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Dopamine neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150919/a-focus-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-alpha-synuclein-and-a-re-appraisal-of-synucleinopathies
#1
Larisa Ryskalin, Carla L Busceti, Fiona Limanaqi, Francesca Biagioni, Stefano Gambardella, Francesco Fornai
Alpha synuclein (α-syn) belongs to a class of proteins which are commonly considered to play a detrimental role in neuronal survival. This assumption is based on the occurrence of a severe neuronal degeneration in patients carrying a multiplication of the α-syn gene (SNCA) and in a variety of experimental models, where overexpression of α-syn leads to cell death and neurological impairment. In these conditions, a higher amount of normally structured α-syn produces a damage, which is even worse compared with that produced by α-syn owing an abnormal structure (as occurring following point gene mutations)...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150590/subtype-specific-effects-of-dopaminergic-d2-receptor-activation-on-synaptic-trains-in-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#2
Jonna M Leyrer-Jackson, Mark P Thomas
In humans, prefrontal cortical areas are known to support executive functions. In mice, these functions are mediated by homologous regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Executive processes are critically dependent on optimal levels of dopamine (DA), but the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation are incompletely understood. Stable patterns of neuronal activity may be sensitive to frequency-dependent changes in synaptic transmission. We characterized the effects of D2 receptor (D2R) activation on short-term excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) dynamics evoked at varying frequencies in the two subtypes of layer V pyramidal neurons in mouse mPFC We isolated NMDA receptor and non-NMDA receptor-mediated components of EPSP trains evoked by stimulating fibers within layer V or layer I...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149825/dopamine-agonists-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#3
Saba Khanam, Yasir Hasan Siddique
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta. Despite of many researches, there is still no cure for this disease. Levodopa is first line treatment of PD, but the long term use of it leads to motor impairments and dyskinesias. The dopamine agonists are the preferred choice for the treatment of PD. They are neuroprotective in nature but also have side effects. In this review, we highlighted the metabolism of dopamine, different types of dopamine agonists with their properties and possible side effects...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149481/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-amphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-fiber-degeneration-in-the-hippocampus-of-postnatal-rats
#4
Tanawan Leeboonngam, Ratchadaporn Pramong, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
Chronic amphetamine (AMPH) abuse leads to damage of the hippocampus, the brain area associated with learning and memory process. Previous results have shown that AMPH-induced dopamine neurotransmitter release, reactive oxygen species formation and degenerative protein aggregation lead to neuronal death. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, plays a role as a neuroprotective agent. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of melatonin on AMPH-induced hippocampal damage in the postnatal rat acts through the dopaminergic pathway...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145474/long-3-utr-of-nurr1-mrnas-is-targeted-by-mirnas-in-mesencephalic-dopamine-neurons
#5
Luis Alberto Pereira, Roberto Munita, Marcela Paz González, María Estela Andrés
The development of mesencephalic dopamine neurons and their survival later in life requires the continuous presence of the transcription factor Nurr1 (NR4A2). Nurr1 belongs to the nuclear receptors superfamily. However, it is an orphan member that does not require a ligand to regulate the transcription of its target genes. Therefore, controlling the expression of Nurr1 is an important manner to control its function. Several reports have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate Nurr1 expression. However, Nurr1 has several splicing variants, posing the question what variants are subjected to miRNA regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142341/in-house-preparation-and-quality-control-of-tc99m-trodat-1-for-diagnostic-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-computed-tomography-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Rakhee Vatsa, Jaya Shukla, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Apurva Sood, Raman Kumar Joshi, Kanchan Palarwal, Priya Bhusari, Manish Modi
Purpose of Study: Loss of dopamine neurons in the brain is a characteristic feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). TRODAT-1 is a tropane derivative that binds to dopamine transporter (DAT) receptors. It can be used for noninvasive in vivo imaging of DAT receptors leading to the early detection of PD. The present study aims to optimize the in-house radiolabeling of TRODAT-1 with Tc-99 m in hospital radiopharmacy set up along with performing single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging in patients with PD...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142291/resveratrol-modulates-cocaine-induced-inhibitory-synaptic-plasticity-in-vta-dopamine-neurons-by-inhibiting-phosphodiesterases-pdes
#7
Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Li Zhao, Fanxing Zeng, Qing-Song Liu
Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin synthesized by plants, including grapes. It displays a wide range of neuroprotective benefits associated with anti-aging. Recent studies have shown that resveratrol regulates dopaminergic transmission and behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether and how resveratrol alters basal inhibitory synaptic transmission and cocaine-induced inhibitory synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that resveratrol elevated cAMP levels by itself and further potentiated a forskolin-induced increase in cAMP levels in midbrain slices, consistent with reported effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141189/role-of-cyclooxygenase-inhibitors-in-diminution-of-dissimilar-stress-induced-depressive-behaviour-and-memory-impairment-in-rats
#8
Tahira Perveen, Shaista Emad, Saida Haider, Sana Sadaf, Sara Qadeer, Zehra Batool, Yousra Sarfaraz, Sheeza Sheikh
Memory functions can be considerably affected by various life events and stress has shown to be a chief regulator. Different stress patterns have distinct effects on the overall functioning of the brain. Stress provokes inflammation not only in the periphery but also in the brain. Neuroinflammation causes alterations in neuronal structure and function, which eventually progress to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Inflammatory reactions are modulated through communication between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems...
November 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139159/syntaxin1b-contributes-to-regulation-of-the-dopaminergic-system-through-gaba-transmission-in-the-cns
#9
Tomonori Fujiwara, Takefumi Kofuji, Tatsuya Mishima, Kimio Akagawa
In neuronal plasma membrane, two syntaxin isoforms, HPC-1/syntaxin1A (STX1A) and syntaxin1B (STX1B), are predominantly expressed as soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptors, also known as t-SNAREs. We previously reported that glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission is impaired in Stx1b null mutant (Stx1b(-/-) ) mice, but is almost normal in Stx1a null mutant (Stx1a(-/-) ) mice. These observations suggested that STX1A and STX1B have distinct functions in fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138117/melatonin-protects-against-behavioral-deficits-dopamine-loss-and-oxidative-stress-in-homocysteine-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Rajib Paul, Banashree Chetia Phukan, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Pallab Bhattacharya, Anupom Borah
AIM: Hyperhomocysteinemia and homocysteine (Hcy) mediated dopaminergic neurotoxicity is a matter of concern in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Our previous study established the involvement of oxidative stress in the substantia nigra (SN) of Hcy rat model of PD; however, the role of antioxidants, such as melatonin, was not tested in this model. MAIN METHODS: Melatonin (10, 20 and 30mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to rats injected with Hcy in right SN (1...
November 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137945/the-effects-of-local-microinjection-of-selective-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-into-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-on-sleep-and-wakefulness-in-the-rat
#11
Jaime M Monti, Héctor Jantos
The effects of the dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor agonists SKF38393, bromocriptine and quinpirole, respectively, on spontaneous sleep were analyzed in adult rats prepared for chronic sleep recordings. Local administration of the DAergic agonists into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) during the light phase of the light-dark cycle induced a significant reduction of rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) and the number of REM periods. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole significantly increased wakefulness (W)...
November 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137186/dopaminergic-dysfunction-in-mammalian-dopamine-neurons-induced-by-simazine-neurotoxicity
#12
Xueting Li, Jia Yu, Jianan Li, Yanping Wu, Baixiang Li
Many studies have shown that the pollutant simazine (6-chloro-N,N'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), which has been overused, inhibits the proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic cells, and affects the developmental differentiation of mammalian dopaminergic neurons. However, few studies have shown the effects of simazine on dopaminergic metabolism in these cells. Therefore, we aim to examine the metabolic effects of simazine exposure in mouse dopaminergic progenitor neurons (MN9D) at different exposure times...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134560/neurochemical-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-and-caffeine-after-chronic-combined-administration-in-mice
#13
Anna Maria Górska, Katarzyna Kamińska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargieła, Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Ryszard Przewłocki, Grzegorz Kreiner, Krystyna Gołembiowska
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a psychostimulant popular as a recreational drug because of its effect on mood and social interactions. MDMA acts at dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and is known to induce damage of dopamine and serotonin neurons. MDMA is often ingested with caffeine. Caffeine as a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist affects dopaminergic and serotonergic transmissions. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum induced by MDMA and caffeine after their chronic administration...
November 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133424/dopamine-reward-prediction-error-signal-codes-the-temporal-evaluation-of-a-perceptual-decision-report
#14
Stefania Sarno, Victor de Lafuente, Ranulfo Romo, Néstor Parga
Learning to associate unambiguous sensory cues with rewarded choices is known to be mediated by dopamine (DA) neurons. However, little is known about how these neurons behave when choices rely on uncertain reward-predicting stimuli. To study this issue we reanalyzed DA recordings from monkeys engaged in the detection of weak tactile stimuli delivered at random times and formulated a reinforcement learning model based on belief states. Specifically, we investigated how the firing activity of DA neurons should behave if they were coding the error in the prediction of the total future reward when animals made decisions relying on uncertain sensory and temporal information...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132545/nanoformulation-a-useful-therapeutic-strategy-for-improving-neuroprotection-and-the-neurorestorative-potential-in-experimental-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Jose V Lafuente, Catalina Requejo, Alejandro Carrasco, Harkaitz Bengoetxea
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder, but current therapies are only symptomatic. Experimental models are necessary to go deeper in the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanism and to assess new therapeutic strategies. The unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion either in medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or into the striatum in rats affords to study various stages of PD depending on the evolution time lapsed. A promising alternative to address the neurodegenerative process is the use of neurotrophic factors; but its clinical use has been limited due to its short half-life and rapid degradation after in vivo administration, along with difficulties for crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126889/impaired-glutamatergic-projection-from-the-motor-cortex-to-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned-hemi-parkinsonian-rats
#16
Yan-Yan Wang, Yong Wang, Hai-Fei Jiang, Jun-Hua Liu, Jun Jia, Ke Wang, Fei Zhao, Min-Hua Luo, Min-Min Luo, Xiao-Min Wang
The glutamatergic projection from the motor cortex to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitutes the cortico-basal ganglia circuit and plays a critical role in the control of movement. Emerging evidence shows that the cortico-STN pathway is susceptible to dopamine depletion. Specifically in Parkinson's disease (PD), abnormal electrophysiological activities were observed in the motor cortex and STN, while the STN serves as a key target of deep brain stimulation for PD therapy. However, direct morphological changes in the cortico-STN connectivity in response to PD progress are poorly understood at present...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126252/monoamines-in-glioblastoma-complex-biology-with-therapeutic-potential
#17
Seamus Patrick Caragher, Robert Raymond Hall, Riasat Ahsan, Atique U Ahmed
Glioblastoma (GBM) is characterized by extremely poor prognoses, despite the use of gross surgical resection, alkylating chemotherapeutic agents, and radiotherapy. Evidence increasingly highlights the role of the tumor microenvironment in enabling this aggressive phenotype. Despite this interest, the role of neurotransmitters, brain-specific messengers underlying synaptic transmission, remains murky. These signaling molecules influence a complex network of molecular pathways and cellular behaviors in many CNS-resident cells including neural stem cells and progenitor cells, neurons, and glia cells...
November 4, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125979/synaptic-plasticity-may-underlie-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#18
REVIEW
Anders Borgkvist, Ori J Lieberman, David Sulzer
l-DOPA provides highly effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, but l-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID) is a very debilitating response that eventually is presented by a majority of patients. A central issue in understanding the basis of LID is whether it is due to a response to chronic l-DOPA over years of therapy, and/or due to synaptic changes that follow the loss of dopaminergic neurotransmission and then triggered by acute l-DOPA administration. We review recent work that suggests that specific synaptic changes in the D1 dopamine receptor-expressing direct pathway striatal projection neurons due to loss of dopamine in Parkinson's disease are responsible for LID...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123477/the-effects-of-medium-spiny-neuron-morphologcial-changes-on-basal-ganglia-network-under-external-electric-field-a-computational-modeling-study
#19
Xiaohan Zhang, Shenquan Liu, Feibiao Zhan, Jing Wang, Xiaofang Jiang
The damage of dopaminergic neurons that innervate the striatum has been considered to be the proximate cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the dopamine-denervated state, the loss of dendritic spines and the decrease of dendritic length may prevent medium spiny neuron (MSN) from receiving too much excitatory stimuli from the cortex, thereby reducing the symptom of Parkinson's disease. However, the reduction in dendritic spine density obtained by different experiments is significantly different. We developed a biological-based network computational model to quantify the effect of dendritic spine loss and dendrites tree degeneration on basal ganglia (BG) signal regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121220/pathway-specific-control-of-striatal-neuron-vulnerability-by-corticostriatal-cannabinoid-cb1-receptors
#20
Andrea Ruiz-Calvo, Irene B Maroto, Raquel Bajo-Grañeras, Anna Chiarlone, Ángel Gaudioso, José J Ferrero, Eva Resel, José Sánchez-Prieto, José A Rodríguez-Navarro, Giovanni Marsicano, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Luigi Bellocchio, Manuel Guzmán
The vast majority of neurons within the striatum are GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which receive glutamatergic input from the cortex and thalamus, and form two major efferent pathways: the direct pathway, expressing dopamine D1 receptor (D1R-MSNs), and the indirect pathway, expressing dopamine D2 receptor (D2R-MSNs). While molecular mechanisms of MSN degeneration have been identified in animal models of striatal damage, the molecular factors that dictate a selective vulnerability of D1R-MSNs or D2R-MSNs remain unknown...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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