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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913274/two-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-5-genes-exhibit-different-yet-conserved-functions-in-development-and-growth
#1
Guo-Dong Zheng, Chun-Xue Zhou, Si-Tong Lin, Jie Chen, Xia-Yun Jiang, Shu-Ming Zou
Insulin-like growth factor binding-protein 5 (igfbp5), the most conserved member of the IGFBP family in vertebrates, plays a critical role in controlling cell survival, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we characterized the expression patterns of igfbp5a and igfbp5b in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which are retained in many fish species, likely from the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication. Both igfbp5a and igfbp5b encode 268- and 263-aa peptides, respectively, which share a sequence identity of 71%...
November 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909103/habenula-induced-inhibition-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-is-diminished-by-lesions-of-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus
#2
P Leon Brown, Heather Palacorolla, Dana Brady, Katelyn Riegger, Greg I Elmer, Paul D Shepard
: Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are transiently activated by aversive events and have been implicated in associative learning. Functional changes associated with tonic and phasic activation of the LHb are often attributed to a corresponding inhibition of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a region that receives dense projections from the LHb and projects strongly to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei, is believed to underlie the transient inhibition of DA neurons attributed to activation of the LHb...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903732/parkin-deficiency-reduces-hippocampal-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-by-impairing-ampa-receptor-endocytosis
#3
Giuseppe P Cortese, Mei Zhu, Damian Williams, Sarah Heath, Clarissa L Waites
: Mutations in the gene encoding Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, lead to juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease by inducing the selective death of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Accumulating evidence indicates that Parkin also has an important role in excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission, although its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we investigate Parkin's role at glutamatergic synapses of rat hippocampal neurons. We find that Parkin-deficient neurons exhibit significantly reduced AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated currents and cell-surface expression, and that these phenotypes result from decreased postsynaptic expression of the adaptor protein Homer1, which is necessary for coupling AMPAR endocytic zones with the postsynaptic density...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898359/motherhood-and-infant-contact-regulate-neuroplasticity-in-the-serotonergic-midbrain-dorsal-raphe
#4
M Allie Holschbach, Joseph S Lonstein
The adult brain shows remarkable neuroplasticity in response to hormones and the socioemotional modifications that they influence. In females with reproductive and maternal experience, this neuroplasticity includes the birth and death of cells in several forebrain regions involved in maternal caregiving and postpartum affective state. Such plasticity in midbrain sites critical for these behavioral and emotional processes has never been examined, though. By visualizing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells, NeuroD for neuronal precursors, and TUNEL to identify dying cells, we found that the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DR, the source of most ascending serotoninergic projections) exhibited significant neuroplasticity in response to motherhood...
November 19, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896310/preservation-of-essential-odor-guided-behaviors-and-odor-based-reversal-learning-after-targeting-adult-brain-serotonin-synthesis
#5
Kaitlin S Carlson, Meredith S Whitney, Marie A Gadziola, Evan S Deneris, Daniel W Wesson
The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is considered a powerful modulator of sensory system organization and function in a wide range of animals. The olfactory system is innervated by midbrain 5-HT neurons into both its primary and secondary odor-processing stages. Facilitated by this circuitry, 5-HT and its receptors modulate olfactory system function, including odor information input to the olfactory bulb. It is unknown, however, whether the olfactory system requires 5-HT for even its most basic behavioral functions...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895941/midbrain-frequency-representation-following-moderately-intense-neonatal-sound-exposure-in-a-precocious-animal-model-chinchilla-laniger
#6
Lisa M D'Alessandro, Robert V Harrison
Auditory brain areas undergo reorganization resulting from abnormal sensory input during early postnatal development. This is evident from studies at the cortical level but it remains unclear whether there is reorganization in the auditory midbrain in a species similar to the human, that is, with early hearing onset. We have explored midbrain plasticity in the chinchilla, a precocious species that matches the human in terms of hearing development. Neonatal chinchillas were chronically exposed to a 2 kHz narrowband sound at 70 dB SPL for 4 weeks...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894900/neuroimaging-somatosensory-perception-and-masking
#7
Kimford J Meador, Kathleen Pirog Revill, Charles M Epstein, K Sathian, David W Loring, Chris Rorden
The specific cortical and subcortical regions involved in conscious perception and masking are uncertain. This study sought to identify brain areas involved in conscious perception of somatosensory stimuli during a masking task using functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to contrast perceived vs. non-perceived targets. Electrical trains were delivered to the right index finger for targets and to the left index finger for masks. Target intensities were adjusted to compensate for threshold drift. Sham target trials were given in ~10% of the trials, and target stimuli without masks were delivered in one of the five runs (68 trials/run)...
November 25, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894611/the-threshold-theory-for-parkinson-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Simone Engelender, Ole Isacson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is recognized by the accumulation of α-synuclein within neurons. In contrast to the current ascending theory where α-synuclein would propagate from neuron to neuron, we now propose the threshold theory for PD based on evidence of parallel degeneration of both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in PD. The functional threshold is lower for the emergence of early symptoms before the classical motor symptoms of PD. This is due to the larger functional reserve of the midbrain dopamine and integrated basal ganglia motor systems to control movement...
November 25, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891687/effect-of-preceding-stimulation-on-sound-localization-and-its-representation-in-the-auditory-midbrain
#9
Sandra Tolnai, Rainer Beutelmann, Georg M Klump
Prior stimulation can influence the perception of sound source location. Some psychophysical sound localization procedures differ in the amount of prior stimulation, which may affect measures of localization accuracy. If and how particularly the number of preceding stimuli affects sound localization and the neural representation of sound source position has not been investigated so far and will be the focus of the present report. We trained Mongolian gerbils in a left/right discrimination task where the target stimulus was preceded by silence or followed a number of reference stimuli...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891665/spectral-summation-and-facilitation-in-on-and-off-responses-for-optimized-representation-of-communication-calls-in-mouse-inferior-colliculus
#10
Alexander G Akimov, Marina A Egorova, Günter Ehret
Selectivity for processing of species-specific vocalizations and communication sounds has often been associated with the auditory cortex. The midbrain inferior colliculus, however, is the first center in the auditory pathways of mammals integrating acoustic information processed in separate nuclei and channels in the brainstem and, therefore, could significantly contribute to enhance the perception of species' communication sounds. Here, we used natural wriggling calls of mouse pups, which communicate need for maternal care to adult females, and further 15 synthesized sounds to test the hypothesis that neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult females optimize their response rates for reproduction of the three main harmonics (formants) of wriggling calls...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891078/neural-and-response-correlations-to-complex-natural-sounds-in-the-auditory-midbrain
#11
Dominika Lyzwa, Florentin Wörgötter
How natural communication sounds are spatially represented across the inferior colliculus, the main center of convergence for auditory information in the midbrain, is not known. The neural representation of the acoustic stimuli results from the interplay of locally differing input and the organization of spectral and temporal neural preferences that change gradually across the nucleus. This raises the question of how similar the neural representation of the communication sounds is across these gradients of neural preferences, and whether it also changes gradually...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890749/the-medial-and-lateral-lemnisci-anatomically-adjoined-but-functionally-distinct-fiber-tracts
#12
Ruben Rodríguez-Mena, Uğur Türe
OBJECTIVE: The dense and complex distribution of neural structures in the brain stem makes it challenging to understand their real configuration. We used the fiber microdissection technique to reveal the course of the medial and lateral lemnisci within the brain stem. Although these structures seem anatomically alike, they are functionally distinct. METHODS: Fifteen human brain stems and eight brain hemispheres (formalin-fixed and previously frozen) were dissected and studied under the operating microscope by applying the fiber microdissection technique...
November 24, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890445/acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-mr-imaging-findings-with-clinical-correlation
#13
D M Kim, I H Lee, J Y Park, S-B Hwang, D S Yoo, C J Song
PURPOSE: To assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and correlate MRI findings with carboxyhemoglobin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRI examinations and medical records of seven men with a mean age of 43±16.0years (SD) (range: 25-63 years) with acute CO poisoning were reviewed. MRI examinations were analyzed with respect to lesion location, imaging presentation on T1- and T2-weighted images, and diffusion characteristics on DWI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps...
November 24, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888745/feasibility-of-eliciting-the-h-reflex-in-the-masseter-muscle-in-patients-under-general-anesthesia
#14
Sedat Ulkatan, Ana Maria Jaramillo, Maria J Téllez, Robert R Goodman, Vedran Deletis
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of eliciting the brainstem H reflex in the masseter muscle in patients under general anesthesia. METHODS: We electrically stimulated the masseteric nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerve, and recorded ipsilateral masseteric and temporalis muscle responses. We tested eight patients who presented with trigeminal neuralgia; one patient had a temporal bone tumor and one patient had a brainstem arteriovenous malformation. All responses were elicited when patients were under general anesthesia and before the initiation of surgery...
November 5, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888040/evidence-that-hidden-hearing-loss-underlies-amplitude-modulation-encoding-deficits-in-individuals-with-and-without-tinnitus
#15
Brandon T Paul, Ian C Bruce, Larry E Roberts
Damage to auditory nerve fibers that expresses with suprathreshold sounds but is hidden from the audiogram has been proposed to underlie deficits in temporal coding ability observed among individuals with otherwise normal hearing, and to be present in individuals experiencing chronic tinnitus with clinically normal audiograms. We tested whether these individuals may have hidden synaptic losses on auditory nerve fibers with low spontaneous rates of firing (low-SR fibers) that are important for coding suprathreshold sounds in noise while high-SR fibers determining threshold responses in quiet remain relatively unaffected...
November 22, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883088/meta-adaptation-in-the-auditory-midbrain-under-cortical-influence
#16
Benjamin L Robinson, Nicol S Harper, David McAlpine
Neural adaptation is central to sensation. Neurons in auditory midbrain, for example, rapidly adapt their firing rates to enhance coding precision of common sound intensities. However, it remains unknown whether this adaptation is fixed, or dynamic and dependent on experience. Here, using guinea pigs as animal models, we report that adaptation accelerates when an environment is re-encountered-in response to a sound environment that repeatedly switches between quiet and loud, midbrain neurons accrue experience to find an efficient code more rapidly...
November 24, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881398/separate-and-shared-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-coordinately-regulate-thermoregulation-and-beige-adipocyte-recruitment
#17
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Candace L Barr, Vitaly Ryu, Qiang Cao, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are innervated and regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). It is not clear, however, whether there are shared or separate central SNS outflows to WAT and BAT that regulate their function. We injected two isogenic strains of pseudorabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal viral tract tracer, with unique fluorescent reporters into interscapular BAT (IBAT) and inguinal WAT (IWAT) of the same Siberian hamsters to define SNS pathways to both. To test the functional importance of SNS coordinated control of BAT and WAT, we exposed hamsters with denervated SNS nerves to IBAT to 4°C for 16-24 hours, and measured core and fat temperatures, and norepinephrine turnover (NETO) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in fat tissues...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880010/abnormal-baseline-brain-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-and-without-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#18
Dan Li, Peiyu Huang, Yufeng Zang, Yuting Lou, Zhidong Cen, Quanquan Gu, Min Xuan, Fei Xie, Zhiyuan Ouyang, Bo Wang, Minming Zhang, Wei Luo
PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in spontaneous brain activity between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), PD patients without RBD, and normal controls, which may shed new light on the neural mechanism of RBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen PD patients with RBD, 16 patients without RBD, and 19 age- and gender-matched normal controls underwent clinical assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 3...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878065/corticobulbar-tract-involvement-in-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-report
#19
Ho Kyun Kim, Mun Han, Hui Joong Lee
A 36-year-old woman, diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), showed bulbar symptoms including impaired memory, slurred speech and swallowing difficulty 7 days before admission. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed symmetric confluent hyperintensities in the bilateral cerebral white matter on T2 weighted imaging (T2-WI), extended into the genu of the internal capsule and the crus cerebri of the midbrain. MR spectroscopy showed increased choline and decreased N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) peak and positron emission computed tomography (PET CT) showed decreased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on the lateral portion of the frontal lobe, suggesting demyelination of the white matter...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876660/total-resection-of-brainstem-extension-of-tentorial-schwannoma-using-an-occipital-trans-tentorial-approach-a-case-report
#20
Liu Xinrui, Yuichi Sato, Mitsuru Dan, Hiroki Kuroda, Toshihiro Kumabe
BACKGROUND: Approximately 60 cases of schwannoma unrelated to the cranial nerve have been reported, and only 12 arose from the tentorium. We present a case of tentorial schwannoma extending into the pons and midbrain without cranial nerve involvement, which was almost totally resected through an occipital trans-tentorial approach. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 37-year-old man was admitted to our institution with memory disturbance beginning 2 years ago and gait disturbance from one year ago...
November 19, 2016: World Neurosurgery
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