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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346418/the-relationship-of-lung-function-with-ambient-temperature
#1
Joseph M Collaco, Lawrence J Appel, John McGready, Garry R Cutting
BACKGROUND: Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1) in the general population. DESIGN/SETTING: Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods representative of the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346369/the-rise-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-the-new-texas
#2
REVIEW
Peter J Hotez
Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334635/the-effect-of-altitude-and-climate-on-the-suicide-rates-in-turkey
#3
Mahmut Asirdizer, Erhan Kartal, Yasin Etli, Ertugrul Tatlisumak, Orhan Gumus, Yavuz Hekimoglu, Sıddık Keskin
Suicide is one of the most important public health problems. There was an association between suicide and several factors such as psychiatric diseases and psychological characteristics, somatic illness, cultural, socioeconomic, familial, occupational and individual risk factors. Also, high altitude and climatic factors including high temperature, cloudiness, more sunshine and low rainfalls were defined as some of these risk factors in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate correlation between suicide rates and altitudes of all cities in Turkey and between suicide rates and climatic factors including Rainfall Activity Index, Winter Mean Temperatures, Summer Mean Temperatures and Temperature Difference between January and July previously defined by several authors in the broad series in Turkey...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331087/outdoor-pollen-is-a-trigger-of-child-and-adolescent-asthma-ed-presentations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Bircan Erbas, Mitra Jazayeri, Katrina A Lambert, Constance H Katelaris, Luke A Prendergast, Rachel Tham, M Jeannette Parrodi, Janet Davies, Ed Newbigin, Michael J Abramson, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND: In the context of increased asthma exacerbations associated with climatic changes such as thunderstorm asthma, interest in establishing the link between pollen exposure and asthma hospital admissions has intensified. Here, we systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of studies on pollen and ED attendance. METHODS: A search for studies with appropriate search strategy in Medline, Embase, Web of Science and CINAHL was conducted. Each study was assessed for quality and risk of bias...
January 13, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330173/seasonal-variations-in-tuberculosis-diagnosis-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-southern-africa-analysis-of-cohort-studies-at-antiretroviral-treatment-programmes
#5
Marie Ballif, Kathrin Zürcher, Stewart E Reid, Andrew Boulle, Matthew P Fox, Hans W Prozesky, Cleophas Chimbetete, Marcel Zwahlen, Matthias Egger, Lukas Fenner
OBJECTIVES: Seasonal variations in tuberculosis diagnoses have been attributed to seasonal climatic changes and indoor crowding during colder winter months. We investigated trends in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis at antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in Southern Africa. SETTING: Five ART programmes participating in the International Epidemiology Database to Evaluate AIDS in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. PARTICIPANTS: We analysed data of 331 634 HIV-positive adults (>15 years), who initiated ART between January 2004 and December 2014...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327723/the-role-of-the-consultant-in-restorative-dentistry
#6
U R Darbar
The role of a hospital consultant has changed extensively over the past decade as the National Health Service has progressed through a series of challenges including an ageing population and rising costs of clinical care. The traditional concept of a consultant has changed with different and increased expectations of the role as the pressures to deliver high quality patient care, education and advice continue to rise in a difficult financial climate. In addition, consultants in restorative dentistry are faced with the challenge of a poor general awareness of the scope of their speciality and their role...
January 12, 2018: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325406/polycentrism-in-global-health-governance-scholarship-comment-on-four-challenges-that-global-health-networks-face
#7
Jale Tosun
Drawing on an in-depth analysis of eight global health networks, a recent essay in this journal argued that global health networks face four challenges to their effectiveness: problem definition, positioning, coalition-building, and governance. While sharing the argument of the essay concerned, in this commentary, we argue that these analytical concepts can be used to explicate a concept that has implicitly been used in global health governance scholarship for quite a few years. While already prominent in the discussion of climate change governance, for instance, global health governance scholarship could make progress by looking at global health governance as being polycentric...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325025/towards-an-understanding-of-resilience-responding-to-health-systems-shocks
#8
Johanna Hanefeld, Susannah Mayhew, Helena Legido-Quigley, Frederick Martineau, Marina Karanikolos, Karl Blanchet, Marco Liverani, Esther Yei Mokuwa, Gillian McKay, Dina Balabanova
The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has drawn attention to the role and responsiveness of health systems in the face of shock. It brought into sharp focus the idea that health systems need not only to be stronger but also more 'resilient'. In this article, we argue that responding to shocks is an important aspect of resilience, examining the health system behaviour in the face of four types of contemporary shocks: the financial crisis in Europe from 2008 onwards; climate change disasters; the EVD outbreak in West Africa 2013-16; and the recent refugee and migration crisis in Europe...
January 9, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317413/trends-and-correlates-of-the-public-s-perception-of-healthcare-systems-in-the-european-union-a-multilevel-analysis-of-eurobarometer-survey-data-from-2009-to-2013
#9
AlJohara M AlSaud, Henock B Taddese, Filippos T Filippidis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to assess trends in public perceptions of health systems in 27 European Union (EU) member states following the financial crisis (2009-2013), in order to discuss observed changes in the context of the financial crisis. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional studies. SETTING: 27 EU countries. PARTICIPANTS: EU citizens aged 15 years and older. METHODS: The study mainly uses the Eurobarometer Social Climate Survey, conducted annually between 2009 and 2013, thereby analysing 116 706 observations...
January 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317065/nature-exposure-sufficiency-and-insufficiency-the-benefits-of-environmental-preservation
#10
John R Reddon, Salvatore B Durante
Increasing industrialization, urbanization, and a failure of many world leaders to appreciate the consequences of climate change are deleteriously impacting quality of life as well as diminishing the prospects for long term survival. Economic competitiveness and corporate profitability often pre-empt environmental concerns. The calving of an iceberg in Antarctica and the hurricane activity in the Caribbean during 2017 are unfortunate illustrations of the continuing escalation of environmental issues. We provide historical and current evidence for the importance of Nature Exposure (NE) and introduce the continuum Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) and Insufficiency (NEI)...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313368/tackling-the-health-impacts-of-climate-change-in-the-twenty-first-century
#11
Nicholas Heng
The turn of the twenty-first century has borne witness to the seemingly relentless march of climate change, with global mean temperatures and sea levels projected to rise significantly in the near future. Despite considerable improvements in healthcare, mortality rates and life expectancy worldwide over the past few decades, there is increasing evidence postulating the potentially adverse impacts of environmental alterations on health in more ways than one. These not only involve direct and indirect climatic-related health impacts, but also those modulated by human aspects...
January 9, 2018: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313309/air-pollution-and-allergic-airway-diseases-social-determinantsand-sustainability-in-the-control-and-prevention
#12
REVIEW
H Paramesh
Air pollution, global warming and climate change are the major contributing factors in causing the increase prevalence of allergic airway diseases like asthma and allergic rhinitis and they will be the defining issues for health system in the twenty-first century. Asthma is an early onset non-communicable environmental disease with global epidemic and contributes a greatest psycho socio economic burden. Nearly 8 million global deaths are from air pollution. Over one billion population are the sufferers during 2015 and will increase to 4 billion by 2050...
January 9, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310722/habitat-properties-are-key-drivers-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-s-l-prevalence-in-ixodes-ricinus-populations-of-deciduous-forest-fragments
#13
Steffen Ehrmann, Sanne C Ruyts, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Jürgen Bauhus, Jörg Brunet, Sara A O Cousins, Marc Deconchat, Guillaume Decocq, Pieter De Frenne, Pallieter De Smedt, Martin Diekmann, Emilie Gallet-Moron, Stefanie Gärtner, Karin Hansen, Annette Kolb, Jonathan Lenoir, Jessica Lindgren, Tobias Naaf, Taavi Paal, Marcus Panning, Maren Prinz, Alicia Valdés, Kris Verheyen, Monika Wulf, Jaan Liira
BACKGROUND: The tick Ixodes ricinus has considerable impact on the health of humans and other terrestrial animals because it transmits several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) such as B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), which causes Lyme borreliosis (LB). Small forest patches of agricultural landscapes provide many ecosystem services and also the disservice of LB risk. Biotic interactions and environmental filtering shape tick host communities distinctively between specific regions of Europe, which makes evaluating the dilution effect hypothesis and its influence across various scales challenging...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310629/the-canadian-urban-environmental-health-research-consortium-a-protocol-for-building-a-national-environmental-exposure-data-platform-for-integrated-analyses-of-urban-form-and-health
#14
Jeffrey R Brook, Eleanor M Setton, Evan Seed, Mahdi Shooshtari, Dany Doiron
BACKGROUND: Multiple external environmental exposures related to residential location and urban form including, air pollutants, noise, greenness, and walkability have been linked to health impacts or benefits. The Canadian Urban Environmental Health Research Consortium (CANUE) was established to facilitate the linkage of extensive geospatial exposure data to existing Canadian cohorts and administrative health data holdings. We hypothesize that this linkage will enable investigators to test a variety of their own hypotheses related to the interdependent associations of built environment features with diverse health outcomes encompassed by the cohorts and administrative data...
January 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310508/comments-on-climate-change-and-public-health-a-small-frame-obscures-the-picture
#15
Francesco Chirico
Energy strategies to reduce elevated CO2 levels have costs and benefit both known and unknown, and available scientific evidence will not be effective if we ignore relevant information about the costs. Indeed, some economists have attempted to place the analysis of global climate change in the context of cost-benefit analysis, by weighing the consequences of the projected increase in carbon emissions versus the cost of current policy actions to stabilize or even reduce CO2 emissions. However, an immediate policy action is required to reduce CO2 and other human-induced greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, accordingly with the "precautionary principle...
January 1, 2018: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306663/projection-of-temperature-related-mortality-due-to-cardiovascular-disease-in-beijing-under-different-climate-change-population-and-adaptation-scenarios
#16
Boya Zhang, Guoxing Li, Yue Ma, Xiaochuan Pan
Human health faces unprecedented challenges caused by climate change. Thus, studies of the effect of temperature change on total mortality have been conducted in numerous countries. However, few of those studies focused on temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or considered future population changes and adaptation to climate change. We present herein a projection of temperature-related mortality due to CVD under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios in Beijing, a megacity in China...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305806/wintertime-carbonaceous-aerosols-over-dhauladhar-region-of-north-western-himalayas
#17
Deepika Kaushal, Ajay Kumar, Shweta Yadav, Ankit Tandon, Arun K Attri
Carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in affecting human health, radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and climate change. As our current understanding about the carbonaceous aerosols, the source(s) and process(es) associated with them in the ecologically sensitive North-Western Himalayas are limited; this systematic study was planned to understand inherent dynamics in the mass concentration and source contribution of carbonaceous aerosols in the Dhauladhar region. During four winter months (January 2015-April 2015), 24-h PM10 samples were collected every week simultaneously at the rural site of Pohara (32...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302270/back-to-the-future-in-a-petri-dish-origin-and-impact-of-resurrected-microbes-in-natural-populations
#18
REVIEW
Shira Houwenhuyse, Emilie Macke, Lien Reyserhove, Lore Bulteel, Ellen Decaestecker
Current natural populations face new interactions because of the re-emergence of ancient microbes and viruses. These risks come from the re-emergence of pathogens kept in laboratories or from pathogens that are retained in the permafrost, which become available upon thawing due to climate change. We here focus on the effects of such re-emergence in natural host populations based on evolutionary theory of virulence and long-term studies, which investigate host-pathogen adaptations. Pathogens tend to be locally and temporally adapted to their co-occurring hosts, but when pathogens from a different environment or different time enter the host community, the degree to which a new host-pathogen interaction is a threat will depend on the specific genotypic associations, the time lag between the host and the pathogen, and the interactions with native or recent host and pathogen species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302103/babesia-odocoilei-as-a-cause-of-mortality-in-captive-cervids-in-canada
#19
Amélie Mathieu, Adriana R Pastor, Charlene N Berkvens, Carolyn Gara-Boivin, Michel Hébert, Alexandre N Léveillé, John R Barta, Dale A Smith
Nine cases of fatal infection with Babesia odocoilei were confirmed in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and elk (Cervus canadensis) housed in zoological institutions located in southern Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba, Canada between 2013 and 2016. All animals died of a hemolytic crisis. Frequent postmortem findings were extensive hemorrhage, pigmenturia, and intrahepatic cholestasis. The described ante- and postmortem signs are consistent with those of previously reported cases in the United States. Diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by polymerase chain reaction performed on DNA extracted from whole blood or frozen spleen...
January 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301690/physiological-equivalent-temperature-index-and-mortality-in-tabriz-the-northwest-of-iran
#20
Rahim Sharafkhani, Narges Khanjani, Bahram Bakhtiari, Yunes Jahani, Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi
There are few epidemiological studies about climate change and the effect of temperature variation on health using human thermal indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) Index in Iran. This study was conducted in Tabriz, the northwest of Iran and Distributed Lag Non-linear Models (DLNM) combined with quasi-Poisson regression models were used to assess the impacts of PET on mortality by using the DLNM Package in R Software. The effect of air pollutants, time trend, day of the week and holidays were controlled as confounders...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
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