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Dopamine neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213070/selective-a2a-receptors-blockade-reduces-degeneration-of-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons-in-a-rotenone-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-histological-study
#1
Ahmed M Fathalla, Amira M Soliman, Ahmed A Moustafa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Adenosine is a neuromodulator that inhibit the release of dopamine via a disinhibitory mechanism. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and ZM241385 (respectively, A1 and A2A receptors antagonists), on nigrostriatal dopamine neurons degradation reduction in a rotenone-induced PD model using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212942/activation-of-type-4-dopaminergic-receptors-in-the-prelimbic-area-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-necessary-for-the-expression-of-innate-fear-behavior
#2
Macarena D Vergara, Victor N Keller, José A Fuentealba, Katia Gysling
The prelimbic area (PL) of the medial Prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in the acquisition and expression of conditioned and innate fear. Both types of fear share several neuronal pathways. It has been documented that dopamine (DA) plays an important role in the regulation of aversive memories in the mPFC. The exposure to an aversive stimulus, such as the smell of a predator odor or the exposure to footshock stress is accompanied by an increase in mPFC DA release. Evidence suggests that the type 4 dopaminergic receptor (D4R) is the molecular target through which DA modulates fear expression...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211999/platform-to-enable-combined-measurement-of-dopamine-and-neural-activity
#3
Kate L Parent, Daniel F Hill, Lindsey M Crown, Jean-Paul Wiegand, Kathleen F Gies, Michael A Miller, Christopher W Atcherley, Michael L Heien, Stephen L Cowen
Complex behaviors depend on the coordination of the activities of ensembles of neurons and the release of neuromodulators such as dopamine. The mechanisms underlying such coordination are not well-understood due to a lack of instrumentation for combined and real-time monitoring of neuromodulator release and the activities of large ensembles of neurons. Here we describe a measurement platform that allows for the combined monitoring of electrophysiology from a high-density electrode array and dopamine dynamics from a carbon-fiber microelectrode...
February 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209735/the-epac-phospholipase-c%C3%AE%C2%B5-pathway-regulates-endocannabinoid-signaling-and-cocaine-induced-disinhibition-of-vta-dopamine-neurons
#4
Jiaqing Tong, Xiaojie Liu, Casey Vickstrom, Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Youming Lu, Alan V Smrcka, Qing-Song Liu
Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) is a direct effector for the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. Epac activates the phospholipase Cε (PLCε) pathway. PLCβ has been linked to the synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Here, we report that Epac facilitates endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde synaptic depression through activation of PLCε. Intracellular loading of a selective Epac agonist 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP into ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons enabled previously ineffective stimuli to induce depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) and long-term depression of IPSCs (I-LTD) in the VTA...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208742/aav-vector-mediated-gene-delivery-to-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons-implications-for-gene-therapy-and-disease-models
#5
REVIEW
Katrina Albert, Merja H Voutilainen, Andrii Domanskyi, Mikko Airavaara
Gene delivery using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is a widely used method to transduce neurons in the brain, especially due to its safety, efficacy, and long-lasting expression. In addition, by varying AAV serotype, promotor, and titer, it is possible to affect the cell specificity of expression or the expression levels of the protein of interest. Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum, comprising the nigrostriatal pathway, are involved in movement control and degenerate in Parkinson's disease...
February 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206711/localization-patterns-of-dopamine-active-transporter-synthesizing-cells-during-development-of-brine-shrimp
#6
Bo Yong Kim, Gyeong Hee Shin, In Soo Lee, Suhng Wook Kim, Ho Seung Kim, Jin Kwan Kim, Seung Gwan Lee
There have been many studies on dopamine active transporter (DAT) in humans and laboratory animals; however, there is a lack of information on DAT in brine shrimp. In this study, we demonstrated the neuronal and nonneuronal characteristics of DAT-synthesizing (DAT(+) cells) during development of brine shrimp. In neuronal cells, the DAT(+) neurons in the central body and lobes of a protocerebrum (PC) controlled the deutocerebrum. The sensory cells of nauplius eyes projected their decussated axons to the PC, and the DAT(+) cells at the posterior region were associated with migration and control of the 10 posterior neurons during the early nauplius stage...
February 16, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204862/effect-of-constant-predictable-and-unpredictable-motor-tasks-on-motor-performance-and-blood-markers-of-stress
#7
Laura Kyguoliene, Albertas Skurvydas, Nerijus Eimantas, Neringa Baranauskienė, Dalia Mickeviciene, Daiva Urboniene, Margarita Cernych, Marius Brazaitis
An unfamiliar or novel physical stimulus induces activation of dopaminergic neurons within the brain and greater activity in areas involved in emotion; considering this, we aimed to establish whether unpredictable prolonged (fatiguing) motor task (vs. constant vs. predictable) evokes greater dopaminergic activity, enhances neuromuscular performance, motor accuracy, and perception of effort, and delays overall central fatigue. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (aged 22 ± 4 years) were required to perform 1 of 3 exercise trials (at least 1 week apart) of 100 intermittent isometric contraction (IIC) tasks involving knee extensions at 60° flexion...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203480/a-novel-immunosuppressor-5r-5-hydroxytriptolide-alleviates-movement-disorder-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-6-ohda-hemiparkinsonian-rat-model
#8
Ruijun Su, Min Sun, Wei Wang, Jianliang Zhang, Li Zhang, Junli Zhen, Yanjing Qian, Yan Zheng, Xiaomin Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Promising therapies for PD still need to be explored. Immune dysfunction has been found to be involved in PD pathogenesis. Here, a novel immunosuppressor, (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT8), was used to treat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinson rats. We found that oral administration of LLDT8 significantly alleviated apomorphine-induced rotations at a dose of 125 µg/kg, and improved performance in cylinder and rotarod tests at a lower dose of 31...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#9
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#10
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202786/dopamine-modulates-adaptive-prediction-error-coding-in-the-human-midbrain-and-striatum
#11
Kelly M J Diederen, Hisham Ziauddeen, Martin D Vestergaard, Tom Spencer, Wolfram Schultz, Paul C Fletcher
Learning to optimally predict rewards requires agents to account for fluctuations in reward value. Recent work suggests that individuals can efficiently learn about variable rewards through adaptation of the learning rate, and coding of prediction errors relative to reward variability. Such adaptive coding has been linked to midbrain dopamine neurons in nonhuman primates, and evidence in support for a similar role of the dopaminergic system in humans is emerging from fMRI data. Here, we sought to investigate the effect of dopaminergic perturbations on adaptive prediction error coding in humans, using a between-subject, placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI study with a dopaminergic agonist (bromocriptine) and antagonist (sulpiride)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197685/test-retest-measurements-of-dopamine-d1-type-receptors-using-simultaneous-pet-mri-imaging
#12
Simon Kaller, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Georg-Alexander Becker, Julia Luthardt, Johanna Girbardt, Philipp M Meyer, Peter Werner, Henryk Barthel, Anke Bresch, Thomas H Fritz, Swen Hesse, Osama Sabri
PURPOSE: The role of dopamine D1-type receptor (D1R)-expressing neurons in the regulation of motivated behavior and reward prediction has not yet been fully established. As a prerequisite for future research assessing D1-mediated neuronal network regulation using simultaneous PET/MRI and D1R-selective [(11)C]SCH23390, this study investigated the stability of central D1R measurements between two independent PET/MRI sessions under baseline conditions. METHODS: Thirteen healthy volunteers (7 female, age 33 ± 13 yrs) underwent 90-min emission scans, each after 90-s bolus injection of 486 ± 16 MBq [(11)C]SCH23390, on two separate days within 2-4 weeks using a PET/MRI system...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197194/cortical-regulation-of-striatal-projection-neurons-and-interneurons-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-rat-model
#13
Jia-Jia Wu, Si Chen, Li-Si Ouyang, Yu Jia, Bing-Bing Liu, Shu-Hua Mu, Yu-Xin Ma, Wei-Ping Wang, Jia-You Wei, You-Lan Li, Zhi Chen, Wan-Long Lei
Striatal neurons can be either projection neurons or interneurons, with each type exhibiting distinct susceptibility to various types of brain damage. In this study, 6-hydroxydopamine was injected into the right medial forebrain bundle to induce dopamine depletion, and/or ibotenic acid was injected into the M1 cortex to induce motor cortex lesions. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assay showed that dopaminergic depletion results in significant loss of striatal projection neurons marked by dopamine- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, molecular weight 32 kDa, calbindin, and μ-opioid receptor, while cortical lesions reversed these pathological changes...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197125/rna-interference-of-human-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-mouse
#14
Young-Cho Kim, Adam Miller, Livia C R F Lins, Sang-Woo Han, Megan S Keiser, Ryan L Boudreau, Beverly L Davidson, Nandakumar S Narayanan
α-Synuclein is postulated to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Aggregates of α-synuclein contribute to neurodegeneration and cell death in humans and in mouse models of PD. Here, we use virally mediated RNA interference to knockdown human α-synuclein in mice. We used an siRNA design algorithm to identify eight siRNA sequences with minimal off-targeting potential. One RNA-interference sequence (miSyn4) showed maximal protein knockdown potential in vitro. We then designed AAV vectors expressing miSyn4 and injected them into the mouse substantia nigra...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194005/genetic-inhibition-of-neurotransmission-reveals-role-of-glutamatergic-input-to-dopamine-neurons-in-high-effort-behavior
#15
M A Hutchison, X Gu, M F Adrover, M R Lee, T S Hnasko, V A Alvarez, W Lu
Midbrain dopamine neurons are crucial for many behavioral and cognitive functions. As the major excitatory input, glutamatergic afferents are important for control of the activity and plasticity of dopamine neurons. However, the role of glutamatergic input as a whole onto dopamine neurons remains unclear. Here we developed a mouse line in which glutamatergic inputs onto dopamine neurons are specifically impaired, and utilized this genetic model to directly test the role of glutamatergic inputs in dopamine-related functions...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193889/multiple-scale-neuroendocrine-signals-connect-brain-and-pituitary-hormone-rhythms
#16
Nicola Romanò, Anne Guillou, David J Hodson, Agnès O Martin, Patrice Mollard
Small assemblies of hypothalamic "parvocellular" neurons release their neuroendocrine signals at the median eminence (ME) to control long-lasting pituitary hormone rhythms essential for homeostasis. How such rapid hypothalamic neurotransmission leads to slowly evolving hormonal signals remains unknown. Here, we show that the temporal organization of dopamine (DA) release events in freely behaving animals relies on a set of characteristic features that are adapted to the dynamic dopaminergic control of pituitary prolactin secretion, a key reproductive hormone...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193887/tmem175-deficiency-impairs-lysosomal-and-mitochondrial-function-and-increases-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation
#17
Sarah Jinn, Robert E Drolet, Paige E Cramer, Andus Hon-Kit Wong, Dawn M Toolan, Cheryl A Gretzula, Bhavya Voleti, Galya Vassileva, Jyoti Disa, Marija Tadin-Strapps, David J Stone
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss and the postmortem presence of Lewy bodies, depositions of insoluble α-synuclein, and other proteins that likely contribute to cellular toxicity and death during the disease. Genetic and biochemical studies have implicated impaired lysosomal and mitochondrial function in the pathogenesis of PD. Transmembrane protein 175 (TMEM175), the lysosomal K(+) channel, is centered under a major genome-wide association studies peak for PD, making it a potential candidate risk factor for the disease...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192111/effects-of-progesterone-administered-after-mptp-on-dopaminergic-neurons-of-male-mice
#18
Nadhir Litim, Marc Morissette, Thérèse Di Paolo
Progesterone neuroprotection of striatal dopamine (DA) in male mice lesioned with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was previously reported when administered before MPTP or an hour after. A dose of MPTP to induce a partial lesion was used to model early stages or prodromal Parkinson. We hypothesized that brain DA can be restored by progesterone administered early (24 h) or later (5 days) after MPTP. Male mice received 4 injections of MPTP (8 mg/kg) and progesterone (8 mg/kg) once daily for 5 days started 24 h or 5 days after MPTP...
February 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190476/neuroprotective-properties-of-icariin-in-mptp-induced-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-involvement-of-pi3k-akt-and-mek-erk-signaling-pathways
#19
Wen-Fang Chen, Lin Wu, Zhong-Rui Du, Lei Chen, Ai-Li Xu, Xiao-Han Chen, Ji-Jun Teng, Man-Sau Wong
BACKGROUND: Epimedium sagittatum is a traditional Chinese herb normally which is used to treat the osteoporosis, cardiovascular dysfunction, and to improve neurological and sexual function in China, Korea and Japan. Icariin is the major active ingredient in Epimedium sagittatum. In the present research, we examined the neuroprotective effects of icariin on dopaminergic neurons and the possible mechanisms in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Ovariectomized PD mice were treated with vehicle or icariin (3 days before MPTP injections) with or without the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190402/preserving-brain-function-in-a-comatose-patient-with-septic-hyperpyrexia-41-6%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-a-case-report
#20
Samantha Sterkel, Akinboyede Akinyemi, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez, George Michel
BACKGROUND: Pyrexia is a physiological response through which the immune system responds to infectious processes. Hyperpyrexia is known to be neurodegenerative leading to brain damage. Some of the neurotoxic effects of hyperpyrexia on the brain include seizures, decreased cognitive speed, mental status changes, coma, and even death. In the clinical management of hyperpyrexia, the goal is to treat the underlying cause of elevated temperature and prevent end organ damage. CASE PRESENTATION: This case illustrates a 39-year-old white American man referred from another medical facility where he had undergone an upper gastrointestinal tract diagnostic procedure which became complicated by blood aspiration and respiratory distress...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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