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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915581/ftld-tdp-and-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-in-comorbidity-a-report-of-two-cases-with-different-clinical-presentations
#1
Kateřina Storey, Silvie Johanidesová, Radoslav Matěj, Jiří Keller, Zdeněk Rohan, Robert Rusina
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (FTLD-TDP) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are distinct neurodegenerations with different clinical presentations. We report two cases with FTLD-TDP and PSP in comorbidity: a patient with amnestic dementia developing frontal lobe dementia, Parkinsonism and supranuclear gaze palsy and a patient with cerebellar ataxia and nystagmus developing akinesia, rigidity, and subcortical dementia. Neuropathological examination revealed neuronal and glial tau pathology together with ubiquitin, and phospho-TDP-43-immunoreactivities in the hippocampus, striatum, mesencephalon, and frontal and temporal cortices...
December 3, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886392/deregulated-expression-of-ezh2-in-congenital-brainstem-disconnection
#2
P G Barth, E Aronica, S Fox, K Fluiter, M A J Weterman, A Poretti, D C Miller, E Boltshauser, B Harding, M Santi, F Baas
Congenital brainstem disconnection (CBSD) is an enigmatic embryo-fetal defect presenting as (sub)total absence of a segment between mesencephalon and lower brainstem. Rostro-caudal limits of the defect vary while the basal pons is always involved and the cerebellum is globally hypoplastic. A recent update and review[1] lists 14 cases, including 3 brain autopsy studies[1-3]. Necrosis and glial- or inflammatory reactions were absent. Inferior olivary nuclei were small or absent, pontine nuclei depleted, and the cerebellar dentate nuclei dysplastic...
November 25, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885887/cell-therapies-for-parkinson-s-disease-how-far-have-we-come
#3
Thomas B Stoker, Roger A Barker
Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the development of potential regenerative cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative disease, with most success being seen in Parkinson's disease. Cell-based therapies face many challenges including ethical considerations, potential for immune-mediated rejection with allogeneic and xenogeneic tissue, pathological spread of protein-related disease into the grafted tissue as well as the risk of graft overgrowth and tumorigenesis in stem cell-derived transplants...
December 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858721/axon-guidance-molecule-expression-after-cell-therapy-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Joanna Kalaani, Rochea Joëlle, Eva Hamade, Bassam Badran, Mohamed Jaber, Afsaneh Gaillard, Laetitia Prestoz
BACKGROUND: Cell therapy is a promising approach for Parkinson's disease (PD). Others and we have previously shown that transplantation of ventral mesencephalic fetal cells into substantia nigra (SN) in an animal model of PD enables anatomical and functional repair of the degenerated pathway. However, the molecular basis of this repair is still largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we studied the expression of several axon guidance molecules that may be implicated in the repair of the degenerated nigrostriatal pathway...
November 16, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832380/endoscopic-approach-routes-in-the-posterior-fossa-cisterns-through-the-retrosigmoid-keyhole-craniotomy-an-anatomical-study
#5
Peter Kurucz, Gabor Baksa, Lajos Patonay, Firas Thaher, Michael Buchfelder, Oliver Ganslandt
Endoscopy in cerebellopontine angle surgery is an increasingly used technique. Despite of its advantages, the shortcomings arising from the complex anatomy of the posterior fossa are still preventing its widespread use. To overcome these drawbacks, the goal of this study was to define the anatomy of different endoscopic approaches through the retrosigmoid craniotomy and their limitations by surgical windows. Anatomical dissections were performed on 25 fresh human cadavers to describe the main approach-routes...
November 10, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802825/mog-igg-in-nmo-and-related-disorders-a-multicenter-study-of-50-patients-part-3-brainstem-involvement-frequency-presentation-and-outcome
#6
Sven Jarius, Ingo Kleiter, Klemens Ruprecht, Nasrin Asgari, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Nadja Borisow, Martin W Hümmert, Corinna Trebst, Florence Pache, Alexander Winkelmann, Lena-Alexandra Beume, Marius Ringelstein, Oliver Stich, Orhan Aktas, Mirjam Korporal-Kuhnke, Alexander Schwarz, Carsten Lukas, Jürgen Haas, Kai Fechner, Mathias Buttmann, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Hanna Zimmermann, Alexander U Brandt, Diego Franciotta, Kathrin Schanda, Friedemann Paul, Markus Reindl, Brigitte Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) are present in a subset of aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG-negative patients with optic neuritis (ON) and/or myelitis. Little is known so far about brainstem involvement in MOG-IgG-positive patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency, clinical and paraclinical features, course, outcome, and prognostic implications of brainstem involvement in MOG-IgG-positive ON and/or myelitis. METHODS: Retrospective case study...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771730/spatiotemporal-development-of-the-orexinergic-hypocretinergic-system-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-xenopus-laevis
#7
Jesús M López, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The present immunohistochemical study represents a detailed spatiotemporal analysis of the localization of orexin-immunoreactive (OX-ir) cells and fibers throughout development in the brain of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, a model frequently used in developmental studies. Anurans undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages, and very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control functions such as appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615412/immunohistochemical-localization-of-somatostatin-in-the-brain-of-chinese-alligator-alligator-sinensis
#8
Huan Wang, Ruidong Zhang, Shengzhou Zhang, Yongkang Zhou, Xiaobing Wu
In this study, the regional distribution and histological localization of somatostatin (SS) immunoreactive (IR) perikarya and fibers was investigated for the first time in the brain of adult Chinese alligator by immunohistochemical method. The results showed SS-IR perikarya and fibers were widely distributed in various parts of the brain except for olfactory bulbs. In the telencephalon, SS-IR perikarya were predominantly located in the cellular layer and deep plexiform layer of dorsomedial and medial cortex, less in the dorsal and lateral cortex, while SS-IR fibers were found in all layers of the cerebral cortex...
September 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586811/cathepsin-l-coexists-with-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-antigen-2-alpha-in-distinct-regions-of-the-mouse-brain
#9
Claudius Luziga, Bui Thi To Nga, Gabriel Mbassa, Yoshimi Yamamoto
Cathepsins B and L are two prominent members of cystein proteases with broad substrate specificity and are known to be involved in the process of intra- and extra-cellular protein degradation and turnover. The propeptide region of cathepsin L is identical to Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2α (CTLA-2α) discovered in mouse activated T-cells and mast cells. CTLA-2α exhibits selective inhibitory activities against papain and cathepsin L. We previously demonstrated the distribution pattern of the CTLA-2α protein in mouse brain by immunohistochemistry, describing that it is preferentially localized within nerve fibre bundles than neuronal cell bodies...
August 29, 2016: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578777/regulation-of-self-renewing-neural-progenitors-by-fgf-erk-signaling-controls-formation-of-the-inferior-colliculus
#10
Alexander Dee, Kairong Li, Xin Heng, Qiuxia Guo, James Y H Li
The embryonic tectum displays an anteroposterior gradient in development and produces the superior colliculus and inferior colliculus. Studies suggest that partition of the tectum is controlled by different strengths and durations of FGF signals originated from the so-called isthmic organizer at the mid/hindbrain junction; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We show that deleting Ptpn11, which links FGF with the ERK pathway, prevents inferior colliculus formation by depleting a previously uncharacterized stem cell zone...
October 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533625/improved-ct-detection-of-acute-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-encephalitis-based-on-a-frequency-selective-nonlinear-blending-comparison-with-mri
#11
Malte Niklas Bongers, Georg Bier, Hendrik Ditt, Robert Beck, Ulrike Ernemann, Konstantin Nikolaou, Marius Horger
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic efficacy of a new CT postprocessing tool based on frequency-selective nonlinear blending (best-contrast CT) with that of standard linear blending of unenhanced head CT in patients with herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE), using FLAIR MRI sequences as the standard of reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen consecutive patients (six women and nine men; mean [± SD] age, 60 ± 19 years) with proven HSE (positive polymerase chain reaction results from CSF analysis and the presence of neurologic deficits) were retrospectively enrolled...
November 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530699/resting-state-brain-networks-revealed-by-granger-causal-connectivity-in-frogs
#12
Fei Xue, Guangzhan Fang, Xizi Yue, Ermi Zhao, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang
Resting-state networks (RSNs) refer to the spontaneous brain activity generated under resting conditions, which maintain the dynamic connectivity of functional brain networks for automatic perception or higher order cognitive functions. Here, Granger causal connectivity analysis (GCCA) was used to explore brain RSNs in the music frog (Babina daunchina) during different behavioral activity phases. The results reveal that a causal network in the frog brain can be identified during the resting state which reflects both brain lateralization and sexual dimorphism...
August 13, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523502/altered-expression-of-arp2-3-complex-signaling-pathway-genes-in-prefrontal-layer-3-pyramidal-cells-in-schizophrenia
#13
Dibyadeep Datta, Dominique Arion, Kaitlyn M Roman, David W Volk, David A Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Lower dendritic spine density on layer 3 pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) appears to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, whereas psychosis is associated with excessive dopamine release in the striatum. These findings may be related via excitatory projections from the DLPFC to the ventral mesencephalon, the location of dopamine cells projecting to the striatum. Consistent with this hypothesis, deletion of the actin-related protein-2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton supporting dendritic spines, produced spine loss in cortical pyramidal cells and striatal hyperdopaminergia in mice...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512998/re-cloning-the-n27-dopamine-cell-line-to-improve-a-cell-culture-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Lu Gao, Wenbo Zhou, Breanna Symmes, Curt R Freed
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. To understand the molecular mechanisms of the disease, an in vitro model is important. In the 1990s, we used the SV40 large T antigen to immortalize dopaminergic neurons derived from Embryonic Day 14 rat mesencephalon. We selected a clone for its high expression of dopaminergic neuron markers such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and we named it 1RB3AN27 (N27). Because the original N27 cell line has been passaged many times, the line has become a mixture of cell types with highly variable expression of TH...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444243/%C3%AE-asarone-increases-mef2d-and-th-levels-and-reduces-%C3%AE-synuclein-level-in-6-ohda-induced-rats-via-regulating-the-hsp70-mapk-mef2d-beclin-1-pathway-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-activation-macroautophagy-inhibition-and-hsp70-up-expression
#15
Liping Huang, Minzhen Deng, Yuping He, Shiyao Lu, Shu Liu, Yongqi Fang
Inactive myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) and alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation will cause neuronal death. MEF2D or α-syn degradation is also associated with macroautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70). We found that β-asarone had positive effects on treating 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rats, but mechanisms of β-asarone affecting on MEF2D and α-syn via regulating the HSP70/MAPK/MEF2D/Beclin-1 pathway remain unclear. Unilateral 6-OHDA injection into the medial forebrain bundle was used to create PD rats, which were divided into four groups and administered for 30days: 6-OHDA model group, MEF2D inhibitor-treated group (SB203580, 0...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375426/parkinson-s-disease-and-neurodegeneration-gaba-collapse-hypothesis
#16
Janusz W Błaszczyk
Neurodegenerative diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of age-related disorders that are characterized by a slow but irreversible deterioration of brain functions. Evidence accumulated over more than two decades has implicated calcium-related homeostatic mechanisms, giving rise to the Ca(2+) hypothesis of brain aging and, ultimately, cell death. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central (CNS), peripheral and enteric nervous systems. It appears to be involved in a wide variety of physiological functions within and outside the nervous system, that are maintained through a complex interaction between GABA and calcium-dependent neurotransmission and cellular metabolic functions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356857/extended-anatomical-grading-in-diffuse-axonal-injury-using-mri-hemorrhagic-lesions-in-the-substantia-nigra-and-mesencephalic-tegmentum-indicate-poor-long-term-outcome
#17
Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund, Marianne Lannsjö, Tim Howells, Raili Raininko, Johan Wikström, Per Enblad
Clinical outcome after traumatic diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is difficult to predict. In this study, three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were used to quantify the anatomical distribution of lesions, to grade DAI according to the Adams grading system, and to evaluate the value of lesion localization in combination with clinical prognostic factors to improve outcome prediction. Thirty patients (mean 31.2 years ±14.3 standard deviation) with severe DAI (Glasgow Motor Score [GMS] <6) examined with MRI within 1 week post-injury were included...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346539/first-description-of-the-neuro-anatomy-of-a-larval-coral-reef-fish-amphiprion-ocellaris
#18
H Jacob, M Metian, R M Brooker, E Duran, N Nakamura, N Roux, P Masanet, O Soulat, D Lecchini
The present study described the neuro-anatomy of a larval coral reef fish Amphiprion ocellaris and hypothesized that morphological changes during the transition from the oceanic environment to a reef environment (i.e. recruitment) have the potential to be driven by changes to environmental conditions and associated changes to cognitive requirements. Quantitative comparisons were made of the relative development of three specific brain areas (telencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum) between 6 days post-hatch (dph) larvae (oceanic phase) and 11 dph (at reef recruitment)...
September 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27326459/hyperintense-acute-reperfusion-marker-on-flair-in-posterior-circulation-infarction
#19
Alex Förster, Holger Wenz, Johannes Böhme, Mansour Al-Zghloul, Christoph Groden
PURPOSE: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of blood brain barrier injury in posterior circulation infarction as demonstrated by the hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) on fluid attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR). METHODS: From a MRI report database we identified patients with posterior circulation infarction who underwent MRI, including perfusion-weighted images (PWI), within 12 hours after onset and follow-up MRI within 24 hours and analyzed diffusion-weighted images (DWI), PWI, FLAIR, and MR angiography (MRA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269211/track-density-imaging-of-the-human-brainstem-for-anatomic-localization-of-fiber-tracts-and-nerve-nuclei-in%C3%A2-vivo-initial-experience-with-3-t-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Holger Wenz, Mansour Al-Zghloul, Eva Hart, Stefan Kurth, Christoph Groden, Alex Förster
BACKGROUND: The brainstem comprises a large variety of fiber tracts and nerve nuclei and is unarguably one of the most crucial parts of the brain. Reliable noninvasive visualization of its anatomy may help relate normal and pathological anatomic variations to neurologic/psychiatric disorders. In this study, we explored the potential of direction-encoded track-density imaging (TDI) for depicting the intricate anatomy of the brainstem. METHODS: A total of 18 healthy volunteers (10 females, 8 males; median age, 34...
September 2016: World Neurosurgery
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