keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Midbrain

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665440/mri-compatible-ms2-nanoparticles-designed-to-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier-providing-a-path-towards-tinnitus-treatment
#1
Aaron K Apawu, Stephanie M Curley, Angela R Dixon, Mirabela Hali, Moaz Sinan, Rod D Braun, James Castracane, Anthony T Cacace, Magnus Bergkvist, Avril Genene Holt
Fundamental challenges of targeting specific brain regions for treatment using pharmacotherapeutic nanoparticle (NP) carriers include circumventing the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and tracking delivery. Angiopep-2 (AP2) has been shown to facilitate the transport of large macromolecules and synthetic nanoparticles across the BBB. Thus, conjugation of AP2 to an MS2 bacteriophage based NP should also permit transport across the BBB. We have fabricated and tested a novel MS2 capsid-based NP conjugated to the ligand AP2...
April 14, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665228/ultra-high-field-fmri-insights-on-insight-neural-correlates-of-the-aha-moment
#2
Martin Tik, Ronald Sladky, Caroline Di Bernardi Luft, David Willinger, André Hoffmann, Michael J Banissy, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Christian Windischberger
Finding creative solutions to difficult problems is a fundamental aspect of human culture and a skill highly needed. However, the exact neural processes underlying creative problem solving remain unclear. Insightful problem solving tasks were shown to be a valid method for investigating one subcomponent of creativity: the Aha!-moment. Finding insightful solutions during a remote associates task (RAT) was found to elicit specific cortical activity changes. Considering the strong affective components of Aha!-moments, as manifested in the subjectively experienced feeling of relief following the sudden emergence of the solution of the problem without any conscious forewarning, we hypothesized the subcortical dopaminergic reward network to be critically engaged during Aha...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663939/brain-iron-distribution-after-multiple-doses-of-ultra-small-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-particles-in-rats
#3
Andrew W Gorman, Kofi M Deh, Caspar M Schwiedrzik, Julie R White, Ernest Victor Groman, Clark A Fisher, Kelly M Gillen, Pascal Spincemaille, Skye Rasmussen, Martin R Prince, Henning U Voss, Winrich A Freiwald, Yi Wang
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of high cumulative doses of ultra-small paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) used in neuroimaging studies. We intravenously administered 8 mg/kg of 2 USPIO compounds daily for 4 wk to male Sprague-Dawley rats (Crl:SD). Multiecho gradient-echo MRI, serum iron levels, and histology were performed at the end of dosing and after a 7-d washout period. R2* maps and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM) were generated from multiecho gradient-echo data. R2* maps and QSM showed iron accumulation in brain ventricles on MR images acquired at the 4- and 5-wk time points...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662702/the-ipsilateral-vestibulothalamic-tract-in-the-human-brain
#4
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Although there are a few studies of portions of the vestibular system such as the vestibulocerebellar tract and the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN), no study of the ipsilateral vestibulothalamic tract (VTT) (originating from the VN and mainly connecting to the lateral thalami nuclei) has been reported. In the current study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we investigate the reconstruction method and characteristics of the ipsilateral VTT in normal subjects. Thirty-three subjects were recruited for this study...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657115/novelty-sensitive-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-human-substantia-nigra-predict-success-of-declarative-memory-formation
#5
Jan Kamiński, Adam N Mamelak, Kurtis Birch, Clayton P Mosher, Michele Tagliati, Ueli Rutishauser
The encoding of information into long-term declarative memory is facilitated by dopamine. This process depends on hippocampal novelty signals, but it remains unknown how midbrain dopaminergic neurons are modulated by declarative-memory-based information. We recorded individual substantia nigra (SN) neurons and cortical field potentials in human patients performing a recognition memory task. We found that 25% of SN neurons were modulated by stimulus novelty. Extracellular waveform shape and anatomical location indicated that these memory-selective neurons were putatively dopaminergic...
April 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656874/regional-heterogeneity-of-d2-receptor-signaling-in-the-dorsal-striatum-and-nucleus-accumbens
#6
Pamela F Marcott, Sheng Gong, Prashant Donthamsetti, Steven G Grinnell, Melissa N Nelson, Amy H Newman, Lutz Birnbaumer, Kirill A Martemyanov, Jonathan A Javitch, Christopher P Ford
Dopamine input to the dorsal and ventral striatum originates from separate populations of midbrain neurons. Despite differences in afferent inputs and behavioral output, little is known about how dopamine release is encoded by dopamine receptors on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) across striatal subregions. Here we examined the activation of D2 receptors following the synaptic release of dopamine in the dorsal striatum (DStr) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. We found that D2 receptor-mediated synaptic currents were slower in the NAc and this difference occurred at the level of D2-receptor signaling...
April 10, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656872/the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-shapes-dopamine-reward-prediction-errors-under-state-uncertainty
#7
Clara Kwon Starkweather, Samuel J Gershman, Naoshige Uchida
Animals make predictions based on currently available information. In natural settings, sensory cues may not reveal complete information, requiring the animal to infer the "hidden state" of the environment. The brain structures important in hidden state inference remain unknown. A previous study showed that midbrain dopamine neurons exhibit distinct response patterns depending on whether reward is delivered in 100% (task 1) or 90% of trials (task 2) in a classical conditioning task. Here we found that inactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) affected dopaminergic signaling in task 2, in which the hidden state must be inferred ("will reward come or not?"), but not in task 1, where the state was known with certainty...
April 9, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653250/pluripotent-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease-current-status-and-future-prospects
#8
REVIEW
Kai-C Sonntag, Bin Song, Nayeon Lee, Jin Hyuk Jung, Young Cha, Pierre Leblanc, Carolyn Neff, Sek Won Kong, Bob S Carter, Jeffrey Schweitzer, Kwang-Soo Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, which affects about 0.3% of the general population. As the population in the developed world ages, this creates an escalating burden on society both in economic terms and in quality of life for these patients and for the families that support them. Although currently available pharmacological or surgical treatments may significantly improve the quality of life of many patients with PD, these are symptomatic treatments that do not slow or stop the progressive course of the disease...
April 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653128/serotonin-specific-lesions-of-the-dorsal-raphe-disrupt-maternal-aggression-and-caregiving-in-postpartum-rats
#9
M Allie Holschbach, Erika V Vitale, Joseph S Lonstein
The behavioral modifications associated with early motherhood, including high aggression, caring for young, and low anxiety are all affected by acute pharmacological manipulation of serotonin signaling. However, the effects on these behaviors of permanently disrupting serotonin signaling at one of its primary sources, the dorsal raphe (DR), have not been examined in detail. To address this, serotonin-specific lesions centered on the dorsomedial DR (DRdm; subregion most implicated in emotional behaviors) were induced at mid-pregnancy (day 15) or early postpartum (day 2) in rats using a saporin-conjugated neurotoxin targeting the serotonin transporter (Anti-SERT-SAP)...
April 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652889/the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-is-essential-for-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#10
Su-Rong Yang, Zhen-Zhen Hu, Yan-Jia Luo, Ya-Nan Zhao, Huan-Xin Sun, Dou Yin, Chen-Yao Wang, Yu-Dong Yan, Dian-Ru Wang, Xiang-Shan Yuan, Chen-Bo Ye, Wei Guo, Wei-Min Qu, Yoan Cherasse, Michael Lazarus, Yu-Qiang Ding, Zhi-Li Huang
The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), also called the GABAergic tail of the ventral tegmental area, projects to the midbrain dopaminergic system, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and other regions. Whether the RMTg is involved in sleep-wake regulation is unknown. In the present study, pharmacogenetic activation of rat RMTg neurons promoted non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with increased slow-wave activity (SWA). Conversely, rats after neurotoxic lesions of 8 or 16 days showed decreased NREM sleep with reduced SWA at lights on, which persisted until after lesions of 25 days...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652210/idiopathic-central-nervous-system-inflammatory-disease-in-the-setting-of-hla-b27-uveitis
#11
Eric L Crowell, Margaret L Pfeiffer, Ankur A Kamdar, Mary K Koenig, Susan E Wittenberg, Emilio P Supsupin, Ore-Ofe O Adesina
PURPOSE: The purpose of the article is to describe a novel case of idiopathic central nervous system inflammatory disease with bilateral human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27-positive anterior uveitis. METHODS/RESULTS: A 15-year-old African American boy with bilateral HLA-B27-positive anterior uveitis controlled with topical and oral steroids for 8 months acutely developed headaches, left eyelid ptosis, and binocular diplopia. Imaging showed lesions in the right midbrain, superior colliculus, cerebellar peduncles, and cerebellar vermis and leptomeningeal enhancement along the vermian foliae...
April 13, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651985/smart-bats-click-twice
#12
Manfred Kössl, Julio Hechavarría
The acoustic representation of the outside world in the midbrain of a bat becomes more precise as it uses double clicks to locate closer objects.
April 13, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650976/wnt-signal-activation-induces-midbrain-specification-through-direct-binding-of-the-beta-catenin-tcf4-complex-to-the-en1-promoter-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#13
Ji Young Kim, Jae Souk Lee, Hyun Sub Hwang, Dongjin R Lee, Chul-Yong Park, Sung Jun Jung, Young Rang You, Dae-Sung Kim, Dong-Wook Kim
The canonical Wnt signal pathway plays a pivotal role in anteroposterior patterning and midbrain specification during early neurogenesis. Activating Wnt signal has been a strategy for differentiating human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons; however, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of how the Wnt signal drives posterior fate remained unclear. In this study, we found that activating the canonical Wnt signal significantly upregulated the expression of EN1, a midbrain-specific marker, in a fibroblast growth factor signal-dependent manner in human PSC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs)...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643007/the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-hummingbird-and-morning-glory-sign-in-patients-with-neurodegenerative-parkinsonism
#14
Christoph Mueller, Anna Hussl, Florian Krismer, Beatrice Heim, Philipp Mahlknecht, Michael Nocker, Christoph Scherfler, Katherina Mair, Regina Esterhammer, Michael Schocke, Gregor K Wenning, Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi
INTRODUCTION: The hummingbird sign and the morning glory flower sign, reflecting midbrain pathology on MRI, have previously been shown to separate patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from those with Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of visual assessment of midbrain atrophy patterns in a large cohort of patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonism. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of midbrain atrophy patterns on T1-weighted MRI in a large cohort of patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonism and healthy controls who underwent MR imaging during their diagnostic work-up...
April 3, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627935/noradrenaline-transporter-availability-on-11-c-mrb-pet-predicts-weight-loss-success-in-highly-obese-adults
#15
Franziska J Vettermann, Michael Rullmann, Georg A Becker, Julia Luthardt, Franziska Zientek, Marianne Patt, Philipp M Meyer, Anke McLeod, Matthias Brendel, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, Anja Hilbert, Yu-Shin Ding, Osama Sabri, Swen Hesse
PURPOSE: Although the mechanisms by which the central noradrenaline (NA) system influences appetite and controls energy balance are quite well understood, its relationship to changes in body weight remains largely unknown. The main goal of this study was to further clarify whether the brain NA system is a stable trait or whether it can be altered by dietary intervention. METHODS: We aimed to compare central NA transporter (NAT) availability in ten obese, otherwise healthy individuals with a body mass index (BMI) of 42...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625471/an-anatomic-characterization-of-the-midbrain-near-response-neurons-in-the-macaque-monkey
#16
Paul J May, Susan Warren, Paul D R Gamlin, Isabelle Billig
Purpose: These experiments were designed to reveal the location of the premotor neurons that have previously been designated physiologically as the midbrain near response cells controlling vergence, lens accommodation, and pupillary constriction in response to target distance. Methods: To identify this population, the fixed N2c strain of rabies virus was injected into the ciliary body of seven Macaca fascicularis monkeys. The virus was trans-synaptically transported to the brain...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624567/clinical-value-of-dorsal-medulla-oblongata-involvement-detected-with-conventional-mri-for-prediction-of-outcome-in-children-with-enterovirus-71-related-brainstem-encephalitis
#17
Kun Liu, Yongjin Zhou, Shihan Cui, Jiawen Song, Peipei Ye, Wei Xiang, Xiaoyan Huang, Yiping Chen, Zhihan Yan, Xinjian Ye
BACKGROUND: Brainstem encephalitis is the most common neurologic complication after enterovirus 71 infection. The involvement of brainstem, especially the dorsal medulla oblongata, can cause severe sequelae or death in children with enterovirus 71 infection. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dorsal medulla oblongata involvement in children with enterovirus 71-related brainstem encephalitis (EBE) by using conventional MRI and to evaluate the value of dorsal medulla oblongata involvement in outcome prediction...
April 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623003/the-diving-bell-and-the-butterfly-revisited-a-fatal-case-of-locked-in-syndrome-in-a-man-with-epstein-barr-virus-positive-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-not-otherwise-specified
#18
Jacqueline N Poston, Russell Dorer, David M Aboulafia
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare variant of DLBCL. The natural history of this subtype is poorly understood. Incomplete literature in the era of rituximab suggests that patients with EBV-positive DLBCL have similar outcomes to patients with EBV-negative DLBCL when treated with rituximab and anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens; however, there are few prospective studies on this subtype and little is known about the risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse with EBV-positive DLBCL...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622555/mri-planimetry-and-magnetic-resonance-parkinsonism-index-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-patients-with-parkinsonism
#19
V C Constantinides, G P Paraskevas, G Velonakis, P Toulas, E Stamboulis, E Kapaki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Differential diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration from Parkinson disease on clinical grounds is often difficult. MR imaging biomarkers could assist in a more accurate diagnosis. We examined the utility of MR imaging surface measurements (MR imaging planimetry) in the differential diagnosis of patients with parkinsonism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients with Parkinson-plus (progressive supranuclear palsy, n = 24; corticobasal degeneration, n = 9; multiple system atrophy, n = 19), 18 patients with Parkinson disease, and 15 healthy controls were included...
April 5, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621548/trem2-modulates-microglia-phenotypes-in-the-neuroinflammation-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Youwen Zhang, Shujun Feng, Kun Nie, Yan Li, Yuyuan Gao, Rong Gan, Limin Wang, Bing Li, Xuegang Sun, Lijuan Wang, Yuhu Zhang
Neuroinflammation and overactivated microglia underlies the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, microglia could polarize into classic inflammatory M1 and immunosuppressive M2 phenotype. Thus, inhibiting the overactivated inflammatory M1 microglia by promoting the transformation of microglia to the protective M2 phenotype provides potential therapy for PD, but the mechanism that modulates microglia polarization remains unknown. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) is a recently identified immune receptor expressed by the microglia in the brain...
April 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
keyword
keyword
38989
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"