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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903864/spatio-temporal-neural-stem-cell-behavior-that-leads-to-both-perfect-and-imperfect-structural-brain-regeneration-in-adult-newts
#1
Yuko Urata, Wataru Yamashita, Takeshi Inoue, Kiyokazu Agata
Adult newts can regenerate large parts of their brain from adult neural stem cells (NSCs), but how adult NSCs reorganize brain structures during regeneration remains unclear. In development, elaborate brain structures are produced under broadly coordinated regulations of embryonic NSCs in the neural tube, whereas brain regeneration entails exquisite control of the reestablishment of certain brain parts, suggesting a yet-unknown mechanism directs NSCs upon partial brain excision. Here we report that upon one-quarter excision of the adult newt ( Pleurodeles waltl ) mesencephalon, active participation of local NSCs around specific brain subregions' boundaries leads to some imperfect and some perfect brain regeneration along an individual's rostrocaudal axis...
June 14, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871004/age-related-changes-and-reference-values-of-bicaudate-ratio-and-sagittal-brainstem-diameters-on-mri
#2
Sven F Garbade, Nikolas Boy, Jana Heringer, Stefan Kölker, Inga Harting
Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the diagnosis of neurometabolic diseases, and, in addition, temporal patterns of signal and volume changes allow insight into the underlying pathogenesis. While assessment of volume changes by visual inspection is subjective, volumetric approaches are often not feasible with rare neurometabolic diseases, where MRIs are often acquired with different scanners and protocols. Linear surrogate parameters of brain volume, for example, the bicaudate ratio, present a robust alternative that can be derived from standard imaging sequences...
June 5, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870652/a-case-with-reversible-neurotoxicity-induced-by-metronidazole
#3
Fulya Eren, Mehmet Ali Aldan, Vasfiye Burcu Dogan, Günay Gül, Hakan Hatem Selcuk, Aysun Soysal
Background - Metronidazole is a synthetic antibiotic, which has been commonly used for protozoal and anaerobic infections. It rarely causes dose - and duration - unrelated reversible neurotoxicity. It can induce hyperintense T2/FLAIR MRI lesions in several areas of the brain. Although the clinical status is catastrophic, it is completely reversible after discontinuation of the medicine. Case report - 36-year-old female patient who had recent brain abscess history was under treatment of metronidazole for 40 days...
November 30, 2017: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752575/expression-pattern-of-cdkl5-during-zebrafish-early-development-implications-for-use-as-model-for-atypical-rett-syndrome
#4
Marta Vitorino, Nídia Cunha, Natércia Conceição, M Leonor Cancela
Atypical Rett syndrome is a child neurodevelopmental disorder induced by mutations in CDKL5 gene and characterized by a progressive regression in development with loss of purposeful use of the hands, slowed brain and head growth, problems with walking, seizures, and intellectual disability. At the moment, there is no cure for this pathology and little information is available concerning animal models capable of mimicking its phenotypes, thus the development of additional animal models should be of interest to gain more knowledge about the disease...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701077/a-combination-of-nt-4-5-and-gdnf-is-favorable-for-cultured-human-nigral-neural-progenitor-cells
#5
Stefano Di Santo, Morten Meyer, Angélique D Ducray, Lukas Andereggen, Hans R Widmer
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, clinically manifested by cardinal motor symptoms including tremor at rest, bradykinesia, and muscle rigidity. Transplantation of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons is an experimental therapy for PD, however, it is limited by suboptimal integration and low survival of grafts. Pretreatment of donor tissue may offer a strategy to improve properties of transplanted DAergic neurons and thereby clinical outcome. We have previously shown that a combination of neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) demonstrated additive effects on rat ventral mesencephalic (VM) tissue...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696690/mesencephalic-dopamine-neurons-interfacing-the-shell-of-nucleus-accumbens-and-the-dorsolateral-striatum-in-the-rat
#6
Floris G Wouterlood, Angela Engel, Mariah Daal, Gertjan Houwen, Aileen Meinderts, Tomàs Jordà Siquier, Jeroen A M Beliën, Yvette C van Dongen, Jørgen Scheel-Krüger, Anne-Marie Thierry, Henk J Groenewegen, Jean-Michel Deniau
Parallel corticostriatonigral circuits have been proposed that separately process motor, cognitive, and emotional-motivational information. Functional integration requires that interactions exist between neurons participating in these circuits. This makes it imperative to study the complex anatomical substrate underlying corticostriatonigral circuits. It has previously been proposed that dopaminergic neurons in the ventral mesencephalon may play a role in this circuit interaction. Therefore, we studied in rats convergence of basal ganglia circuits by depositing an anterograde neuroanatomical tracer into the ventral striatum together with a retrograde fluorescent tracer ipsilaterally in the dorsolateral striatum...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681824/bilateral-ageusia-and-tongue-anesthesia-following-unilateral-brainstem-infarct-a-case-report-with-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#7
Christian Saleh, Simona Negoias, Franca Wagner, Marie-Luise Mono
We present the case of a 63-year-old male patient who suffered bilateral ageusia following a unilateral left-sided mesencephalon infarct. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a mesencephalon lesion leading to ageusia. We discuss the literature on this rare but important symptom following a stroke.
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673307/the-pathology-of-wobbly-hedgehog-syndrome
#8
Josué Díaz-Delgado, Derick B Whitley, Ralph W Storts, Jill J Heatley, Sharman Hoppes, Brian F Porter
Wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) is a leading cause of neurologic disease in African pygmy hedgehogs (APHs; Atelerix albiventris). This study describes the signalment, clinical signs, gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions of WHS in a cohort of 12 pet APHs. Microscopically, lesions consisted of status spongiosus of the white matter, typically bilateral and symmetrical, with myelin degeneration and loss that was accompanied by neuronal/axonal degeneration plus reactive microgliosis and mild, focal astrocytosis and astrogliosis...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666335/identification-molecular-characterization-and-analysis-of-the-expression-pattern-of-soxf-subgroup-genes-the-yellow-river-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#9
Tingting Liang, Yongfang Jia, Ruihua Zhang, Qiyan Du, Zhongjie Chang
Sox7, Sox17 and Sox18 are the members of the Sry-related high-mobility group box family (SoxF) of transcription factors. SoxF factors regulate endothelial cell fate as well as development and differentiation of blood cells and lymphatic vessels. There is very less information about the functions of these genes in fish. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequence of SoxF genes including Sox7, Sox17 and Sox18 in Cyprinus carpio, where Sox7 and Sox18 had two copies. The construction of a phylogenetic tree showed that these genes were homologous to the genes in other species...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649851/primary-malignant-melanoma-in-the-pineal-region-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Christopher Wendel, Denis Laurent Kaech, Martin Woodtli
BACKGROUND:  Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare type of primary central nervous system melanoma with only 19 cases reported in the literature. CASE REPORT:  We present a case of a 53-year-old man with primary melanoma of the pineal region. He presented to the emergency department with gait unsteadiness and ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 22 × 17 × 22-mm mass in the pineal region. On MRI the tumor was hyperintense in T1, isointense in T2, and on T1-weighted images with gadolinium enhancement it appeared homogeneously hyperintense with hypointense spots...
July 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599444/environmental-complexity-buffers-against-stress-induced-negative-judgement-bias-in-female-chickens
#11
Josefina Zidar, Irene Campderrich, Emelie Jansson, Anette Wichman, Svante Winberg, Linda Keeling, Hanne Løvlie
Cognitive processes are often biased by emotions. In humans, affective disorders are accompanied by pessimistic judgement, while optimistic judgement is linked to emotional stability. Similar to humans, animals tend to interpret ambiguous stimuli negatively after experiencing stressful events, although the long-lasting impact on judgement bias has rarely been investigated. We measure judgement bias in female chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) after exposure to cold stress, and before and after exposure to additional unpredictable stressors...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576980/the-right-thalamus-may-play-an-important-role-in-anesthesia-awakening-regulation-in-frogs
#12
Yanzhu Fan, Xizi Yue, Fei Xue, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Guangzhan Fang
Background: Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods: An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog ( Xenopus laevis ) was used in the present study...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559783/association-between-etiology-and-lesion-site-in-ischemic-brainstem-infarcts-a-retrospective-observational-study
#13
Gozde Baran, Tugce Ozdemir Gultekin, Oguz Baran, Cigdem Deniz, Salim Katar, Gulsen Babacan Yildiz, Talip Asil
Background and purpose: To assess the anatomical distribution of the ischemic strokes of the brainstem, the effect of anatomical distribution on clinical features and prognosis, and the association between etiology and anatomical involvement. Methods: A retrospective search of the patient database of our institution was performed for a total of 227 patients who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty of Bezmialem Vakif University between January 2012 and September 2014...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487507/putative-adult-neurogenesis-in-old-world-parrots-the-congo-african-grey-parrot-psittacus-erithacus-and-timneh-grey-parrot-psittacus-timneh
#14
Pedzisai Mazengenya, Adhil Bhagwandin, Paul R Manger, Amadi O Ihunwo
In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Timneh grey parrot ( Psittacus timneh ) using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX), which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486223/exposure-of-human-neurons-to-silver-nanoparticles-induces-similar-pattern-of-abc-transporters-gene-expression-as-differentiation-study-on-proliferating-and-post-mitotic-luhmes-cells
#15
M Zuberek, T M Stępkowski, M Kruszewski, A Grzelak
The Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cell line originated from mesencephalon of 8-week human foetus is a renowned in vitro model of human dopaminergic neurons. After differentiation the cells exhibit dopaminergic and neuronal characteristics of biochemically and morphologically mature dopamine-like neurons. In this study we analysed expression of 42 genes from ABC transporter superfamily in both proliferating cells and differentiated neurons after treatment with silver nanoparticles. ABC transporter superfamily is especially known due to the involvement in multidrug resistance phenomenon, but also involvement in transport through blood-brain barrier...
April 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468174/brain-atrophy-measures-in-preclinical-and-manifest-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2
#16
Kathrin Reetz, Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Imis Dogan, Shahram Mirzazade, Sandro Romanzetti, Jörg B Schulz, Edilia M Cruz-Rivas, Jose A Alvarez-Cuesta, Raul Aguilera Rodríguez, Yanetza Gonzalez Zaldivar, Georg Auburger, Luis Velázquez-Pérez
Objective: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease mainly affecting the cerebellum and brainstem. In this Cuban-German research collaboration, we aimed to characterize atrophy patterns and associations with clinical measures in preclinical and manifest SCA2. Methods: In this study, 16 nonmanifest SCA2 mutation carriers, 26 manifest patients with SCA2, and 18 healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging, as well as genetic and clinical characterization including assessment of ataxia (Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia) and saccade velocity in Cuba were enrolled...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457875/variations-of-the-circle-of-willis-at-the-end-of-the-human-embryonic-period
#17
Kana Furuichi, Aoi Ishikawa, Chigako Uwabe, Haruyuki Makishima, Shigehito Yamada, Tetsuya Takakuwa
Variations of the circle of Willis (CW) influence blood supply to the brain and adjacent structures in adults. We examined the formation of the CW in 20 human embryo samples at the end of the embryonic period using 3-D reconstructions of serial histological sections. The CW was closed in all samples, and did not form in a single plane, but was composed of multiple stair-like planes. The artery acutely curved at the caudal part of the CW, namely, at the inlet of the basilar artery and bifurcation of the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), reflecting flexure of the mesencephalon and diencephalon at this stage...
February 19, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387530/connectivity-derived-thalamic-segmentation-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-tremor
#18
Harith Akram, Viswas Dayal, Philipp Mahlknecht, Dejan Georgiev, Jonathan Hyam, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Enrico De Vita, Marjan Jahanshahi, John Ashburner, Tim Behrens, Marwan Hariz, Ludvic Zrinzo
The ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus is an established surgical target for stereotactic ablation and deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). It is centrally placed on a cerebello-thalamo-cortical network connecting the primary motor cortex, to the dentate nucleus of the contralateral cerebellum through the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRT). The VIM is not readily visible on conventional MR imaging, so identifying the surgical target traditionally involved indirect targeting that relies on atlas-defined coordinates...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374313/-importance-of-virchow-robin-spaces
#19
REVIEW
W Reith, A Haußmann
Virchow-Robin spaces are perivascular fluid-filled cavities that surround perforating arteries and veins in the brain parenchyma. As a rule in healthy people they are approximately 5 mm in diameter. Typical localizations are brainstem ganglia, mesencephalon and the white matter of the brain. Morphological imaging characteristics of Virchow-Robin spaces are round or tubular, smoothly bordered areas which are hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences. Virchow-Robin spaces represent a physiological structure in normal brain parenchyma...
February 2018: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363733/generation-of-specific-antisera-directed-against-d-amino-acids-focus-on-the-neuroanatomical-distribution-of-d-glutamate-and-other-d-amino-acids
#20
Rafael Coveñas, Arturo Mangas, Manuel Lisardo Sánchez, Diana Cadena, Marianne Husson, Michel Geffard
This review updates the findings about the anatomical distribution (using immunohistochemical techniques) and possible functions of D-glutamate in the central nervous system of mammals, as well as compares the distribution of D-glutamate with the distribution of the most studied D-amino acids: D-serine and D-aspartate. The protocol used to obtain highly specific antisera directed against D-amino acids is also reported. Immunoreactivity for D-glutamate was found in dendrites and cell bodies, but not in nerve fibers...
2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
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