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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238219/hypoxia-stress-modifies-na-k-atpase-h-k-atpase-formula-see-text-and-nka%C3%AE-1-isoform-expression-in-the-brain-of-immune-challenged-air-breathing-fish
#1
Mc Subhash Peter, Satheesan Simi
Fishes are equipped to sense stressful stimuli and are able to respond to environmental stressor such as hypoxia with varying pattern of stress response. The functional attributes of brain to hypoxia stress in relation to ion transport and its interaction during immune challenge have not yet delineated in fish. We, therefore, explored the pattern of ion transporter functions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of α1-subunit isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) in the brain segments, namely, prosencephalon (PC), mesencephalon (MC), and metencephalon (MeC) in an obligate air-breathing fish exposed either to hypoxia stress (30 minutes forced immersion in water) or challenged with zymosan treatment (25-200 ng g-1 for 24 hours) or both...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213521/distinct-phospho-tdp-43-brain-distribution-in-two-cases-of-ftd-one-associated-with-als
#2
Álvaro C B Guedes, Ricardo Santin, André S R Costa, Keli C Reiter, Arlete Hilbig, Liana L Fernandez
INTRODUCTION: TDP-43 is an intranuclear protein involved in many cellular processes. When altered, it shows a change in pattern of distribution, as well as in functioning, throughout the Central Nervous System structures. Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are examples of TDP-43 proteinopathy. These disorders form a clinical spectrum, with some patients having a pure cognitive disorder while others also exhibit motor features. METHODS: We studied two donated brains from patients with a diagnosis of Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), one of which was associated with ALS (ALS-FTD)...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208411/distribution-of-nadph-diaphorase-reactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#3
Claudia Pinelli, Arun G Jadhao, Anna Scandurra, Biagio D'Aniello
We examined the distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-reactive elements in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common toad, Bufo bufo. The investigation involved adult male and female toads collected during the breeding season. Labeled neurons of different morphological appearances (weakly or darkly stained, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar) and fibers were observed across all subdivisions of the amphibian brain. Overall, a similar distribution of NADPH-d-labeled neurons was observed in the brain of male and female toads...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191060/endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-a-medullary-cavernoma-a-novel-case
#4
Puya Alikhani, Sananthan Sivakanthan, Ramsey Ashour, Mark Tabor, Harry van Loveren, Siviero Agazzi
Brainstem cavernomas can present very challenging operative problems. Endoscopic endonasal approaches to these lesions in the mesencephalon and pons have been described. In this article the authors present the first case of a medullary cavernoma resected by an endoscopic transclival approach. A 26 year-old woman with a 1.5 cm medullary cavernoma presented with imbalance, swallowing difficulty, and right hemibody weakness. She was taken to the operating room for endoscopic endonasal transclival resection. Her pre-existing neurologic deficits worsened initially after surgery, but at three-month follow-up she had made a full neurologic recovery...
November 30, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168586/regional-oligodendrocytopathy-and-astrocytopathy-precede-myelin-loss-and-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-a-murine-model-of-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome
#5
Joanna Bouchat, Bruno Couturier, Catherine Marneffe, Fabrice Gankam-Kengne, Benoît Balau, Kathleen De Swert, Jean-Pierre Brion, Luc Poncelet, Jacques Gilloteaux, Charles Nicaise
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a non-primary inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system myelin that is often associated with a precipitous rise of serum sodium concentration. To investigate the physiopathology of ODS in vivo, we generated a novel murine model based on the abrupt correction of chronic hyponatremia. Accordingly, ODS mice developed impairments in brainstem auditory evoked potentials and in grip strength. At 24 hr post-correction, oligodendrocyte markers (APC and Cx47) were downregulated, prior to any detectable demyelination...
November 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145474/long-3-utr-of-nurr1-mrnas-is-targeted-by-mirnas-in-mesencephalic-dopamine-neurons
#6
Luis Alberto Pereira, Roberto Munita, Marcela Paz González, María Estela Andrés
The development of mesencephalic dopamine neurons and their survival later in life requires the continuous presence of the transcription factor Nurr1 (NR4A2). Nurr1 belongs to the nuclear receptors superfamily. However, it is an orphan member that does not require a ligand to regulate the transcription of its target genes. Therefore, controlling the expression of Nurr1 is an important manner to control its function. Several reports have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate Nurr1 expression. However, Nurr1 has several splicing variants, posing the question what variants are subjected to miRNA regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137817/beyond-als-and-ftd-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-tbk1-mutations-includes-psp-like-and-cerebellar-phenotypes
#7
Carlo Wilke, Jonathan Baets, Jan L De Bleecker, Tine Deconinck, Saskia Biskup, Stefanie N Hayer, Stephan Züchner, Rebecca Schüle, Peter De Jonghe, Matthis Synofzik
Mutations in the TANK-binding kinase 1 gene (TBK1) are a rare, but recurrent cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the complete phenotypic spectrum of syndromes associated with TBK1 mutations remains to be elucidated. Using next-generation panel-sequencing of neurodegenerative disease genes, we identified a TBK1 index patient presenting with a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome. Consecutively, we screened the whole-exome sequencing data of 439 index subjects presenting with various neurodegenerative syndromes outside the ALS-FTD spectrum for TBK1 mutations...
October 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987180/alzheimer-disease
#8
Ana Laura Calderon-Garcidueñas, Charles Duyckaerts
Alzheimer disease neuropathology is characterized by the extracellular accumulation of Aβ peptide and intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau. With the progression of the disease, macroscopic atrophy affects the entorhinal area and hippocampus, amygdala, and associative regions of the neocortex. The locus coeruleus is depigmented. The deposition of Aβ is first made of diffuse deposits. Amyloid focal deposits constitute the core of the senile plaque which also comprises a corona of tau-positive neurites...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965668/hemorrhagic-infarct-of-basal-ganglia-in-cardiac-arrest-ct-and-mri-findings-2-cases
#9
Monique Boukobza, Frédéric J Baud
We report the CT and MRI findings in two cases of hemorrhagic infarct of the basal ganglia (BG), following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA). In case 1, Brain-CT realized at day 2 showed bilateral and almost symmetric hemorrhagic infarct of the BG and infarct of the tectum of the mesencephalon. In case 2, MRI realized at day 6 showed hemorrhagic infarct of both lenticular nuclei on T2 GE images. In both cases there was no medical history and the cardiovascular and the coagulation profile were normal. In these cases, the lesions are observed earlier than reported in a few previous radiological cases...
September 21, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887076/microstructural-mechanisms-of-analgesia-in-percutaneous-cervical-cordotomy-revealed-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#10
Stephen S Gebarski, Srinivas Chiravuri, Bradley R Foerster, Parag G Patil
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to reveal structural mechanisms underlying spinal ablative procedures, including percutaneous radiofrequency cordotomy (PRFC). PRFC is a surgical procedure that produces analgesia through focal ablation of the lateral spinothalamic tract (STT), thereby interrupting the flow of pain information from the periphery to the brain. To date, studies regarding mechanisms of analgesia after PRFC have been limited to postmortem cadaveric dissection and histology...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883682/role-of-mri-in-diagnosis-of-ruptured-intracranial-dermoid-cyst
#11
Sefedin Muçaj, Mehmet Sahin Ugurel, Kreshnike Dedushi, Naser Ramadani, Naim Jerliu
INTRODUCTION: Intracranial dermoid cystic tumors account for <1% of all intracranial masses. CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old male, having headaches, nausea and is presented with a history of 2 episodes of new onset seizures. On presentation, the patient had a normal physical exam, including a complete neurological and cranial nerve exam. METHODS: Precontrast MRI; TSE/T2Wsequence in axial/coronal planes; 3D - HI-resolution T1W sagittal; FLAIR/T2W axial; FLAIR/T2W, Flash/T2W oblique coronal plane, GRE/T2W axial...
June 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867033/-recommendations-for-imaging-neonatal-ischemic-stroke
#12
B Husson, C Durand, L Hertz-Pannier
Neuroimaging is critical for the diagnosis of neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) and for prognosis estimation. The purpose of this work is to define guidelines of clinical neuroimaging for the diagnosis of NAIS, for the optimization of the imaging timing and for the assessment of the prognostic value of each imaging technique. A systematic search of electronic databases (Medline via Pubmed) for studies whose title and abstract were focused on NAIS has been conducted. One hundred and ten articles were selected and their results were analyzed by three Senior Practitioners of pediatric radiology using common methodology for guidelines elaboration within the group of experts gathered by Scientific Societies in the field...
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852390/putative-adult-neurogenesis-in-two-domestic-pigeon-breeds-columba-livia-domestica-racing-homer-versus-utility-carneau-pigeons
#13
Pedzisai Mazengenya, Adhil Bhagwandin, Pilani Nkomozepi, Paul R Manger, Amadi O Ihunwo
Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature and migrating neurons...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838911/anterior-mesencephalic-cap-dysplasia-novel-brain-stem-malformative-features-associated-with-joubert-syndrome
#14
F Arrigoni, R Romaniello, D Peruzzo, A De Luca, C Parazzini, E M Valente, R Borgatti, F Triulzi
In Joubert syndrome, the "molar tooth" sign can be associated with several additional supra- and infratentorial malformations. Here we report on 3 subjects (2 siblings, 8-14 years of age) with Joubert syndrome, showing an abnormal thick bulging of the anterior profile of the mesencephalon causing a complete obliteration of the interpeduncular fossa. DTI revealed that the abnormal tissue consisted of an ectopic white matter tract with a laterolateral transverse orientation. Tractographic reconstructions support the hypothesis of impaired axonal guidance mechanisms responsible for the malformation...
August 24, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830848/mri-and-clinical-features-of-maple-syrup-urine-disease-preliminary-results-in-10-cases
#15
Ailan Cheng, Lianshu Han, Yun Feng, Huimin Li, Rong Yao, Dengbin Wang, Biao Jin
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical features of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of 10 MSUD patients confirmed by genetic testing. All patients underwent brain MRI. Phenotype, genotype, and areas of brain injury on MRI were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Six patients (60%) had the classic form of MSUD with BCKDHB mutation, three patients (30%) had the intermittent form (two with BCKDHA mutations and one with DBT mutation), and one patient (10%) had the thiamine-responsive form with DBT mutation...
September 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805273/neurotoxicosis-in-horses-associated-with-consumption-of-trema-micrantha
#16
M P Lorenzett, P R Pereira, D M Bassuino, G Konradt, W Panziera, M V Bianchi, F F Argenta, M E Hammerschmitt, R A Caprioli, C S L de Barros, S P Pavarini, D Driemeier
BACKGROUND: Trema micrantha is a tree widely distributed throughout the Americas. The tree produces highly palatable leaves that have been associated with natural poisoning in goats, sheep and horses, in which hepatic necrosis and hepatic encephalopathy have been observed. OBJECTIVES: This study describes malacia and haemorrhage in the central nervous system (CNS) due to T. micrantha consumption, with minimal to absent hepatic lesions. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
August 14, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799057/expression-patterns-of-key-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-components-in-the-developing-and-adult-mouse-midbrain-and-in-the-mn9d-cell-line
#17
Melanie Feuerstein, Enaam Chleilat, Shokoufeh Khakipoor, Konstantinos Michailidis, Christian Ophoven, Eleni Roussa
The temporal dynamic expression of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and signaling during early midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuron development is one of the key players in establishing mDA progenitor diversity. However, whether SHH signaling is also required during later developmental stages and in mature mDA neurons is less understood. We study the expression of SHH receptors Ptch1 and Gas1 (growth arrest-specific 1) and of the transcription factors Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3 in mouse midbrain during embryonic development [embryonic day (E) 12...
November 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790019/neuronal-firing-activity-in-the-basal-ganglia-after-striatal-transplantation-of-dopamine-neurons-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#18
Regina Rumpel, Mesbah Alam, Lisa M Schwarz, Andreas Ratzka, Xingxing Jin, Joachim K Krauss, Claudia Grothe, Kerstin Schwabe
The loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the resulting dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum (STR) lead to altered neuronal activity and enhanced beta activity in various regions of the basal ganglia (BG) motor loop in patients with Parkinson's disease and in rodents in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model. Intrastriatal DA graft implantation has been shown to re-innervate the host brain and restore DA input. Here, DA cell grafts were implanted into the STR of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats and the effect on neuronal activity under urethane anesthesia (1...
September 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741401/trans-diagnostic-comparison-of-response-inhibition-in-tourette-s-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
Siyan Fan, Danielle C Cath, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Stella de Wit, Dick J Veltman, Odile A van den Heuvel
OBJECTIVES: Impaired response inhibition is related to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Unlike OCD, in which neural correlates of response inhibition have been extensively studied, TD literature is limited. By using a Stop-Signal task, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition deficits in TD compared to OCD and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Twenty-three TD patients, 20 OCD patients and 22 HCs were scanned (3T MRI)...
July 25, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733161/functional-determination-of-the-differentiation-potential-of-ventral-mesencephalic-neural-precursor-cells-during-dopaminergic-neurogenesis
#20
Gilda Guerrero-Flores, Aimée Bastidas-Ponce, Omar Collazo-Navarrete, Magdalena Guerra-Crespo, Luis Covarrubias
The ventral mesencephalic neural precursor cells (vmNPCs) that give rise to dopaminergic (DA) neurons have been identified by the expression of distinct genes (e.g., Lmx1a, Foxa2, Msx1/2). However, the commitment of these NPCs to the mesencephalic DA neuronal fate has not been functionally determined. Evaluation of the plasticity of vmNPCs suggests that their commitment occurs after E10.5. Here we show that E9.5 vmNPCs implanted in an ectopic area of E10.5 mesencephalic explants, retained their specification marker Lmx1a and efficiently differentiated into neurons but did not express the gene encoding tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), the limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis...
September 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
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