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Mesencephalon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457875/variations-of-the-circle-of-willis-at-the-end-of-the-human-embryonic-period
#1
Kana Furuichi, Aoi Ishikawa, Chigako Uwabe, Haruyuki Makishima, Shigehito Yamada, Tetsuya Takakuwa
Variations of the circle of Willis (CW) influence blood supply to the brain and adjacent structures in adults. We examined the formation of the CW in 20 human embryo samples at the end of the embryonic period using 3-D reconstructions of serial histological sections. The CW was closed in all samples, and did not form in a single plane, but was composed of multiple stair-like planes. The artery acutely curved at the caudal part of the CW, namely at the inlet of the basilar artery and bifurcation of the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), reflecting flexure of the mesencephalon and diencephalon at this stage...
February 19, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387530/connectivity-derived-thalamic-segmentation-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-tremor
#2
Harith Akram, Viswas Dayal, Philipp Mahlknecht, Dejan Georgiev, Jonathan Hyam, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Enrico De Vita, Marjan Jahanshahi, John Ashburner, Tim Behrens, Marwan Hariz, Ludvic Zrinzo
The ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus is an established surgical target for stereotactic ablation and deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). It is centrally placed on a cerebello-thalamo-cortical network connecting the primary motor cortex, to the dentate nucleus of the contralateral cerebellum through the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRT). The VIM is not readily visible on conventional MR imaging, so identifying the surgical target traditionally involved indirect targeting that relies on atlas-defined coordinates...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374313/-importance-of-virchow-robin-spaces
#3
REVIEW
W Reith, A Haußmann
Virchow-Robin spaces are perivascular fluid-filled cavities that surround perforating arteries and veins in the brain parenchyma. As a rule in healthy people they are approximately 5 mm in diameter. Typical localizations are brainstem ganglia, mesencephalon and the white matter of the brain. Morphological imaging characteristics of Virchow-Robin spaces are round or tubular, smoothly bordered areas which are hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences. Virchow-Robin spaces represent a physiological structure in normal brain parenchyma...
January 26, 2018: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363733/generation-of-specific-antisera-directed-against-d-amino-acids-focus-on-the-neuroanatomical-distribution-of-d-glutamate-and-other-d-amino-acids
#4
Rafael Coveñas, Arturo Mangas, Manuel Lisardo Sànchez, Diana Cadena, Marianne Husson, Michel Geffard
This review updates the findings about the anatomical distribution (using immunohistochemical techniques) and possible functions of D-glutamate in the central nervous system of mammals, as well as compares the distribution of D-glutamate with the distribution of the most studied D-amino acids: D-serine and D-aspartate. The protocol used to obtain highly specific antisera directed against D-amino acids is also reported. Immunoreactivity for D-glutamate was found in dendrites and cell bodies, but not in nerve fibers...
January 24, 2018: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361582/auditory-neural-networks-for-attention-prefer-biologically-significant-sounds-and-exhibit-sexual-dimorphism-in-anurans
#5
Fei Xue, Xizi Yue, Yanzhu Fan, Jianguo Cui, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Guangzhan Fang
Allocating attention to biologically relevant stimuli in a complex environment is critically important for survival and reproductive success. In humans attention modulation is regulated by the frontal cortex, and often reflected by changes in specific components of the event-related potential (ERP). Although brain networks for attention modulation have been widely studied in primates and in avian species, little is known about attention modulation in amphibians. The present study aims to investigate the attention modulation networks in an anuran species, the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336643/measurement-of-fetal-mesencephalon-and-pons-via-ultrasonographic-cross-sectional-imagining
#6
Ruiqi Yang, Rui Li, Xuejuan Liu, Limei Fan, Jialing Zhang, Libo Wang, Hong Teng
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the feasibility of measuring the fetal mesencephalon and pons by ultrasonographic cross sectional imaging to detect fetal central nervous system developmental abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fetal ultrasonographic measurements included: Fetal mesencephalon anteroposterior diameters (MAD), mesencephalon transverse diameters (MTD), pons anteroposterior diameter (PAD) and proximal transverse diameters (PTD). RESULTS: Nine-hundred ninety fetuses were imaged...
January 16, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333914/hybrid-pet-mri-imaging-in-healthy-unsedated-newborn-infants-with-quantitative-rcbf-measurements-using-15o-water-pet
#7
Julie B Andersen, Ulrich Lindberg, Oline V Olesen, Didier Benoit, Claes N Ladefoged, Henrik Bw Larsson, Liselotte Højgaard, Gorm Greisen, Ian Law
In this study, a new hybrid PET/MRI method for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements in healthy newborn infants was assessed and the low values of rCBF in white matter previously obtained by arterial spin labeling (ASL) were tested. Four healthy full-term newborn subjects were scanned in a PET/MRI scanner during natural sleep after median intravenous injection of 14 MBq 15O-water. Regional CBF was quantified using a one-tissue-compartment model employing an image-derived input function (IDIF) from the left ventricle...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298210/electrophysiology-of-cranial-nerve-testing-auditory-nerve
#8
Alan D Legatt
The electrocochleogram and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) are electrophysiologic signals used to assess the auditory nerve. The electrocohleogram includes the cochlear microphonic, the cochlear summating potential, and the eighth nerve compound action potential. It is used predominantly for hearing assessment and for diagnosis of Ménière disease and auditory neuropathy. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials are used for hearing assessment, diagnosis of dysfunction within the cochlea, the auditory nerve, and the brainstem auditory pathways up to the level of the mesencephalon, and intraoperative monitoring of these structures...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281030/motor-learning-and-metaplasticity-in-striatal-neurons-relevance-for-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Nadia Giordano, Attilio Iemolo, Maria Mancini, Fabrizio Cacace, Maria De Risi, Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Veronica Ghiglieri, Gian Carlo Bellenchi, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Paolo Calabresi, Barbara Picconi, Elvira De Leonibus
Nigro-striatal dopamine transmission is central to a wide range of neuronal functions, including skill learning, which is disrupted in several pathologies such as Parkinson's disease. The synaptic plasticity mechanisms, by which initial motor learning is stored for long time periods in striatal neurons, to then be gradually optimized upon subsequent training, remain unexplored. Addressing this issue is crucial to identify the synaptic and molecular mechanisms involved in striatal-dependent learning impairment in Parkinson's disease...
February 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260606/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-normal-appearing-corticospinal-tracts-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Kadihan Yalçın-Şafak, Ahmet Akça, Özlem Elibol, İrem Sarı
Aim To determine if there are differences in ADC values between normal appearing corticospinal tracks in patients with MS compared to ADC values in controls. Material and methods The study population comprised 62 consecutive MS patients (36 women and 26 men; mean age 36.45±8.63 years). 50 control subjects with no neurological disabilities or intracranial were included the study (32 women and 18 men; mean age 40.18±12.25 years). All ADC maps were independently evaluated by two experienced radiologists. ROI of approximately 15-18 mm2 in capsula interna and 10-12 mm2 in mesencephalon were placed bilaterally for measurement of ADC values...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238219/hypoxia-stress-modifies-na-k-atpase-h-k-atpase-formula-see-text-and-nka%C3%AE-1-isoform-expression-in-the-brain-of-immune-challenged-air-breathing-fish
#11
Mc Subhash Peter, Satheesan Simi
Fishes are equipped to sense stressful stimuli and are able to respond to environmental stressor such as hypoxia with varying pattern of stress response. The functional attributes of brain to hypoxia stress in relation to ion transport and its interaction during immune challenge have not yet delineated in fish. We, therefore, explored the pattern of ion transporter functions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of α1-subunit isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) in the brain segments, namely, prosencephalon (PC), mesencephalon (MC), and metencephalon (MeC) in an obligate air-breathing fish exposed either to hypoxia stress (30 minutes forced immersion in water) or challenged with zymosan treatment (25-200 ng g-1 for 24 hours) or both...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213521/distinct-phospho-tdp-43-brain-distribution-in-two-cases-of-ftd-one-associated-with-als
#12
Álvaro C B Guedes, Ricardo Santin, André S R Costa, Keli C Reiter, Arlete Hilbig, Liana L Fernandez
INTRODUCTION: TDP-43 is an intranuclear protein involved in many cellular processes. When altered, it shows a change in pattern of distribution, as well as in functioning, throughout the Central Nervous System structures. Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are examples of TDP-43 proteinopathy. These disorders form a clinical spectrum, with some patients having a pure cognitive disorder while others also exhibit motor features. METHODS: We studied two donated brains from patients with a diagnosis of Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), one of which was associated with ALS (ALS-FTD)...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208411/distribution-of-nadph-diaphorase-reactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#13
Claudia Pinelli, Arun G Jadhao, Anna Scandurra, Biagio D'Aniello
We examined the distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-reactive elements in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common toad, Bufo bufo. The investigation involved adult male and female toads collected during the breeding season. Labeled neurons of different morphological appearances (weakly or darkly stained, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar) and fibers were observed across all subdivisions of the amphibian brain. Overall, a similar distribution of NADPH-d-labeled neurons was observed in the brain of male and female toads...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191060/endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-a-medullary-cavernoma-a-novel-case
#14
Puya Alikhani, Sananthan Sivakanthan, Ramsey Ashour, Mark Tabor, Harry van Loveren, Siviero Agazzi
Brainstem cavernomas can present very challenging operative problems. Endoscopic endonasal approaches to these lesions in the mesencephalon and pons have been described. In this article the authors present the first case of a medullary cavernoma resected by an endoscopic transclival approach. A 26 year-old woman with a 1.5 cm medullary cavernoma presented with imbalance, swallowing difficulty, and right hemibody weakness. She was taken to the operating room for endoscopic endonasal transclival resection. Her pre-existing neurologic deficits worsened initially after surgery, but at three-month follow-up she had made a full neurologic recovery...
November 30, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168586/regional-oligodendrocytopathy-and-astrocytopathy-precede-myelin-loss-and-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-a-murine-model-of-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome
#15
Joanna Bouchat, Bruno Couturier, Catherine Marneffe, Fabrice Gankam-Kengne, Benoît Balau, Kathleen De Swert, Jean-Pierre Brion, Luc Poncelet, Jacques Gilloteaux, Charles Nicaise
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a non-primary inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system myelin that is often associated with a precipitous rise of serum sodium concentration. To investigate the physiopathology of ODS in vivo, we generated a novel murine model based on the abrupt correction of chronic hyponatremia. Accordingly, ODS mice developed impairments in brainstem auditory evoked potentials and in grip strength. At 24 hr post-correction, oligodendrocyte markers (APC and Cx47) were downregulated, prior to any detectable demyelination...
November 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145474/long-3-utr-of-nurr1-mrnas-is-targeted-by-mirnas-in-mesencephalic-dopamine-neurons
#16
Luis Alberto Pereira, Roberto Munita, Marcela Paz González, María Estela Andrés
The development of mesencephalic dopamine neurons and their survival later in life requires the continuous presence of the transcription factor Nurr1 (NR4A2). Nurr1 belongs to the nuclear receptors superfamily. However, it is an orphan member that does not require a ligand to regulate the transcription of its target genes. Therefore, controlling the expression of Nurr1 is an important manner to control its function. Several reports have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate Nurr1 expression. However, Nurr1 has several splicing variants, posing the question what variants are subjected to miRNA regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137817/beyond-als-and-ftd-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-tbk1-mutations-includes-psp-like-and-cerebellar-phenotypes
#17
Carlo Wilke, Jonathan Baets, Jan L De Bleecker, Tine Deconinck, Saskia Biskup, Stefanie N Hayer, Stephan Züchner, Rebecca Schüle, Peter De Jonghe, Matthis Synofzik
Mutations in the TANK-binding kinase 1 gene (TBK1) are a rare, but recurrent cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the complete phenotypic spectrum of syndromes associated with TBK1 mutations remains to be elucidated. Using next-generation panel-sequencing of neurodegenerative disease genes, we identified a TBK1 index patient presenting with a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome. Consecutively, we screened the whole-exome sequencing data of 439 index subjects presenting with various neurodegenerative syndromes outside the ALS-FTD spectrum for TBK1 mutations...
October 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987180/alzheimer-disease
#18
Ana Laura Calderon-Garcidueñas, Charles Duyckaerts
Alzheimer disease neuropathology is characterized by the extracellular accumulation of Aβ peptide and intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau. With the progression of the disease, macroscopic atrophy affects the entorhinal area and hippocampus, amygdala, and associative regions of the neocortex. The locus coeruleus is depigmented. The deposition of Aβ is first made of diffuse deposits. Amyloid focal deposits constitute the core of the senile plaque which also comprises a corona of tau-positive neurites...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965668/hemorrhagic-infarct-of-basal-ganglia-in-cardiac-arrest-ct-and-mri-findings-2-cases
#19
Monique Boukobza, Frédéric J Baud
We report the CT and MRI findings in two cases of hemorrhagic infarct of the basal ganglia (BG), following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA). In case 1, Brain-CT realized at day 2 showed bilateral and almost symmetric hemorrhagic infarct of the BG and infarct of the tectum of the mesencephalon. In case 2, MRI realized at day 6 showed hemorrhagic infarct of both lenticular nuclei on T2 GE images. In both cases there was no medical history and the cardiovascular and the coagulation profile were normal. In these cases, the lesions are observed earlier than reported in a few previous radiological cases...
September 21, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887076/microstructural-mechanisms-of-analgesia-in-percutaneous-cervical-cordotomy-revealed-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#20
Stephen S Gebarski, Srinivas Chiravuri, Bradley R Foerster, Parag G Patil
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to reveal structural mechanisms underlying spinal ablative procedures, including percutaneous radiofrequency cordotomy (PRFC). PRFC is a surgical procedure that produces analgesia through focal ablation of the lateral spinothalamic tract (STT), thereby interrupting the flow of pain information from the periphery to the brain. To date, studies regarding mechanisms of analgesia after PRFC have been limited to postmortem cadaveric dissection and histology...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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