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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223143/neurobiological-functions-of-the-period-circadian-clock-2-gene-per2
#1
REVIEW
Mikyung Kim, June Bryan de la Peña, Jae Hoon Cheong, Hee Jin Kim
Most organisms have adapted to a circadian rhythm that follows a roughly 24-hour cycle, which is modulated by both internal (clock-related genes) and external (environment) factors. In such organisms, the central nervous system (CNS) is influenced by the circadian rhythm of individual cells. Furthermore, the period circadian clock 2 (Per2) gene is an important component of the circadian clock, which modulates the circadian rhythm. Per2 is mainly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus as well as other brain areas, including the midbrain and forebrain...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217488/incomplete-concordance-of-dopamine-transporter-cre-datirescre-mediated-recombination-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactivity-in-the-mouse-forebrain
#2
Siew Hoong Yip, Jade York, Brian Hyland, Stephen J Bunn, David R Grattan
Co-localization of the expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT) with the catecholamine synthesising enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) has been investigated using transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase (Cre) dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the DAT promoter (DATIREScre/GFP). Brain sections from adult female mice were stained for Cre-induced GFP and TH using immunohistochemistry, revealing a high degree of co-expression in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons (A8-10) with the exception of the periaqueductal and dorsal raphe nuclei where dual-labelling was notably lower...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203536/teaching-neuroimages-a-rare-case-of-giant-perivascular-spaces-in-the-midbrain-manifesting-as-atypical-parkinsonism
#3
Pierre Ferrer, Julia Montoya, Pedro J García Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201062/comparative-analysis-of-spontaneous-and-stimulus-evoked-calcium-transients-in-proliferating-and-differentiating-human-midbrain-derived-stem-cells
#4
Torben Johansen, Christina Krabbe, Sissel Ida Schmidt, Alberto Martínez Serrano, Morten Meyer
Spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients and oscillations have been reported in various tissues of nonhuman and human origin but not in human midbrain-derived stem cells. Using confocal microfluorimetry, we studied spontaneous calcium transients and calcium-regulating mechanisms in a human ventral mesencephalic stem cell line undergoing proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Spontaneous calcium transients were detected in a large fraction of both proliferating (>50%) and differentiating (>55%) cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200996/regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-by-interoceptive-cns-pathways-the-interaction-between-brain-and-periphery
#5
Otto Muzik, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
To maintain thermal homeostasis, specific thermogenic tissues are under the control of central thermoregulatory networks that regulate the body's response to thermal challenges. One of these mechanisms involves non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is activated in cold environments in order to defend the body against physical damage as a result of hypothermia. The objective of our study was to assess the interaction between CNS thermoregulatory pathways and sympathetic innervation in BAT during a cold exposure paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198948/multivariate-prognostic-model-of-acute-stroke-combining-admission-infarct-location-and-symptom-severity-a-proof-of-concept-study
#6
Seyedmehdi Payabvash, John C Benson, Andrew E Tyan, Shayandokht Taleb, Alexander M McKinney
BACKGROUND: The information on topographic distribution of acute ischemic infarct can contribute to prediction of functional outcome. We aimed to develop a multivariate model for stroke prognostication, combining admission clinical and imaging variables, including the infarct topology. METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients without baseline functional disability who had magnetic resonance imaging within 24 hours of onset or last-seen-well were included. The admission stroke severity was determined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196955/simple-linear-brainstem-mri-measurements-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-from-the-parkinsonian-variant-of-multiple-system-atrophy
#7
Vasilios C Constantinides, George P Paraskevas, Eleftherios Stamboulis, Elisabeth Kapaki
Differential diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) from Parkinson's disease (PD) can be difficult, particularly in atypical cases or early in the disease course. The Magnetic Resonance Parkinsonism Index (MRPI) utilizes linear and surface (planimetry) measurements and has been proposed as a dual MRI biomarker, with high values indicative of PSP and low values of MSA. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of simple linear MRI brainstem measurements, without the use of MRI planimetry, in the diagnosis of patients with Parkinsonism and compare them to the MRPI...
December 1, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196213/ifngr1-and-stat1-mediated-canonical-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-drives-nigrostriatal-degeneration
#8
Michael R Strickland, Emily J Koller, Doris Z Deng, Carolina Ceballos-Diaz, Todd E Golde, Paramita Chakrabarty
Brain expression of AAV-Ifn-γ leads to reactive gliosis, nigrostriatal degeneration and midbrain calcification in wild type mice. This mouse model phenocopies idiopathic basal ganglia calcification which is associated with Parkinsonian symptoms. To understand how the nigro-striatal pathway is selectively vulnerable to Ifn-γ, we determined if the phenotype is driven by canonical signaling intermediates, Ifngr1 and Stat1. Using focused bioinformatic analysis and rotarod testing, we show that neuroinflammation and motor abnormalities precede the appearance of midbrain neuropathologies in the brains of Ifn-γ mouse model...
November 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196107/distribution-of-smad-mrna-and-proteins-in-the-rat-brain
#9
Takayuki Nakajima, Ryusuke Hata, Yuji Kunieda, Tomohiro Kondo
Smad proteins are known to transduce the action of TGF-β superfamily proteins including TGF-βs, activins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In this study, we examined the expression of Smad1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -8 mRNA in the rat brain by means of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). In addition, we examined the nuclear accumulation of Smad1, -2, -3, -5, and -8 proteins after intracerebroventricular injection of TGF-β1, activin A, or BMP6 with immunohistochemistry to investigate whether TGF-β, activin, and/or BMP activate Smads in the rat brain...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196028/serum-response-factor-promotes-dopaminergic-neuron-survival-via-activation-of-beclin-1-dependent-autophagy
#10
Xiao-Yu Cheng, Si-Yue Li, Cheng-Jie Mao, Mei-Xia Wang, Jing Chen, Fen Wang, Guang-Hui Wang, Wen-Bin Deng, Xiao-Kang Li, Chun-Feng Liu
Serum response factor (SRF), a transcription factor highly expressed in neurons, is involved in neuronal survival and the pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative disorders. The ablation of SRF renders the midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons vulnerable to 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity, however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report decreased SRF levels in the substantia nigra (SN) of rotenone-treated rats that was associated with the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons...
November 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195840/membrane-estrogen-receptor-signaling-impacts-the-reward-circuitry-of-the-female-brain-to-influence-motivated-behaviors
#11
Katherine R Tonn Eisinger, Erin B Larson, Marissa I Boulware, Mark J Thomas, Paul G Mermelstein
Within the adult female, estrogen signaling is well-described as an integral component of the physiologically significant hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In rodents, the timing of ovulation is intrinsically entwined with the display of sexual receptivity. For decades, the importance of estradiol activating intracellular estrogen receptors within the hypothalamus and midbrain/spinal cord lordosis circuits has been appreciated. These signaling pathways primarily account for the ability of the female to reproduce...
November 28, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195684/mice-lacking-interleukin-18-gene-display-behavioral-changes-in-animal-models-of-psychiatric-disorders-possible-involvement-of-immunological-mechanisms
#12
S F Lisboa, A C Issy, C Biojone, K Montezuma, V Fattori, E A Del-Bel, F S Guimarães, F Q Cunha, W A Verri, S R L Joca
Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests pro-inflammatory cytokines might play an important role in the neurobiology of schizophrenia and stress-related psychiatric disorders. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines and it is widely expressed in brain regions involved in emotional regulation. Since IL-18 involvement in the neurobiology of mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, remains unknown, this work aimed at investigating the behavior of IL-18 null mice (KO) in different preclinical models: 1...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193473/autoimmune-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-astrocytopathy-in-chinese-patients-a-retrospective-study
#13
Youming Long, Junyan Liang, Huiming Xu, Qingmei Huang, Jie Yang, Cong Gao, Wei Qiu, Shaopeng Lin, Xiaohui Chen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of an autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy. METHODS: Data from 19 patients with positive GFAP-IgG in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The main disease manifestations included myelitis (68.4%), headache (63.2%), abnormal vision (63.2%), fever (52.6%), ataxia (36.8%), psychosis (31.6%), dyskinesia (15...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193196/extracranial-and-intracranial-ultrasonographic-findings-in-posterior-circulation-infarction
#14
Hsin-Yi Chi, Chung-Fu Hsu, An-Chih Chen, Chun-Hung Su, Han-Hwa Hu, Wen-Mei Fu
OBJECTIVES: Patients with posterior circulation infarction are at higher risk of early recurrent stroke, especially those with vertebrobasilar stenosis or hypoplasia. The clinical presentations of this condition vary over a broad range, making diagnosis and treatment a challenge. Hemodynamic changes and stenosis detected by ultrasonography (US) are sensitive and important indicators for further evaluation. In this study, we correlated extracranial and intracranial US characteristics with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with posterior circulation infarction...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191479/the-spatiotemporal-pattern-of-pure-tone-processing-a-single-trial-eeg-fmri-study
#15
Qiang Li, Guangyuan Liu, Dongtao Wei, Jing Guo, Guangjie Yuan, Shifu Wu
Although considerable research has been published on pure tone processing, its spatiotemporal pattern is not well understood. Specifically, the link between neural activity in the auditory pathway measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) markers of pure tone processing in the P1, N1, P2, and N4 components is not well established. In this study, we used single-trial EEG-fMRI as a multi-modal fusion approach to integrate concurrently acquired EEG and fMRI data, in order to understand the spatial and temporal aspects of the pure tone processing pathway...
November 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191132/severe-disseminated-necrotizing-and-granulomatous-lymphadenitis-and-encephalitis-in-a-dog-due-to-sporotrichum-pruinosum-teleomorph-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#16
Drew R Magstadt, Amanda J Fales-Williams, Jean-Sébastien Palerme, Heather Flaherty, Tracy Lindquist, Kristina G Miles
A 9-year-old female mixed breed dog presented for an acute onset of anorexia, vomiting, and cough. Initial examination and diagnostics revealed a large multilobular cranial mediastinal mass with unidentified fungal organisms on cytology. The disease progressed in spite of therapy until the dog was euthanized 8 months later. Gross necropsy findings were a large multilobular intrathoracic mass, mild pleuritis, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Histologic evaluation showed granulomatous inflammation and necrosis with numerous 20- to 70-micron, periodic acid-Schiff- and Gomori methenamine silver-positive spherules effacing lymph node parenchyma, as well as severe inflammation within the midbrain...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188488/lipopolysaccharide-induced-microglia-activation-promotes-the-survival-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vitro
#17
Xiaolai Zhou, Björn Spittau
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and respond to a variety of endogenous and exogenous stimuli in order to restore cell and tissue homeostasis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of these exogenous stimuli, constitutes a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and binds to the microglial pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). LPS-induced microglia activation is believed to promote neurodegeneration by release of neurotoxic factors such as interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, or nitric oxide...
November 29, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188167/reconstruction-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-with-diffusion-tensor-tractography-in-patients-with-a-disorder-of-consciousness-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Edgar Gerardo Ordóñez-Rubiano, Jason Johnson, Cesar O Enciso-Olivera, Jorge H Marín-Muñoz, William Cortes-Lozano, Pablo E Baquero-Herrera, Edgar G Ordóñez-Mora, Hernando A Cifuentes-Lobelo
This work describes the reconstruction of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) with diffusion tensor tractography in three patients with altered consciousness after traumatic brain injury. A diffusion tensor tractography was performed in three patients with impaired consciousness after a severe traumatic brain injury. A 1.5 T scanner was used to obtain the tensor sequences; axial tensors were acquired. Post-processing was performed, and the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values were recorded...
September 28, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187684/-a-case-of-hereditary-sensory-and-autonomic-neuropathy-type-1e-with-frontal-lobe-dysfunction-as-an-initial-symptom
#19
Masashi Watanabe, Yushi Matsumoto, Kensho Okamoto, Bungo Okuda, Ikuko Mizuta, Toshiki Mizuno
A 49-year-old man had developed gradually personality change, gait disturbance, and hearing loss for five years. On admission, he presented with frontal release signs, stuttering, vertical gaze palsy, sensorineural deafness, muscle rigidity, ataxia, and sensory disturbance with areflexia in the lower extremities. Brain MRI demonstrated atrophy in the cerebellum and midbrain tegmentum as well as cerebral atrophy, predominantly in the frontal lobe. He was tentatively diagnosed as progressive supranuclear palsy on the basis of clinical features and imagings...
November 28, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185519/the-skull-roof-tracks-the-brain-during-the-evolution-and-development-of-reptiles-including-birds
#20
Matteo Fabbri, Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Adam C Pritchard, Michael Hanson, Eva Hoffman, Gabriel S Bever, Amy M Balanoff, Zachary S Morris, Daniel J Field, Jasmin Camacho, Timothy B Rowe, Mark A Norell, Roger M Smith, Arhat Abzhanov, Bhart-Anjan S Bhullar
Major transformations in brain size and proportions, such as the enlargement of the brain during the evolution of birds, are accompanied by profound modifications to the skull roof. However, the hypothesis of concerted evolution of shape between brain and skull roof over major phylogenetic transitions, and in particular of an ontogenetic relationship between specific regions of the brain and the skull roof, has never been formally tested. We performed 3D morphometric analyses to examine the deep history of brain and skull-roof morphology in Reptilia, focusing on changes during the well-documented transition from early reptiles through archosauromorphs, including nonavian dinosaurs, to birds...
October 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
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