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Dopamine neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319198/methamphetamine-induces-shati-nat8l-expression-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens-via-creb-and-dopamine-d1-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#1
Kyosuke Uno, Toh Miyazaki, Kengo Sodeyama, Yoshiaki Miyamoto, Atsumi Nitta
Shati/Nat8L significantly increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice after repeated methamphetamine (METH) treatment. We reported that Shati/Nat8L overexpression in mouse NAc attenuated METH-induced hyperlocomotion, locomotor sensitization, and conditioned place preference. We recently found that Shati/Nat8L overexpression in NAc regulates the dopaminergic neuronal system via the activation of group II mGluRs by elevated N-acetylaspartylglutamate following N-acetylaspartate increase due to the overexpression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315693/central-glp-1-receptor-activation-modulates-cocaine-evoked-phasic-dopamine-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#2
Samantha M Fortin, Mitchell F Roitman
Drugs of abuse increase the frequency and magnitude of brief (1-3s), high concentration (phasic) dopamine release events in terminal regions. These are thought to be a critical part of drug reinforcement and ultimately the development of addiction. Recently, metabolic regulatory peptides, including the satiety signal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been shown to modulate cocaine reward-driven behavior and sustained dopamine levels after cocaine administration. Here, we use fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to explore GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) modulation of dynamic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during cocaine administration...
March 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315292/hypoxic-culture-promotes-dopaminergic-neuronal-differentiation-of-nasal-olfactory-mucosa-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-up-regulation-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE
#3
Yi Zhuo, Lei Wang, Lite Ge, Xuan Li, Ping Chen, Da Duan, Xiaohua Teng, Miao Jiang, Kai Liu, Ting Yuan, Pei Wu, Hao Wang, Yujia Deng, Huali Xie, Ying Xia, Ming Lu
<p><b>Background</b> Olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) display significant clonogenicactivity and may be easily propagated for Parkinson's disease therapies. Methods of inducing OM-MSCs to differentiate into dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons using olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) is thus an attractive topic of research.</p><p><b>Methods</b> We designed a hypoxic-induction protocol to generate DAergic neurons from OM-MSCs using a physiological oxygen (O2) level of 3% and OEC-conditioned medium (HI group)...
March 17, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314129/crack-cocaine-inhalation-induces-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-and-molecular-alterations-in-mice-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Lorena Bianchine Areal, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires
Crack cocaine (crack) addiction represents a major social and health burden, especially seeing as users are more prone to engage in criminal and violent acts. Crack users show a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities - particularly antisocial personality disorders - when compared to powder cocaine users. They also develop cognitive deficits related mainly to executive functions, including working memory. It is noteworthy that stimulant drugs can induce psychotic states, which appear to mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia among users...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303496/three-types-of-a11-neurons-project-to-the-rat-spinal-cord
#5
Hidechika Ozawa, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Shinsuke Hamaguchi, Shigeki Yamaguchi, Shuichi Ueda
The A11 dopaminergic cell group is the only group among the A8-A16 dopaminergic cell groups that includes neurons innervating the spinal cord, and a decrease in dopaminergic transmission at the spinal cord is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome. However, the mechanisms regulating the neuronal activity of A11 dopaminergic neurons remain to be elucidated. Unraveling the neuronal composition, distribution and connectivity of A11 neurons would provide insights into the mechanisms regulating the spinal dopaminergic system...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303403/hypocretin-orexin-and-plastic-adaptations-associated-with-drug-abuse
#6
Corey Baimel, Stephanie L Borgland
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are a critical part of the neural circuits that underlie reward learning and motivation. Dopamine neurons send dense projections throughout the brain and recent observations suggest that both the intrinsic properties and the functional output of dopamine neurons are dependent on projection target and are subject to neuromodulatory influences. Lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (also termed orexin) neurons project to the VTA and contain both hypocretin and dynorphin peptides in the same dense core vesicles suggesting they may be co-released...
March 17, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303260/evidence-for-an-additive-neurorestorative-effect-of-simultaneously-administered-cdnf-and-gdnf-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats-implications-for-different-mechanism-of-action
#7
Merja H Voutilainen, Francesca De Lorenzo, Polina Stepanova, Susanne Bäck, Li-Ying Yu, Päivi Lindholm, Eeva Pörsti, Mart Saarma, Pekka T Männistö, Raimo K Tuominen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and the accumulation of intracellular inclusions containing α-synuclein. Current therapies do not stop the progression of the disease, and the efficacy of these treatments wanes over time. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are naturally occurring proteins promoting the survival and differentiation of neurons and the maintenance of neuronal contacts. CDNF (cerebral dopamine NTF) and GDNF (glial cell line-derived NTF) are able to protect DAergic neurons against toxin-induced degeneration in experimental models of PD...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301599/exploring-the-role-of-locomotor-sensitization-in-the-circadian-food-entrainment-pathway
#8
Hanna Opiol, Nuria de Zavalia, Tara Delorme, Pavel Solis, Spencer Rutherford, Uri Shalev, Shimon Amir
Food entrainment is the internal mechanism whereby the phase and period of circadian clock genes comes under the control of daily scheduled food availability. Food entrainment allows the body to efficiently realign the internal timing of behavioral and physiological functions such that they anticipate food intake. Food entrainment can occur with or without caloric restriction, as seen with daily schedules of restricted feeding (RF) or restricted treat (RT) that restrict food or treat intake to a single feeding time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301188/effects-of-inference-on-dopaminergic-prediction-errors-depend-on-orbitofrontal-processing
#9
Yuji K Takahashi, Thomas A Stalnaker, Matthew R Roesch, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Dopaminergic reward prediction errors in monkeys reflect inferential reward predictions that well-trained animals can make when associative rules change. Here, in a new analysis of previously described data, we test whether dopaminergic error signals in rats are influenced by inferential predictions and whether such effects depend on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Dopamine neurons were recorded from controls or rats with ipsilateral OFC lesions during performance of a choice task in which odor cues signaled the availability of sucrose reward in 2 wells...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298165/high-throughput-patch-clamp-screening-in-human-%C3%AE-6-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#10
Lucas C Armstrong, Glenn E Kirsch, Nikolai B Fedorov, Caiyun Wu, Yuri A Kuryshev, Abby L Sewell, Zhiqi Liu, Arianne L Motter, Carmine S Leggett, Michael S Orr
Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco products, is an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The subtypes of nAChR are defined by their α- and β-subunit composition. The α6β2β3 nAChR subtype is expressed in terminals of dopaminergic neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens and striatum and modulate dopamine release in brain regions involved in nicotine addiction. Although subtype-dependent selectivity of nicotine is well documented, subtype-selective profiles of other tobacco product constituents are largely unknown and could be essential for understanding the addiction-related neurological effects of tobacco products...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297663/disrupting-glutamate-co-transmission-does-not-affect-acquisition-of-conditioned-behavior-reinforced-by-dopamine-neuron-activation
#11
Dong V Wang, Thomas Viereckel, Vivien Zell, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Carl J Broker, Aleksandr Talishinsky, Ji Hoon Yoo, Melissa H Galinato, Emma Arvidsson, Andrew J Kesner, Thomas S Hnasko, Åsa Wallén-Mackenzie, Satoshi Ikemoto
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were previously found to express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and to co-transmit glutamate in the ventral striatum (VStr). This capacity may play an important role in reinforcement learning. Although it is known that activation of the VTA-VStr dopamine system readily reinforces behavior, little is known about the role of glutamate co-transmission in such reinforcement. By combining electrode recording and optogenetics, we found that stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons in vivo evoked fast excitatory responses in many VStr neurons of adult mice...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297587/efficiently-specified-ventral-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-under-xeno-free-conditions-restore-motor-deficits-in-parkinsonian-rodents
#12
Jonathan C Niclis, Carlos W Gantner, Walaa F Alsanie, Stuart J McDougall, Chris R Bye, Andrew G Elefanty, Edouard G Stanley, John M Haynes, Colin W Pouton, Lachlan H Thompson, Clare L Parish
Recent studies have shown evidence for the functional integration of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived ventral midbrain dopamine (vmDA) neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Although these cells present a sustainable alternative to fetal mesencephalic grafts, a number of hurdles require attention prior to clinical translation. These include the persistent use of xenogeneic reagents and challenges associated with scalability and storage of differentiated cells. In this study, we describe the first fully defined feeder- and xenogeneic-free protocol for the generation of vmDA neurons from hPSCs and utilize two novel reporter knock-in lines (LMX1A-eGFP and PITX3-eGFP) for in-depth in vitro and in vivo tracking...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294334/comparative-assessment-of-6-18-f-fluoro-l-m-tyrosine-and-6-18-f-fluoro-l-dopa-to-evaluate-dopaminergic-presynaptic-integrity-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-rat-model
#13
REVIEW
Guillaume Becker, Bahri Mohamed Ali, Anne Michel, Fabian Hustadt, Gaëtan Garraux, André Luxen, Christian Lemaire, Alain Plenevaux
Because of the progressive loss of nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals in Parkinson's disease (PD), in vivo quantitative imaging of dopamine (DA) containing neurons in animal models of PD is of critical importance in the pre-clinical evaluation of highly awaited disease-modifying therapies. Among existing methods, the high sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) is attractive to achieve that goal. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative comparison of brain images obtained in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats using two dopaminergic PET radiotracers, namely [(18) F]fluoro-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine ([(18) F]FDOPA) and 6-[(18) F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine ([(18) F]FMT)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294190/active-and-passive-sexual-roles-that-arise-in-drosophila-male-male-courtship-are-modulated-by-dopamine-levels-in-ppl2ab-neurons
#14
Shiu-Ling Chen, Yu-Hui Chen, Chuan-Chan Wang, Yhu-Wei Yu, Yu-Chen Tsai, Hsiao-Wen Hsu, Chia-Lin Wu, Pei-Yu Wang, Lien-Cheng Chen, Tsuo-Hung Lan, Tsai-Feng Fu
The neurology of male sexuality has been poorly studied owing to difficulties in studying brain circuitry in humans. Dopamine (DA) is essential for both physiological and behavioural responses, including the regulation of sexuality. Previous studies have revealed that alterations in DA synthesis in dopaminergic neurons can induce male-male courtship behaviour, while increasing DA levels in the protocerebral posteriolateral dopaminergic cluster neuron 2ab (PPL2ab) may enhance the intensity of male courtship sustainment in Drosophila...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293733/type-a-monoamine-oxidase-and-serotonin-are-coordinately-involved-in-depressive-disorders-from-neurotransmitter-imbalance-to-impaired-neurogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Makoto Naoi, Wakako Maruyama, Masayo Shamoto-Nagai
Type A monoamine oxidase (MAOA) catabolizes monoamine transmitters, serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, and plays a major role in the onset, progression and therapy of neuropsychiatric disorders. In depressive disorders, increase in MAOA expression and decrease in brain levels of serotonin and norepinephrine are proposed as the major pathogenic factors. The functional polymorphism of MAOA gene and genes in serotonin signal pathway are associated with depression. This review presents recent advance in studies on the role of MAOA in major depressive disorder and related emotional disorders...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292328/age-dependent-dopamine-transporter-dysfunction-and-serine129-phospho-%C3%AE-synuclein-overload-in-g2019s-lrrk2-mice
#16
Francesco Longo, Daniela Mercatelli, Salvatore Novello, Ludovico Arcuri, Alberto Brugnoli, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Isabella Russo, Giulia Berti, Omar S Mabrouk, Robert T Kennedy, Derya R Shimshek, Katia Varani, Luigi Bubacco, Elisa Greggio, Michele Morari
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigated whether the G2019S LRRK2 mutation causes morphological and/or functional changes at nigro-striatal dopamine neurons. Density of striatal dopaminergic terminals, nigral cell counts, tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels as well as exocytotic dopamine release measured in striatal synaptosomes, or striatal extracellular dopamine levels monitored by in vivo microdialysis were similar between ≥12-month-old G2019S knock-in mice and wild-type controls...
March 14, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290146/cyclooxygenase-2-directs-microglial-activation-mediated-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-leading-to-intrinsic-apoptosis-in-zn-induced-parkinsonism
#17
Amit Kumar Chauhan, Namrata Mittra, Devendra Kumar Patel, Chetna Singh
Inflammation is decisive in zinc (Zn)-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration; however, the contribution of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is not yet known. The present study aimed to explore the role of COX-2 in Zn-induced Parkinsonism and its association with the microglial activation. Male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Zn as zinc sulphate (20 mg/kg) along with respective controls for 2-12 weeks. In a few sets, animals were also treated with/without celecoxcib (CXB, 20 mg/kg, i...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289796/-neurobiological-foundations-underlying-normal-and-disturbed-sexuality
#18
T H C Krüger, J Kneer
BACKGROUND: Sexual functions are regulated by hormonal and neurochemical factors as well as neuronal networks. An understanding of these basic principles is necessary for the diagnostics, counselling and treatment of sexual problems. OBJECTIVE: Description of essential mechanisms of sexual function on a neurochemical and neuronal level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature search, selection and discussion of relevant studies. RESULTS: Analogous to the dual control model there are primary inhibitory (e...
March 13, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289129/helios-expression-coordinates-the-development-of-a-subset-of-striatopallidal-medium-spiny-neurons
#19
Raquel Martín-Ibáñez, Mónica Pardo, Albert Giralt, Andrés Miguez, Inés Guardia, Lucile Marion-Poll, Cristina Herranz, Miriam Esgleas, Gerardo Garcia-Díaz Barriga, Michael J Edel, Carlos Vicario-Abejón, Jordi Alberch, Jean-Antoine Girault, Susan Chan, Philippe Kastner, Josep M Canals
Here we unravel the mechanism of action of Helios (He) during the development of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). He regulates the second wave of striatal neurogenesis involved in the generation of striatopallidal neurons that express dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and enkephalin (ENK). To exert this effect He is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) retaining them into the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. Thus, the lack of He produces an increase of S-phase entry and S-phase length of NPCs which in turn impairs striatal neurogenesis and produces an accumulation of the number of cycling NPCs in the germinal zone (GZ) that end up dying at postnatal stages...
March 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288863/toluene-s-effects-on-activity-and-extracellular-dopamine-in-the-mouse-are-altered-by-gabaa-antagonism
#20
Sean P Callan, Aaron K Apawu, Tiffany A Mathews, Scott E Bowen
The abuse of inhalants like toluene continues to be widespread around the world, especially among children and teenagers. Despite its frequency of misuse, the dynamics between dopamine (DA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in response to toluene exposure remains unclear. To further decipher toluene's actions, we used a dynamic exposure system in combination with microdialysis to examine in vivo the effects of acutely inhaled toluene on DA release within the mouse caudate putamen (CPu). Results show that toluene inhalation produced increases in DA levels and locomotor activity...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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