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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450981/nurr1-promotes-neurogenesis-of-dopaminergic-neuron-and-represses-inflammatory-factors-in-the-transwell-coculture-system-of-neural-stem-cells-and-microglia
#1
Xiaoxiang Chen, Yuan Qian, Xiangpeng Wang, Zhiwei Tang, Jiaotian Xu, Hai Lin, Zhiyong Yang, Xiaobin Song, Di Lu, Jiazhi Guo, Ligong Bian, Yu Li, Lei Zhou, Xingli Deng
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSCs) are the most promising cells for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, a majority of the transplanted NSCs differentiated into glial cells, thereby limiting the clinical application. Previous studies indicated that chronic neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the degeneration of midbrain DA (mDA) neurons, which suggested the developing potential of therapies for PD by targeting the inflammatory processes. Thus, Nurr1 (nuclear receptor-related factor 1), a transcription factor, has been referred to play a pivotal role in both the differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in embryonic stages and the maintenance of the dopaminergic phenotype throughout life...
February 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450943/cortical-projections-to-the-superior-colliculus-in-gray-squirrels-sciurus-carolinensis
#2
Mary K L Baldwin, Nicole A Young, Denis Matrov, Jon H Kaas
The superior colliculus is an important midbrain structure involved with integrating information from varying sensory modalities and sending motor signals to produce orienting movements toward environmental stimuli. Because of this role, the superior colliculus receives a multitude of sensory inputs from a wide variety of subcortical and cortical structures. Proportionately, the superior colliculus of gray squirrels is among the largest in size of all studied mammals, suggesting the importance of this structure in the behavioral characteristics of gray squirrels...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449807/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-acts-as-a-neuroprotective-agent-in-in-vitro-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-via-up-regulation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#3
Arianna Colini Baldeschi, Eugenia Pittaluga, Federica Andreola, Simona Rossi, Mauro Cozzolino, Giuseppe Nicotera, Gianluca Sferrazza, Pasquale Pierimarchi, Annalucia Serafino
In the last decades increasing evidence indicated a crucial role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in development of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Recently dysregulation of this pathway has been proposed as a novel pathomechanism leading to Parkinson's disease (PD) and some of the molecules participating to the signaling have been evaluated as potential therapeutic targets for PD. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac-derived hormone having a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis. ANP and its receptors (NPRs) are widely expressed in mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where they could be implicated in the regulation of neural development, synaptic transmission and information processing, as well as in neuroprotection...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449373/tyrosine-hydroxylase-down-regulation-after-loss-of-abelson-helper-integration-site-1-ahi1-promotes-depression-via-the-circadian-clock-pathway-in-mice
#4
Dongkai Guo, Shun Zhang, Hongyang Sun, Xingyun Xu, Zongbing Hao, Chenchen Mu, Xingshun Xu, Guanghui Wang, Haigang Ren
Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) is associated with several neuropsychiatric and brain developmental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, autism, and Joubert syndrome. Ahi1 deficiency in mice leads to behaviors typical of depression. However, the mechanisms by which AHI1 regulates behavior remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that down-regulation of expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), in the midbrains of Ahi1 -knockout (KO) mice is responsible for Ahi1 -deficiency-mediated depressive symptoms...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445295/the-effect-of-exercise-frequency-on-neuropathic-pain-and-pain-related-cellular-reactions-in-the-spinal-cord-and-midbrain-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#5
Megumi Sumizono, Harutoshi Sakakima, Shotaro Otsuka, Takuto Terashi, Kazuki Nakanishi, Koki Ueda, Seiya Takada, Kiyoshi Kikuchi
Background: Exercise regimens are established methods that can relieve neuropathic pain. However, the relationship between frequency and intensity of exercise and multiple cellular responses of exercise-induced alleviation of neuropathic pain is still unclear. We examined the influence of exercise frequency on neuropathic pain and the intracellular responses in a sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Materials and methods: Rats were assigned to four groups as follows: CCI and high-frequency exercise (HFE group), CCI and low-frequency exercise (LFE group), CCI and no exercise (No-Ex group), and naive animals (control group)...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444444/vertical-disconjugacy-during-reading-in-dyslexic-and-non-dyslexic-children
#6
Nathalie Goulème, Cynthia Lions, Christophe-Loïc Gérard, Hugo Peyre, Hung Thai-Van, Maria Pia Bucci
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to explore vertical binocular coordination in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children during saccades and post-saccadic fixation period while reading a text. METHODS: Binocular eye movements were recorded by an infrared system (Mobile T2 ® , SuriCog) in thirty-six dyslexic children from 7.3 to 13.6 years of age (mean age: 10.6 ± 0.3 years) who were asked to silently read a four-line text during binocular viewing. Data were compared to those of thirty-six age-matched non-dyslexic children...
February 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444279/adult-brainstem-gliomas-with-h3k27m-mutation-radiology-pathology-and-prognosis
#7
Elena V Daoud, Veena Rajaram, Chunyu Cai, Robert J Oberle, Gregory R Martin, Jack M Raisanen, Charles L White, Chan Foong, Bruce E Mickey, Edward Pan, Kimmo J Hatanpaa
Adult brainstem gliomas are difficult to classify based on radiologic and histologic features. A K27M mutation in histone 3 has been described to identify high-grade midline gliomas associated with a particularly unfavorable prognosis. While initially considered a pediatric entity, it is now known that H3K27M-mutant brainstem gliomas occur in all age groups, but they are less well understood in adults. We studied clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of 25 brainstem gliomas diagnosed at our institution between 1994 and 2017 in subjects at least 18 years old...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442320/amphibian-zic-genes
#8
Christa Merzdorf, Jennifer Forecki
Studies in Xenopus laevis have greatly contributed to understanding the roles that the Zic family of zinc finger transcription factors play as essential drivers of early development. Explant systems that are not readily available in other organisms give Xenopus embryos a unique place in these studies, facilitated by the recent sequencing of the Xenopus laevis genome. A number of upstream regulators of zic gene expression have been identified, such as inhibition of BMP signaling, as well as calcium, FGF, and canonical Wnt signaling...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438033/a-repulsive-environment-induces-neurodegeneration-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons
#9
Angel J Santiago-Lopez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437723/isolated-unilateral-ptosis-as-a-presenting-feature-of-midbrain-infarction
#10
Banshi Lal Kumawat, Maulik Panchal, Deepika Sagar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434188/dopamine-d2-receptor-mediated-neuroprotection-in-a-g2019s-lrrk2-genetic-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Alessandro Tozzi, Michela Tantucci, Saverio Marchi, Petra Mazzocchetti, Michele Morari, Paolo Pinton, Andrea Mancini, Paolo Calabresi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which genetic and environmental factors synergistically lead to loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Mutation of leucine-rich repeated kinase2 (Lrrk2) genes is responsible for the majority of inherited familial cases of PD and can also be found in sporadic cases. The pathophysiological role of this kinase has to be fully understood yet. Hyperactivation of Lrrk2 kinase domain might represent a predisposing factor for both enhanced striatal glutamatergic release and mitochondrial vulnerability to environmental factors that are observed in PD...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432787/possible-involvement-of-monoamine-neurons-in-the-emotional-abnormality-in-kir6-2-deficient-mice
#12
Atsumi Saito, Kazuya Miyagawa, Hiroko Miyagishi, Kazuhiro Kurokawa, Akira Umeda, Yasumasa Okada, Minoru Tsuji, Hiroshi Takeda
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels consist of two structurally different subunits: a pore-forming subunit of the Kir6.0-family (Kir6.1 or Kir6.2) and a regulatory sulfonylurea receptor subunit (SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B). Although Kir6.2 is widely distributed in the brain, the mechanisms that underlie the impact of Kir6.2 on emotional behavior are not yet fully understood. To clarify the role of Kir6.2 in emotional behavior, in the present study, we investigated the behavioral characteristics of Kir6.2-knockout (Kir6...
February 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432724/guanabenz-promotes-neuronal-survival-via-enhancement-of-atf4-and-parkin-expression-in-models-of-parkinson-disease
#13
Xiaotian Sun, Pascaline Aimé, David Dai, Nagendran Ramalingam, John F Crary, Robert E Burke, Lloyd A Greene, Oren A Levy
Reduced function of parkin appears to be a central pathogenic event in Parkinson disease (PD). Increasing parkin levels enhances survival in models of PD-related neuronal death and is a promising therapeutic objective. Previously, we demonstrated that the transcription factor ATF4 promotes survival in response to PD-mimetic stressors by maintaining parkin levels. ATF4 translation is up-regulated by phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α. The small molecule guanabenz enhances eIF2α phosphorylation by blocking the function of GADD34, a regulatory protein that promotes eIF2α dephosphorylation...
February 9, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431270/modelling-the-dopamine-and-noradrenergic-cell-loss-that-occurs-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-the-impact-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#14
Charlotte M Ermine, Jordan L Wright, Stefano Frausin, Jessica A Kauhausen, Clare L Parish, Davor Stanic, Lachlan H Thompson
Key pathological features of Parkinson's Disease (PD) include the progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons and hindbrain noradrenergic (NA) neurons. The loss of dopaminergic neurons has been extensively studied and is the main cause of motor dysfunction. Importantly, however, there are a range of 'non-movement' related features of PD including cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances and mood disorders. The origins for these non-motor symptoms are less clear, but a possible substrate for cognitive decline may be reduced adult-hippocampal neurogenesis, which is reported to be impaired in PD...
February 12, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430520/reward-predictive-neural-activities-in-striatal-striosome-compartments
#15
Tomohiko Yoshizawa, Makoto Ito, Kenji Doya
The striatum has been shown to play a critical role in reward prediction. It is composed of two neurochemically and anatomically distinct compartments known as the striosomes and the matrix. The striosomes comprise only about 15% of the striatum by volume and are distributed mosaically therein. Accordingly, it has been difficult to identify striosomal neurons in electrophysiological recordings and it has been unclear whether striosomal neurons, which project to midbrain dopaminergic neurons, engage in reward prediction...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429047/the-small-gtpase-rac1-ced-10-is-essential-in-maintaining-dopaminergic-neuron-function-and-survival-against-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-toxicity
#16
Hanna Kim, Carles Calatayud, Sangib Guha, Irene Fernández-Carasa, Laura Berkowitz, Iria Carballo-Carbajal, Mario Ezquerra, Rubén Fernández-Santiago, Pankaj Kapahi, Ángel Raya, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Jose Miguel Lizcano, Miquel Vila, Kim A Caldwell, Guy A Caldwell, Antonella Consiglio, Esther Dalfo
Parkinson's disease is associated with intracellular α-synuclein accumulation and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neuronal death in the Substantia Nigra of brain patients. The Rho GTPase pathway, mainly linking surface receptors to the organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, has been suggested to participate to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Nevertheless, its exact contribution remains obscure. To unveil the participation of the Rho GTPase family to the molecular pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, we first used C elegans to demonstrate the role of the small GTPase RAC1 (ced-10 in the worm) in maintaining dopaminergic function and survival in the presence of alpha-synuclein...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425963/sox9-knockout-mice-have-improved-recovery-following-stroke
#17
Xiaoyun Xu, Bethany Bass, William M McKillop, Janina Mailloux, Tony Liu, Nicole M Geremia, Todd Hryciw, Arthur Brown
The partial recovery that can occur after a stroke has been attributed to structural and functional plasticity that compensate for damage and lost functions. This plasticity is thought to be limited in part by the presence of growth inhibitors in the central nervous system. Blocking or reducing signals from inhibitors of axonal sprouting such as Nogo and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) increases post-stroke axonal sprouting and improves recovery. We previously identified the transcription factor SOX9 as a key up-regulator of CSPG production and demonstrated that conditional Sox9 ablation leads to increased axonal sprouting and improved recovery after spinal cord injury...
February 6, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423877/nhlrc2-variants-identified-in-patients-with-fibrosis-neurodegeneration-and-cerebral-angiomatosis-finca-characterisation-of-a-novel-cerebropulmonary-disease
#18
Johanna Uusimaa, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Teija Paakkola, Hannu Tuominen, Minna K Karjalainen, Javad Nadaf, Teppo Varilo, Meri Uusi-Mäkelä, Maria Suo-Palosaari, Ilkka Pietilä, Anniina E Hiltunen, Lloyd Ruddock, Heli Alanen, Ekaterina Biterova, Ilkka Miinalainen, Annamari Salminen, Raija Soininen, Aki Manninen, Raija Sormunen, Mika Kaakinen, Reetta Vuolteenaho, Riitta Herva, Päivi Vieira, Teija Dunder, Hannaleena Kokkonen, Jukka S Moilanen, Heikki Rantala, Lawrence M Nogee, Jacek Majewski, Mika Rämet, Mikko Hallman, Reetta Hinttala
A novel multi-organ disease that is fatal in early childhood was identified in three patients from two non-consanguineous families. These children were born asymptomatic but at the age of 2 months they manifested progressive multi-organ symptoms resembling no previously known disease. The main clinical features included progressive cerebropulmonary symptoms, malabsorption, progressive growth failure, recurrent infections, chronic haemolytic anaemia and transient liver dysfunction. In the affected children, neuropathology revealed increased angiomatosis-like leptomeningeal, cortical and superficial white matter vascularisation and congestion, vacuolar degeneration and myelin loss in white matter, as well as neuronal degeneration...
February 8, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422549/author-correction-midbrain-circuit-regulation-of-individual-alcohol-drinking-behaviors-in-mice
#19
Barbara Juarez, Carole Morel, Stacy M Ku, Yutong Liu, Hongxing Zhang, Sarah Montgomery, Hilledna Gregoire, Efrain Ribeiro, Marshall Crumiller, Ciorana Roman-Ortiz, Jessica J Walsh, Kelcy Jackson, Denise E Croote, Yingbo Zhu, Song Zhang, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Scott Edwards, Amanda Roberts, Georgia E Hodes, Yongke Lu, Erin S Calipari, Dipesh Chaudhury, Allyson K Friedman, Ming-Hu Han
The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Scott Edwards, which was incorrectly given as Scott Edward. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421265/the-tail-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-in-behavioral-processes-and-in-the-effect-of-psychostimulants-and-drugs-of-abuse
#20
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The tail of the ventral tegmental area (tVTA) is a recently identified structure that exerts a major inhibitory drive onto midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Also referred to as the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), the tVTA is a cluster of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that starts within the posterior end of the VTA, where it is restricted dorsolateral to the caudal part of the interpeduncular nucleus, and extends into the pons. First identified in the rat, the tVTA has been described in many species, including mice and monkeys, as a region exhibiting similar anatomical and behavioral properties; it receives strong excitatory inputs from the lateral habenula (LHb), conveys negative reward-related information, and inhibits midbrain DA neuron activity...
February 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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