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Pediatric Tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757395/genotyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-to-identify-tuberculosis-transmission-to-pediatric-patients-in-british-columbia-canada-2005-2014
#1
Jennifer L Guthrie, Andy Delli Pizzi, David Roth, Clare Kong, Danielle Jorgensen, Mabel Rodrigues, Patrick Tang, Victoria J Cook, James Johnston, Jennifer L Gardy
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is often an indicator of recent transmission. Genotyping and whole genome sequencing (WGS) can enhance pediatric TB investigations by confirming or refuting transmission events. Methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all pediatric patients <18 years with culture-confirmed TB in British Columbia (BC) from 2005-2014 (n=49) were genotyped by MIRU-VNTR and compared to adult isolates. Genotypically clustered cases underwent WGS...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756725/-tuberculosis-by-multiresistant-mycobacterium-africanum-pediatric-clinical-case
#2
Júlia Morata Alba, Paloma Beltrán Catalá, Nelson Orta Sibú
Tuberculosis, considered since 2003 by the World Health Organization a global health emergency, causes annual mortality of approximately 2 million people, mainly in developing countries. In the Spanish pediatric population, the incidence is 5 cases/100 000 children between 5 and 14 years and 13 cases/100 000 children between 0 and 4 years. The infection is transmitted through the respiratory tract by baciliferous patients. Children eliminate few bacilli in respiratory secretions and do not usually transmit the infection...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750764/linezolid-containing-treatment-regimens-for-tuberculosis-in-children
#3
Luis M Prieto, Begoña Santiago, Teresa Del Rosal, Begoña Carazo, Ana B Jiménez, Beatriz Pérez-Gorricho, Felipe Rubio, Alfredo Tagarro, Daniel Blázquez, David Moreno-Pérez, María J Mellado, Fernando Baquero-Artigao
BACKGROUND: In recent years there is an increasing interest in the use of linezolid for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Patients under 18 years of age who received linezolid within the Spanish Pediatric TB Network (pTBred) from 2001 to 2016 were retrospectively included. Treatment characteristics, adverse events (AEs) and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifteen children were included (53% male) with a median age of 3.6 years (IQR: 1...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742052/clinical-and-drug-resistance-characteristics-of-new-pediatric-tuberculosis-cases-in-northern-china
#4
Ting Wang, Fang Dong, Qin-Jing Li, Qing-Qin Yin, Wen-Qi Song, Igor Mokrousov, Wei-Wei Jiao, A-Dong Shen
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and characteristics of drug resistance in newly diagnosed pediatric tuberculosis (TB) patients in northern China. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from September 2010 to October 2016 at the Beijing Children's Hospital. Patients were divided into two groups (resistant to at least one drug and pan-susceptible) according to drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. RESULTS: A total of 132 new cases, mainly from northern China (87...
May 9, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726024/impact-of-nursing-interventions-on-adherence-to-treatment-with-antituberculosis-drugs-in-children-and-young-people-a-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Eva Maria Guix-Comellas, Librada Rozas-Quesada, Eneritz Velasco-Arnaiz, Ariadna Ferres-Canals, Joan Maria Estrada-Masllorens, Enriqueta Force-Sanmartín, Antoni Noguera-Julian
AIM: To evaluate the association of a new nursing intervention on the adherence to antituberculosis treatment in a pediatric cohort (<18 years). BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a public health problem worldwide. The risk of developing tuberculosis after primary infection and its severity are higher in children. Proper adherence to antituberculosis treatment is critical for disease control. DESIGN: Non-randomized controlled trial; Phase 1, retrospective (2011-2013), compared with Phase 2, prospective with intervention (2015-2016), in a referral center for pediatric tuberculosis in Spain (NCT03230409)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697077/surgical-management-of-stage-iii-pediatric-empyema-thoracis
#6
Aditya Pratap Singh, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Pramila Sharma, Jyotsna Shukla
Aim and Objective: This study aims to report 100 pediatric patients of empyema thoracis treated by open decortication, highlighting the presentation, delay in referral, operative findings, the response to surgical intervention, and follow-up. Materials and Methods: All the children who underwent open decortication for stage III empyema thoracis during the study period January 2015-December 2016 were included. Preoperative workup included hemogram, serum protein, chest radiographs, and contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CECT) scan of the chest...
May 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665951/statistical-considerations-for-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-efficacy-trials
#7
S Kim, J A Seddon, A J Garcia-Prats, G Montepiedra
The inclusion of newly licensed or repurposed drugs in regimens to treat children for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) may lead to treatment that is shorter than traditional regimens and composed only of oral medications. As an all-oral regimen may be more acceptable and have a better safety profile than current regimens, demonstrating non-inferiority may be satisfactory. Demonstrating non-inferior efficacy requires setting a non-inferiority margin and safeguarding study assay sensitivity. Multi-arm, multistage designs may currently not be appropriate in pediatric trials because of the lack of sensitive and specific intermediate outcomes...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665948/preclinical-tools-for-the-evaluation-of-tuberculosis-treatment-regimens-for-children
#8
E W Tucker, K E Dooley
Tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens have been extrapolated from adults to children. However, pediatric disease merits different treatment strategies to avoid under- or over-treatment. While animal models have been pivotal in identifying effective regimens for adult disease, pediatric TB is heterogeneous and cannot be represented by a single preclinical model. Infants and young children most commonly have disseminated disease or tuberculous meningitis (TBM), school-aged children have paucibacillary disease, and adolescents have adult-like cavitary lung disease...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665947/the-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#9
H E Jenkins, C M Yuen
BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has historically been neglected, although in recent years there has been increased focus on this problem. In particular, there have been two efforts to estimate the burden of pediatric multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). METHODS: We review current estimates of the global incidence of pediatric MDR-TB disease. We then combine pediatric MDR-TB treatment data from the World Health Organization and recently published case fatality ratio estimates for children with TB to produce mortality estimates for children with MDR-TB...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642833/-management-and-treatment-difficulties-of-multi-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-pediatric-case
#10
Selda Hançerli Törün, Emine Manolya Acar, Ayper Somer, Gonca Erköse, Dilek Şatana, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Zeki Kılıçaslan
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617007/pediatric-tuberculosis-detection-using-trained-african-giant-pouched-rats
#11
Georgies F Mgode, Christophe L Cox, Stephen Mwimanzi, Christiaan Mulder
BackgroundTuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in children is a challenge with up to 94% of children with TB treated empirically in TB high-burden countries. Therefore, new diagnostic tests are needed for TB diagnosis. We determined the performance of trained rats in the diagnosis of pediatric TB and whether they can improve detection rate compared to the standard of care.MethodsPresumptive TB patients in 24 TB clinics in Tanzania were tested. Samples indicated as TB-positive by rats underwent confirmation by concentrated smear microscopy...
April 4, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605210/a-review-of-the-etiology-and-clinical-presentation-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-tertiary-care-experience
#12
Ozlem Satırer, Ayse Mete Yesil, Nagehan Emiralioglu, Gökcen Dilsa Tugcu, Ebru Yalcın, Deniz Dogru, Nural Kiper, Ugur Ozcelik
INTRODUCTION: Non-cystic fibrosis(CF) bronchiectasis has been recognized in children for the past 200 years. Early childhood pneumonia and underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency, primary ciliary dyskinesia(PCD), and congenital lung pathology should be considered in the etiology. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory, and radiological findings of a large population of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis at a tertiary center. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical findings of 187 patients diagnosed with non-CF bronchiectasis over a period of 10 years (January 2005-December 2015) at the Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Pulmonology...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596221/increasing-prevalence-of-pediatric-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-mumbai-india-and-its-outcome
#13
Miti A Shah, Ira Shah
SETTING: B.J.Wadia Hospital,Mumbai OBJECTIVE:: The prevalence and type of DR-TB was evaluated pre and post-2013 and outcome was studied. DESIGN: Descriptive retrospective study. Children were defined as having DR-TB on the basis of GeneXpert or LPA and/or drug susceptibility testing(DST) of MTB grown on culture or from contact's DST. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DR-TB was 110 out of 1145 cases (9.6%) which showed an increase, compared to 5...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579428/socio-demographic-profile-and-outcome-of-tb-patients-registered-at-dtc-rewa-of-central-india
#14
Rohit Trivedi Rohit, Anjana Niranjan, Paharam Adhikari Pawan
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a specific infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease is usually chronic with cardinal features such as persistent cough with or without expectoration, intermittent fever, and loss of appetite, weight loss, chest pain and hemoptysis. OBJECTIVE: (1) To assess the socio-demographic profile of the patients attending DOTS Center. (2) To assess outcome of treatment under DOTS Center. METHODOLOGY: This is a Prospective Longitudinal study conducted among the patients attending DOTS center of DTC located at S...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562270/low-indeterminate-rates-associated-with-use-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-in-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-on-long-term-infliximab
#15
Eugene Vortia, Victor E Uko, Belinda Yen-Lieberman, Jill Frawley, Sarah E Worley, Lara Danziger-Isakov, Barbara Kaplan, Lori Mahajan
Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are linked with increased risk of reactivation of active tuberculosis. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test is approved for screening latent tuberculosis infection in children and adults. There are limited data on the test performance in children on long-term treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of indeterminate results for the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on long-term infliximab treatment and to evaluate the range of interferon-γ responses to mitogen...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557089/tuberculosis-burden-among-household-pediatric-contacts-of-adult-tuberculosis-patients
#16
Rajeshwar Dayal, Dipti Agarwal, Rakesh Bhatia, C Bipin, Neeraj Kumar Yadav, Santosh Kumar, Shamrendra Narayan, Ankur Goyal
OBJECTIVES: To find out the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and TB disease among pediatric household contacts of adult drug resistant (MDR) and drug susceptible (DS) TB patients and to identify the risk factors for occurrence of TB infection in the contacts. METHODS: Pediatric household contacts (less than 15 y age) of adult TB patients (both MDR and DS) were included in the study. They were categorized as latent TB infection (LTBI), TB disease and TB exposed based on the results of tuberculin skin testing (TST), clinical examination and chest X-ray...
March 20, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552433/pediatric-primary-tuberculous-osteomyelitis-of-the-mandible-mimicking-parotitis
#17
Raja Kalaiarasi, Chellappa Vijayakumar, Ramalingam Archana, Ramalingam Natarajan
Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide public health problem; however, primary tuberculous osteomyelitis involving the mandible is extremely rare. Here, we report a 14-year-old boy who presented with a recurrent, generalized swelling of the cheek in the right side, mimicking parotitis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the swelling was inconclusive. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the head and neck revealed an osteolytic lesion of the mandible with a surrounding abscess. An intraoral incisional biopsy of the tissue showed a granulomatous lesion...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547642/-before-xpert-i-only-had-my-expertise-a-qualitative-study-on-the-utilization-and-effects-of-xpert-technology-among-pediatricians-in-4-indian-cities
#18
Andrew McDowell, Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Raghuram Rao, Sanjay Sarin, Aakshi Kalra, Virender Singh Salhotra, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in children presents considerable challenges. Upfront testing on Xpert® MTB/RIF ('Xpert')-a rapid molecular assay with high sensitivity and specificity-for pediatric presumptive TB patients, as recommended by India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), can pave the way for early TB diagnosis. As part of an ongoing project implemented by Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) dedicated to providing upfront free-of-cost (FOC) Xpert testing to children seeking care in the public and private sectors, a qualitative assessment was designed to understand how national guidelines on TB diagnosis and Xpert technology have been integrated into the pediatric TB care practices of different health providers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538263/emergency-medicine-providers-knowledge-and-management-of-pediatric-tropical-diseases-a-needs-assessment
#19
Vanessa A Thomas, Heather L Crouse, Kristy O Murray, Deborah C Hsu, Elizabeth A Camp, Andrea T Cruz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a needs assessment of pediatric (PEM) and general emergency medicine (EM) provider knowledge, comfort, and current practice patterns in the evaluation of pediatric tropical infectious diseases. METHODS: An online survey was developed based on educational priorities identified by an expert panel via modified Delphi methodology. The survey included assessment of providers' typical evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of tropical diseases and was distributed to PEM and EM providers in 2 large professional organizations...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526779/tuberculous-spondylolisthesis-a-re-appraisal-on-clinico-radiologic-spectrum-and-surgical-treatment-paradigm
#20
REVIEW
Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed, Amey R Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Anil Nanda
INTRODUCTION: Spinal tuberculosis [TB] is a common infectious disease prevalent in developing countries and a rising disaster in developed countries. The association of tuberculosis with spondylolisthesis is rarely reported in literature. The aim of our review is to analyse the clinical features and radiologic characteristics of TB spondylolisthesis along with providing a concise update on its surgical management, based on current literature. METHODS: A systematic review is performed after conducting a thorough search in the PubMed database...
March 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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