
Microbial biofilms are a fascinating subject, due to their significant roles in the environment, industry, and health. Advances in biochemical and molecular techniques have helped in enhancing our understanding of biofilm structure and development. In the past, research on biofilms primarily focussed on health and industrial sectors; however, lately, biofilms in agriculture are gaining attention due to their immense potential in crop production, protection, and improvement. Biofilms play an important role in colonization of surfaces - soil, roots, or shoots of plants and enable proliferation in the desired niche, besides enhancing soil fertility...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398839/foundational-and-translational-research-opportunities-to-improve-plant-health
#13
Richard W Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn A Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeff Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Robert Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean Greenberg, Richard Harrison, Ping He, Jagger Harvey, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan E Leach, Wenbo Ma, John M McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Peter Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Prasanta Subudhi, Leslie Torrance, Brett M Tyler, John Walsh
This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398835/the-u-k-s-dash-for-gas
#14
Andrew Watterson, William Dinan
The evidence on public health regulation of the unconventional gas extraction (fracking) industry was examined using a rapid evidence assessment of fifteen case studies from multiple countries. They included scientific and academic papers, professional reports, government agency reports, industry and industry-funded reports, and a nongovernment organization report. Each case study review was structured to address strengths and weaknesses of the publication in relation to our research questions. Some case studies emphasized inherent industry short-, medium-, and long-term dangers to public health directly and through global climate change impacts...
January 1, 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398803/2017-nphw-and-beyond-climate-changes-health
#15
Georges C Benjamin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397785/unexpected-increase-in-the-oxidation-capacity-of-the-urban-atmosphere-of-madrid-spain
#16
A Saiz-Lopez, R Borge, A Notario, J A Adame, D de la Paz, X Querol, B Artíñano, F J Gómez-Moreno, C A Cuevas
Atmospheric oxidants such as ozone (O3), hydroxyl and nitrate radicals (OH and NO3) determine the ability of the urban atmosphere to process organic and inorganic pollutants, which have an impact on air quality, environmental health and climate. Madrid city has experienced an increase of 30-40% in ambient air O3 levels, along with a decrease of 20-40% in NO2, from 2007 to 2014. Using air pollution observations and a high-resolution air quality model, we find a large concentration increase of up to 70% and 90% in OH and NO3, respectively, in downtown Madrid (domain-wide average increase of 10% and 32% for OH and NO3, respectively)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396438/emerging-infectious-diseases-a-proactive-approach
#17
David E Bloom, Steven Black, Rino Rappuoli
Infectious diseases are now emerging or reemerging almost every year. This trend will continue because a number of factors, including the increased global population, aging, travel, urbanization, and climate change, favor the emergence, evolution, and spread of new pathogens. The approach used so far for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) does not work from the technical point of view, and it is not sustainable. However, the advent of platform technologies offers vaccine manufacturers an opportunity to develop new vaccines faster and to reduce the investment to build manufacturing facilities, in addition to allowing for the possible streamlining of regulatory processes...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395315/creating-a-future-for-occupational-health
#18
Trevor K Peckham, Marissa G Baker, Janice E Camp, Joel D Kaufman, Noah S Seixas
Objectives: Economic, social, technical, and political drivers are fundamentally changing the nature of work and work environments, with profound implications for the field of occupational health. Nevertheless, researchers and practitioners entering the field are largely being trained to assess and control exposures using approaches developed under old models of work and risks. Methods: A speaker series and symposium were organized to broadly explore current challenges and future directions for the occupational health field...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389971/pay-for-performance-in-orthopedics-how-we-got-here-and-where-we-are-going
#19
REVIEW
Ashton H Goldman, Stephen Kates
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Recent health laws have shifted from the traditional fee-for-service model toward a pay-for-performance model. In this changing climate, it is imperative that a provider understands these changes and recognizes the importance of health services research on medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing the value of care by improving quality and decreasing cost has been the focus of several projects. Preventing complications may be an effective way to increase value...
April 7, 2017: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389002/climate-change-health-and-the-role-of-nurses
#20
Kimberly Angelini
Climate change is progressing and carries significant public health consequences that nurses will need to be aware of and address in practice and research. The Alliance of Nurses for Healthy Environments encourages nurses and professional nursing organizations to learn about the health effects of climate change and to conduct research and implement adaptive strategies to provide optimal patient care within a changing environment. Pregnant women, newborns, and children are particularly vulnerable to potential health effects related to climate change...
April 2017: Nursing for Women's Health
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