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Pediatric Tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142046/quantitative-analysis-of-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-response-in-children-with-latent-and-active-tuberculosis
#1
Giulia Lombardi, Roberta Petrucci, Ilaria Corsini, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Francesca Visciotti, Filippo Bernardi, Maria Paola Landini, Salvatore Cazzato, Paola Dal Monte
The use of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection in children is still under debate because of concerns about their immature immune response.The aim of this study was to investigate quantitative values of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT), a commercially available IGRA, in a large cohort of children screened for TB infection.A retrospective analysis was conducted on samples from 517 children aged 0-14 years old at the Pediatric Unit of S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital of Bologna (Italy); quantitative responses to QFT-IT stimuli were analyzed according to diagnosis and age...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140933/t-spot-tb%C3%A2-performance-in-routine-pediatric-practice-in-a-low-tb-burden-setting
#2
Anna M Mandalakas, Heather Y Highsmith, Nadine M Harris, Anna Pawlicka, H Lester Kirchner
BACKGROUND: The T-SPOT.TB, an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), is an indirect test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Due to sparse and conflicting evidence, IGRA use is limited in young and HIV-infected children. We determined the prevalence of invalid, borderline, positive, and negative results and associations with key demographic variables during routine pediatric use in a TB low-burden setting. METHODS: For pediatric samples received at Oxford Diagnostic Laboratories from 2010-2015, the associations between initial test outcome and demographics were estimated by bivariate analysis and logistic regression...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126342/-tuberculosis-among-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-tuberculosis-screening-on-arrival-and-case-management
#3
Martin Priwitzer
The statement of the Federal Association of Physicians of Public Health Services provides recommendations concerning tuberculosis screening of refugees and asylum seekers on arrival specific to different groups of persons (adults, children, pregnant women, unaccompanied minors), taking into account the legal background and the current recommendations of the Robert Koch Institute as well as of the German Society for Pediatric Infectiology. In addition, recommendations are given to ensure treatment success in refugees and asylum seekers with tuberculosis, to carry out contact investigations and for preventive treatment of latent tuberculosis infection among refugees and asylum seekers...
November 10, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121953/risk-of-tuberculosis-among-alabama-children-and-adolescents-treated-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitors-a-retrospective-study
#4
Matthew L Stoll, James Aaron Grubbs, Timothy Beukelman, Melissa L Mannion, Traci W Jester, Randy Q Cron, Marilyn J Crain
BACKGROUND: Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitors (TNFi) have dramatically improved the outlook for patients with inflammatory arthritides and bowel disease (IBD), but are associated with increased infection risks, including tuberculosis (TB). Pediatric inflammatory diseases are uncommon, and the risk of TB in children taking TNFi remains unclear. The objective of this study was to report the incidence of TB disease among TNFi recipients at a single pediatric medical center serving most of Alabama compared to that of the general population of Alabama children...
November 9, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117827/tuberculosis-of-the-elbow-region-in-pediatric-age-group-experiences-from-a-single-centre
#5
Anil Agarwal, Anuj Rastogi
BACKGROUND: Clinical series of tuberculosis of elbow region in children are few. The purpose of our study was to retrospectively review the presentation, healing response and functional results of 30 children. METHODS: The pretreatment disease presentation was studied from patient's case records. Serial radiographs of the patients were studied to see remineralization and healing of radiological lesions. For elbow's functional evaluation, pain, range of motion and recurrence were observed at final follow up...
December 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080066/choosing-first-line-biologic-treatment-for-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-what-does-the-evidence-say
#6
Mina Amin, Daniel J No, Alexander Egeberg, Jashin J Wu
An advanced understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriasis has led to the development of multiple therapeutic options for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, ustekinumab, interleukin-17 inhibitors, and guselkumab (an interleukin-23 inhibitor recently approved for psoriasis) are commercially available biologic agents for psoriasis. Evidence from clinical trials provides pertinent information regarding the safety and efficacy of biologic agents for psoriasis, which should be integrated into clinical decision making...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062247/frequency-of-mycobacterium-bovis-and-mycobacteria-in-primary-immunodeficiencies
#7
Ezgi Ulusoy, Neslihan Edeer Karaca, Güzide Aksu, Cengiz Çavuşoğlu, Necil Kütükçüler
AIM: Susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases is observed in some primary immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate mycobacterial infections in primary immunodeficiency diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients under follow-up by Ege University Pediatric Immunology Department for severe combined and combined immunodeficiencies, interleukin 12/ interferon gamma receptor deficiency, nuclear factor kappa-beta essential modulator deficiency and chronic granulomatosis disease were evaluated retrospectively in terms of the frequency and characteristics of mycobacterial infections using a questionnaire form for demographic properties, clinical features and laboratory tests...
September 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052770/extrapulmonary-involvement-in-pediatric-tuberculosis
#8
REVIEW
Supika Kritsaneepaiboon, Mariaem M Andres, Vincent R Tatco, Cielo Consuelo Q Lim, Nathan David P Concepcion
Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027495/monitoring-and-managing-antibiotic-resistance-in-refugee-children
#9
Helena C Maltezou, Dana Elhadad, Daniel Glikman
The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions...
October 23, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018323/cerebrospinal-fluid-amino-acid-profiling-of-pediatric-cases-with-tuberculous-meningitis
#10
Shayne Mason, Carolus J Reinecke, Regan Solomons
Background: In Africa, tuberculosis is generally regarded as persisting as one of the most devastating infectious diseases. The pediatric population is particularly vulnerable, with infection of the brain in the form of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) being the most severe manifestation. TBM is often difficult to diagnose in its early stages because of its non-specific clinical presentation. Of particular concern is that late diagnosis, and subsequent delayed treatment, leads to high risk of long-term neurological sequelae, and even death...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017219/-consensus-based-guidelines-for-diagnosis-prevention-and-treatment-of-tuberculosis-in-children-and-adolescents-a-guideline-on-behalf-of-the-german-society-for-pediatric-infectious-diseases-dgpi
#11
C Feiterna-Sperling, F Brinkmann, C Adamczick, F Ahrens, M Barker, C Berger, L D Berthold, M Bogyi, U von Both, T Frischer, W Haas, P Hartmann, D Hillemann, F W Hirsch, K Kranzer, F Kunitz, E Maritz, A Pizzulli, N Ritz, R Schlags, T Spindler, S Thee, K Weizsäcker
Recently, epidemiological data shows an increase of childhood tuberculosis in Germany. In addition to this, drug resistant tuberculosis becomes more frequent. Therefore, diagnosis, prevention and therapy in childhood and adolescence remain a challenge. Adult guidelines do not work for children, as there are age specific differences in manifestation, risk of progression and diagnostic as well as therapeutic pathways.The German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI) has initiated a consensus-based (S2k) process and completed a paediatric guideline in order to improve and standardize care for children and adolescents with tuberculosis exposure, infection or disease...
October 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977322/tuberculosis-in-pediatric-patients-how-has-the-diagnosis-been-made
#12
Ana Paula Ghussn Cano, Mariana Tresoldi Neves Romaneli, Ricardo Mendes Pereira, Antonia Teresinha Tresoldi
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical, radiological, epidemiological, and microbiological characteristics of pediatric patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis in a period of 15 years. METHODS: Retrospective study including children and adolescents younger than 18 years diagnosed with tuberculosis in the Clinical Hospital of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas in São Paulo State, Brazil. Active tuberculosis was defined by the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture, microscopy, or histopathological examination...
April 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970974/pediatric-gastrointestinal-basidiobolomycosis-mimicking-malignancy
#13
Zainab Almoosa, Mohammed Alsuhaibani, Sadeq AlDandan, Dayel Alshahrani
Basidiobolomycosis is a rare fungal infection with high prevalence in southwestern province of Saudi Arabia (Tohama region); it mainly causes subcutaneous infections and rarely gastrointestinal disease. Because of its indolent presentation, it is often misdiagnosed as IBD, tuberculosis or Malignancy. We are reporting a 7 year old Saudi girl with abdominal mass, fever and eosinophilia resembling malignancy on radiological and pathological picture fully recovered with only medical therapy in the form of oral Voriconazole 2012 Elsevier Ltd...
December 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964291/hiv-status-and-hearing-loss-among-children-between-6-and-12-years-of-age-at-a-large-urban-health-facility-in-south-western-uganda
#14
Doreen Nakku, Victoria Nyaiteera, Evelyn Llowet, Dennis Nanseera, Gladys Nakalema, Brian Westerberg, Francis Bajunirwe
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric HIV infection and treatment may increase the risk for hearing loss (HL), both sensorineural (SNHL) and conductive hearing loss (CHL). There is limited data on this subject, especially from sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among HIV positive and negative children, to determine the types of hearing loss and whether Nevirapine (NVP) based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with HL. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study at two tertiary health facilities in south western Uganda...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941855/diagnosis-of-clinically-suspected-and-unsuspected-tubercular-lymphadenopathy-by-cytology-culture-and-smear-microscopy
#15
Vivek Gupta, Arvind Bhake
BACKGROUND: Tubercular lymphadenopathy (TBLN) accounts for 20-40% cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. But the common presenting symptoms of tuberculosis like fever, cough, weight loss, fatigue, and night sweats are not always associated with tuberculosis lymphadenopathy, thereby, making its diagnosis difficult. Our aim was to study if Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) combined with Zeihl Neelsen stain and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli could improve the diagnostic accuracy in patients clinically suspected and unsuspected for tubercular lymphadenitis...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936054/patterns-of-intermediate-uveitis-in-children-presenting-at-a-tertiary-eye-care-center-in-south-india
#16
Radha Annamalai, Jyotirmay Biswas
PURPOSE: To study the patterns of intermediate uveitis in the pediatric age group in a referral eye care center in South India. METHODS: This is a study of twenty consecutive patients under 16 years of age with intermediate uveitis, conducted at a tertiary referral center. Numerous variables were assessed, including age and gender distribution, laboratory data, the presence of systemic diseases, onset and course of ocular inflammation, clinical features, their complications, therapeutic strategies with their outcomes, remission, final visual acuity (VA), and characteristics associated with poor visual outcome...
April 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915796/correlates-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-failure-in-child-household-contacts-with-infectious-tuberculosis-in-high-burden-settings-in-nairobi-kenya-a-cohort-study
#17
Florence Nafula Okwara, John Paul Oyore, Fred Nabwire Were, Samson Gwer
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa continues to document high pediatric tuberculosis (TB) burden, especially among the urban poor. One recommended preventive strategy involves tracking and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children under 5 years in close contact with infectious TB. However, sub-optimal effectiveness has been documented in diverse settings. We conducted a study to elucidate correlates to IPT strategy failure in children below 5 years in high burden settings. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was done in informal settlings in Nairobi, where children under 5 years in household contact with recently diagnosed smear positive TB adults were enrolled...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904582/giant-intracerebral-tuberculoma-with-complete-disappearance-on-antitubercular-therapy-alone-in-a-pediatric-case-a-case-illustration-with-review-of-management-strategy
#18
Guru Dutta Satyarthee
The Central nervous system can be affected in extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The intracranial tuberculoma occurrence is a rare entity occurrence; most often occur in the form of discrete small multiple lesions. Rarely a large sized tuberculoma is observed with mass effects and usually managed surgically to provide rapid relief of mass effect, histopathological confirmation of diagnosis, reduction of pathological mass thereby increasing efficacy of medical therapy. Author reports an extremely rare case of giant tuberculoma occurring in a pediatric patient, which was managed with antituberculous medication along with cerebral decongestant...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903160/safety-of-systemic-agents-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-psoriasis
#19
Inge M G J Bronckers, Marieke M B Seyger, Dennis P West, Irene Lara-Corrales, Megha Tollefson, Wynnis L Tom, Marcia Hogeling, Leah Belazarian, Claus Zachariae, Emmanuel Mahé, Elaine Siegfried, Sandra Philipp, Zsuzsanna Szalai, Ruth Ann Vleugels, Kristen Holland, Ruth Murphy, Eulalia Baselga, Kelly Cordoro, Jo Lambert, Alex Alexopoulos, Ulrich Mrowietz, Wietske Kievit, Amy S Paller
Importance: Use of systemic therapies for moderate to severe psoriasis in children is increasing, but comparative data on their use and toxicities are limited. Objective: To assess patterns of use and relative risks of systemic agents for moderate to severe psoriasis in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective review was conducted at 20 centers in North America and Europe, and included all consecutive children with moderate to severe psoriasis who used systemic medications or phototherapy for at least 3 months from December 1, 1990, to September 16, 2014...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902922/molecular-clustering-of-patients-with-diabetes-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Francles Blanco-Guillot, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Pedro Torres-González, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes Garcia-Garcia
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have explored the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) demonstrating increased risk of TB among patients with DM and poor prognosis of patients suffering from the association of DM/TB. Owing to a paucity of studies addressing this question, it remains unclear whether patients with DM and TB are more likely than TB patients without DM to be grouped into molecular clusters defined according to the genotype of the infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus...
2017: PloS One
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