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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303377/the-differences-of-the-precommissural-and-postcommissural-fornix-in-the-hippocampal-location-a-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#1
Sung Ho Jang, Sang Seok Yeo
PURPOSE: The precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix have different connections to the basal forebrain and septal region, and mammillary body, respectively. However, little is known about the differences of the precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix in the hippocampal location. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography, we investigated the differences of the precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix in the hippocampal location. METHODS: We recruited 25 healthy volunteers for this study...
March 16, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301304/neuroprotective-and-therapeutic-effect-of-caffeine-on-the-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-induced-by-rotenone
#2
Yasser A Khadrawy, Ahmed M Salem, Karima A El-Shamy, Emad K Ahmed, Nevein N Fadl, Eman N Hosny
The present study aimed to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of caffeine on rotenone-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rats were divided into control, PD model induced by rotenone (1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 45 days), protected group injected with caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and rotenone for 45 days (during the development of PD model), and treated group injected with caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 45 days after induction of PD model. The data revealed a state of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the midbrain and the striatum of animal model of PD as indicated from the increased lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels and the decreased reduced glutathione level and activities of glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase...
September 3, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300637/integrated-mass-spectrometry-imaging-and-omics-workflows-on-the-same-tissue-section-using-grid-aided-parafilm-assisted-microdissection
#3
Jusal Quanico, Julien Franck, Maxence Wisztorski, Michel Salzet, Isabelle Fournier
BACKGROUND: In spite of the number of applications describing the use of MALDI MSI, one of its major drawbacks is the limited capability of identifying multiple compound classes directly on the same tissue section. METHODS: We demonstrate the use of grid-aided, parafilm-assisted microdissection to perform MALDI MS imaging and shotgun proteomics and metabolomics in a combined workflow and using only a single tissue section. The grid is generated by microspotting acid dye 25 using a piezoelectric microspotter, and this grid was used as a guide to locate regions of interest and as an aid during manual microdissection...
March 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299574/physiological-and-pathological-roles-of-15-deoxy-%C3%AE-12-14-prostaglandin-j2-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-neurological-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Tatsurou Yagami, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Hiromi Koma
Prostaglandins (PGs) are divided into conventional PGs, e.g., PGD2, and cyclopentenone-type PGs, e.g., 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14) prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). PGD2 is non-enzymatically metabolized to PGJ2, Δ(12)-PGJ2, and 15d-PGJ2. In the central nervous system, 15d-PGJ2 differentiates embryonic midbrain cells into dopaminergic neuronal cells via its nuclear peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). 15d-PGJ2 exerts conflict actions: proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities. In the brain, 15d-PGJ2 possesses opposite functions as a neuroprotectant at low concentrations and a neurotoxicant at high concentrations in the brain...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299414/photobiomodulation-induced-changes-in-a-monkey-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-changes-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-cells-and-gdnf-expression-in-the-striatum
#5
Nabil El Massri, Ana P Lemgruber, Isobel J Rowe, Cécile Moro, Napoleon Torres, Florian Reinhart, Claude Chabrol, Alim-Louis Benabid, John Mitrofanis
Intracranial application of red to infrared light, known also as photobiomodulation (PBM), has been shown to improve locomotor activity and to neuroprotect midbrain dopaminergic cells in rodent and monkey models of Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explored whether PBM has any influence on the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+)cells and the expression of GDNF (glial-derived neurotrophic factor) in the striatum. Striatal sections of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-treated mice and monkeys and 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-lesioned rats that had PBM optical fibres implanted intracranially (or not) were processed for immunohistochemistry (all species) or western blot analysis (monkeys)...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298049/the-interpeduncular-fossa-approach-for-resection-of-ventromedial-midbrain-lesions
#6
M Yashar S Kalani, Kaan Yağmurlu, Robert F Spetzler
The authors describe the interpeduncular fossa safe entry zone as a route for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. To illustrate the utility of this novel safe entry zone, the authors provide clinical data from 2 patients who underwent contralateral orbitozygomatic transinterpeduncular fossa approaches to deep cavernous malformations located medial to the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve [CN] III). These cases are supplemented by anatomical information from 6 formalin-fixed adult human brainstems and 4 silicone-injected adult human cadaveric heads on which the fiber dissection technique was used...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298018/brainstem-arteriovenous-malformations-lesion-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes
#7
Venkatesh S Madhugiri, Mario K C Teo, Joli Vavao, Teresa Bell-Stephens, Gary K Steinberg
OBJECTIVE Brainstem arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions that are difficult to diagnose and treat. They are often more aggressive in their behavior when compared with their supratentorial counterparts. The consequence of a brainstem hemorrhage is often devastating, and many patients are in poor neurological status at presentation. The authors examine the factors associated with angiographically confirmed cure and those affecting management outcomes for these complex lesions. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of data gathered from the prospectively maintained Stanford AVM database...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297715/autism-gene-ube3a-and-seizures-impair-sociability-by-repressing-vta-cbln1
#8
Vaishnav Krishnan, David C Stoppel, Yi Nong, Mark A Johnson, Monica J S Nadler, Ekim Ozkaynak, Brian L Teng, Ikue Nagakura, Fahim Mohammad, Michael A Silva, Sally Peterson, Tristan J Cruz, Ekkehard M Kasper, Ramy Arnaout, Matthew P Anderson
Maternally inherited 15q11-13 chromosomal triplications cause a frequent and highly penetrant type of autism linked to increased gene dosages of UBE3A, which encodes a ubiquitin ligase with transcriptional co-regulatory functions. Here, using in vivo mouse genetics, we show that increasing UBE3A in the nucleus downregulates the glutamatergic synapse organizer Cbln1, which is needed for sociability in mice. Epileptic seizures also repress Cbln1 and are found to expose sociability impairments in mice with asymptomatic increases in UBE3A...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297587/efficiently-specified-ventral-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-under-xeno-free-conditions-restore-motor-deficits-in-parkinsonian-rodents
#9
Jonathan C Niclis, Carlos W Gantner, Walaa F Alsanie, Stuart J McDougall, Chris R Bye, Andrew G Elefanty, Edouard G Stanley, John M Haynes, Colin W Pouton, Lachlan H Thompson, Clare L Parish
Recent studies have shown evidence for the functional integration of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived ventral midbrain dopamine (vmDA) neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Although these cells present a sustainable alternative to fetal mesencephalic grafts, a number of hurdles require attention prior to clinical translation. These include the persistent use of xenogeneic reagents and challenges associated with scalability and storage of differentiated cells. In this study, we describe the first fully defined feeder- and xenogeneic-free protocol for the generation of vmDA neurons from hPSCs and utilize two novel reporter knock-in lines (LMX1A-eGFP and PITX3-eGFP) for in-depth in vitro and in vivo tracking...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294351/top-down-control-of-spinal-sensorimotor-circuits-essential-for-survival
#10
Stella Koutsikou, Richard Apps, Bridget M Lumb
The ability to interact with challenging environments requires coordination of sensory and motor systems that underpin appropriate survival behaviours. All animals, including humans, use active and passive coping strategies to react to escapable or inescapable threats respectively. Across species the neural pathways involved in survival behaviours are highly conserved and there is a consensus that knowledge of such pathways is a fundamental step towards understanding the neural circuits underpinning emotion in humans and treating anxiety or other prevalent emotional disorders...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287593/reliable-identification-of-living-dopaminergic-neurons-in-midbrain-cultures-using-rna-sequencing-and-th-promoter-driven-egfp-expression
#11
Beverley M Henley, Bruce N Cohen, Charlene H Kim, Heather D Gold, Rahul Srinivasan, Sheri McKinney, Purnima Deshpande, Henry A Lester
In Parkinson's Disease (PD) there is widespread neuronal loss throughout the brain with pronounced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc, leading to bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor. The identification of living dopaminergic neurons in primary Ventral Mesencephalic (VM) cultures using a fluorescent marker provides an alternative way to study the selective vulnerability of these neurons without relying on the immunostaining of fixed cells. Here, we isolate, dissociate, and culture mouse VM neurons for 3 weeks...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287080/three-dimensional-tissues-using-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-spheroids-as-biofabrication-building-blocks
#12
Haishuang Lin, Qiang Li, Yuguo Lei
A recently emerged approach for tissue engineering is to biofabricate tissues using cellular spheroids as building blocks. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), can be cultured to generate large numbers of cells and presumably be differentiated into all the cell types of human body in vitro, thus are ideal cell source for biofabrication. We previously developed a hydrogel-based cell culture system that can economically produce large numbers of hPSC spheroids...
March 13, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285994/midbrain-dopamine-neurons-signal-belief-in-choice-accuracy-during-a-perceptual-decision
#13
Armin Lak, Kensaku Nomoto, Mehdi Keramati, Masamichi Sakagami, Adam Kepecs
Central to the organization of behavior is the ability to predict the values of outcomes to guide choices. The accuracy of such predictions is honed by a teaching signal that indicates how incorrect a prediction was ("reward prediction error," RPE). In several reinforcement learning contexts, such as Pavlovian conditioning and decisions guided by reward history, this RPE signal is provided by midbrain dopamine neurons. In many situations, however, the stimuli predictive of outcomes are perceptually ambiguous...
March 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284986/it-s-all-about-timing-an-electrophysiological-examination-of-feedback-based-learning-with-immediate-and-delayed-feedback
#14
Yael Arbel, Lucia Hong, Travis E Baker, Clay B Holroyd
Feedback regarding an individual's action can occur immediately or with a temporal delay. Processing of feedback that varies in its delivery time is proposed to engage different brain mechanisms. fMRI data implicate the striatum in the processing of immediate feedback, and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in the processing of delayed feedback. The present study offers an electrophysiological examination of feedback processing in the context of timing, by studying the effects of feedback timing on the feedback-related negativity (FRN), a product of the midbrain dopamine system, and elucidating whether the N170 ERP component could capture MTL activation associated with the processing of delayed feedback...
March 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283558/gene-expression-profiling-with-cre-conditional-pseudorabies-virus-reveals-a-subset-of-midbrain-neurons-that-participate-in-reward-circuitry
#15
Lisa E Pomeranz, Mats I Ekstrand, Kaamashri N Latcha, Gregory A Smith, Lynn W Enquist, Jeffrey M Friedman
The mesolimbic dopamine pathway receives inputs from numerous regions of the brain as part of a neural system that detects rewarding stimuli and coordinates a behavioral response. The capacity to simultaneously map and molecularly define the components of this complex multisynaptic circuit would thus advance our understanding of the determinants of motivated behavior. To accomplish this, we have constructed pseudorabies virus (PRV) strains in which viral propagation and fluorophore expression are activated only after exposure to Cre recombinase...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283350/ultrafine-carbon-particles-promote-rotenone-induced-dopamine-neuronal-loss-through-activating-microglial-nadph-oxidase
#16
Yinxi Wang, Dan Liu, Huifeng Zhang, Yixin Wang, Ling Wei, Yutong Liu, Jieying Liao, Hui-Ming Gao, Hui Zhou
BACKGROUND: Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) and pesticide rotenone were considered as potential environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether and how UFPs alone and in combination with rotenone affect the pathogenesis of PD remains largely unknown. METHODS: Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, a surrogate of UFPs) and rotenone were used individually or in combination to determine their roles in chronic dopaminergic (DA) loss in neuron-glia, and neuron-enriched, mix-glia cultures...
March 7, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280264/in-vitro-generation-of-mature-midbrain-type-dopamine-neurons-by-adjusting-exogenous-nurr1-and-foxa2-expressions-to-their-physiologic-patterns
#17
Taeho Kim, Jae-Jin Song, Lesly Puspita, Parvin Valiulahi, Jae-Won Shim, Sang-Hun Lee
Developmental information aids stem cell biologists in producing tissue-specific cells. Recapitulation of the developmental profile of a specific cell type in an in vitro stem cell system provides a strategy for manipulating cell-fate choice during the differentiation process. Nurr1 and Foxa2 are potential candidates for genetic engineering to generate midbrain-type dopamine (DA) neurons for experimental and therapeutic applications in Parkinson's disease (PD), as forced expression of these genes in neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) yields cells with a complete battery of midbrain DA neuron-specific genes...
March 10, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279753/partial-lesion-of-dopamine-neurons-of-rat-substantia-nigra-impairs-conditioned-place-aversion-but-spares-conditioned-place-preference
#18
Bernardo F C Lima, Daniele C Ramos, Janaína K Barbiero, Laura Pulido, Peter Redgrave, Donita L Robinson, Alexander Gómez-A, Claudio Da Cunha
Midbrain dopamine neurons play critical roles in reward- and aversion-driven associative learning. However, it is not clear whether they do this by a common mechanism or by separate mechanisms that can be dissociated. In the present study we addressed this question by testing whether a partial lesion of thedopamine neurons of the rat SNc has comparable effects on conditioned place preference (CPP) learning and conditioned place aversion (CPA) learning.Partial lesions of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) induced by bilateral intranigral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 3 μg/side) or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 200 μg/side) impaired learning of conditioned place aversion (CPA) without affecting conditioned place preference (CPP) learning...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276429/building-a-5-ht3a-receptor-expression-map-in-the-mouse-brain
#19
Yoshihisa Koyama, Makoto Kondo, Shoichi Shimada
Of the many serotonin receptors, the type 3 receptors (5-HT3R) are the only ionotropic ones, playing a key role in fast synaptic transmission and cognitive and emotional brain function through controlled neuronal excitation. To better understand the various functions of 5-HT3Rs, it is very important to know their expression pattern in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, many distributional studies have shown localized 5-HT3R expression in the brain and spinal cord. However, an accurate pattern of 5-HT3R expression in the CNS remains to be elucidated...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275829/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-rat-brain-is-downregulated-by-sub-chronic-antidepressant-treatment
#20
Yuta Yoshino, Shinichiro Ochi, Kiyohiro Yamazaki, Shunsuke Nakata, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shu-Ichi Ueno
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is a neurotransmitter that may be related to major depressive disorder (MDD) because the selective neuronal NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, induces a dose-dependent antidepressant-like effect. NO modulates major neurotransmitters involved in the neurobiology of MDD, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. In this study, we investigated the effects of antidepressants as NO modulators in acute and sub-chronic treatments. METHODS: Rats were injected with the SSRI paroxetine (PAR, 10 mg/kg), the SNRI milnacipran (MIL, 30 mg/kg), or the NaSSA mirtazapine (MIR, 10 mg/kg) for acute (1 h) or sub-chronic (3 weeks) treatment prior to analysis of nine brain regions (frontal cortex, temporal cortex, striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb)...
March 8, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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