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Pediatric Tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060119/acquired-tef-in-hodgkin-lymphoma-in-a-child-a-rare-clinical-association
#1
Vinay Munikoty, Anmol Bhatia, Deepak Bansal, Ashim Das, Niranjan Khandelwal
BACKGROUND: Malignancy is the most common etiology of acquired fistulae between the tracheobronchial tree and esophagus. The majority are due to either primary bronchial or esophageal carcinoma, and are typically observed in adult population. The occurrence of tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare phenomenon. OBSERVATION: We report a rare case of Hodgkin lymphoma with TEF in a 10-year-old girl at presentation. She also developed pulmonary tuberculosis later during the follow up...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053917/mortality-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-hiv-1-co-infected-nigerian-children-being-treated-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Augustine O Ebonyi, Stephen Oguche, Oche O Agbaji, Atiene S Sagay, Prosper I Okonkwo, John A Idoko, Phyllis J Kanki
BACKGROUND: Mortality data, including the risk factors for mortality in HIV-infected children with pulmonary TB (PTB) being treated for PTB and who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART), are scarce in Nigeria. We determined the mortality rate and risk factors for mortality among such children, at the pediatric HIV clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Jos, Nigeria. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on 260 PTB-HIV-1 co-infected children, aged 2 months to 13 years, being treated for PTB and on ART from July 2005 to March 2013...
December 2016: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053376/vitamin-d-deficiency-among-pediatric-osteoarticular-tuberculosis-patients
#3
Pradeep Kumar Dabla, Anil Agarwal, Madhusudan Mishra, Shikha Sharma
OBJECTIVES: We prospectively investigated serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D concentrations in children suffering from osteoarticular tuberculosis. The age or sex correlation to vitamin D levels in affected subjects was also calculated. METHODS: Twenty five untreated children with osteoarticular tuberculosis were taken as cases along with equal number of age and sex matched 'healthy' controls. The following laboratory references for defining the vitamin D status were used (<30 nmol/L = deficiency; 30-75 nmol/L = insufficiency; > 75 nmol/L = sufficiency)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043630/effective-testing-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-using-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-stool-specimens-in-immunocompetent-pakistani-children
#4
Zahra Hasan, Fehmina Arif, Sadia Shakoor, Aisha Mehnaz, Alnoor Akber, Akbar Kanji, Mussarat Ashraf, Rumina Hasan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is largely a paucibacillary disease and difficult to diagnose. It is difficult to obtain a sputum or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, and patients are often undiagnosed and treated empirically. Stool is a noninvasive specimen not usually used for TB testing in Pakistan. We investigated the value of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in children with pulmonary TB cases, by performing comparative testing of GA and stool samples...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043582/mediastinal-lymphadenopathy-in-pediatric-tuberculosis-in-computed-tomography-scan
#5
Payam Mehrain, Amin Momeni Moghaddam, Elham Tavakol, Afshin Amini, Mehrdad Moghimi, Ali Kabir, Ali Akbar Velayati
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pediatric tuberculosis is usually a primary infection presenting mainly as mediastinal or hilar adenopathy in computed tomography (CT) scan. In this study, we study the distribution and other CT scan characteristics of mediastinal lymphadenopathy in childhood tuberculosis. METHODS: Chest CT scans of 75 cases of pediatric tuberculosis at Masih Daneshvari Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2013 were studied regarding characteristics of mediastinal lymphadenopathy...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043580/application-of-highly-portable-minion-nanopore-sequencing-technology-for-the-monitoring-of-nosocomial-tuberculosis-infection
#6
Matthew Bates, Pascal Polepole, Nathan Kapata, Matt Loose, Justin O'Grady
Referral hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa concentrate large numbers of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients, failed by community TB services. We have previously shown, from enhanced screening and through autopsy studies, a significant burden of missed TB infections at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, with many patients dying or being discharged without treatment. With minimal TB isolation facilities and minimal political will to invest in broader screening and isolation, the risk of nosocomial transmission is likely to be extremely high...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043528/childhood-tuberculosis-in-qatar
#7
Jay P N Singh, Reem Mohammed, Thanveer Thayyullathil, Abdullatif Al-Khal, Zubaida Al-Suwaidi
Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been long neglected but has gained attention in recent years. In 2012, the World Health Organization annual report included an estimate for childhood TB for the first time, and in the following year, the TB Alliance received a grant from UNITAID (International Drug Purchase Facility) to develop pediatric TB formulations. Qatar is a low-incidence country. In this observational study, laboratory-confirmed cases of TB were analyzed from 2013 to 2015 and included patients aged ⩽14years...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043488/development-of-the-food-supplement-nyaditum-resae-as-a-new-tool-to-reduce-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-development
#8
Nestani Tukvadze, Paula Cardona, Sergo Vashakidze, Natalia Shubladze, Zaza Avaliani, Cris Vilaplana, Pere-Joan Cardona
Nyaditum resae (NR) is a galenic preparation of heat-killed Mycobacterium manresensis (hkMn). This is a new species that belongs to the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, and it is present in drinking water-thus, regulatorily speaking, it is considered a food supplement. Preclinical studies in the murine model of active tuberculosis (TB) in the C3HeB/FeJ strain have demonstrated that daily administration of NR containing 10(3)-10(6)hkMn for 14days was able to stop the progression toward active TB [1]. The mechanism of action was linked to the induction of low dose tolerance and was related to the increase of Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) memory-specific Tregs (CD4(+)CD25(+)CD39(+) cells) after ex vivo incubation of splenocytes for 7days...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043487/the-difficulties-of-childhood-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#9
A M Djouahra, M Ifticene, D Yala, F Boulahbal
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The WHO estimate that 8.8millions new cases of tuberculosis occurred in 2010, (between 8.5 and 9.2millions) linked to 1.45millions death cases. The load of children tuberculosis is estimated at 10-15 per cent of the total load. In 2014 more than one million children have developed the disease. The children just as adults are exposed to contract and develop the multi resistant forms of the tuberculosis, constituting a major issue for the disease control. The children less than 5years of age are the most exposed to present the most serious and more often deadly forms of the illness...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030525/adherence-to-antituberculosis-drugs-in-children-and-adolescents-in-a-low-endemic-setting-a-retrospective-series
#10
Eva-Maria Guix-Comellas, Librada Rozas, Eneritz Velasco-Arnaiz, Victoria Morín-Fraile, Enriqueta Force-Sanmartín, Antoni Noguera-Julian
Adherence to antituberculosis drug regimens is critical for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis in pediatrics. In a large retrospective series of children and adolescents in Barcelona, Spain, completion of treatment was worse among patients treated for latent infection, compared with those treated for active tuberculosis or receiving primary chemoprophylaxis. Toxicity and cultural and language barriers were identified as predictors of non-adherence.
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030523/successful-introduction-of-fine-needle-aspiration-biopsy-for-diagnosis-of-pediatric-lymphadenopathy
#11
Candice Sher-Locketz, Pawel T Schubert, Samuel W Moore, Colleen A Wright
BACKGROUND: Accurate and rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary nodal tuberculosis in children is of paramount importance in order to initiate immediate treatment and prevent complications. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) provides a means of triage, and also identifies patients with suspected hematological or metastatic neoplasms.This study aims to demonstrate how a laboratory-run FNAB service, which largely replaced the previous surgical practice of lymph node excision biopsy can provide a clinically acceptable and effective diagnostic service...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027281/virologic-response-to-first-line-efavirenz-or-nevirapine-based-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-african-children
#12
Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Alexander J Szubert, Moira Spyer, Richard Katuramu, Victor Musiime, Tawanda Mhute, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Oscar Senfuma, Ann Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Poorer virologic response to nevirapine vs efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been reported in adult systematic reviews and pediatric studies. METHODS: We compared drug discontinuation and viral load (VL) response in ART-naïve Ugandan/Zimbabwean children ≥3 years of age initiating ART with clinician-chosen nevirapine vs efavirenz in the ARROW trial. Predictors of suppression <80, <400 and <1000 copies/ml at 36, 48 and 144 weeks were identified using multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination (p=0...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003904/a-case-of-deep-vein-thrombosis-and-intracranial-sinus-thrombosis-possible-rare-complications-of-childhood-abdominal-tuberculosis
#13
Geeta Gathwala, Poonam Dalal, Virender Gehlawat, Jasbir Singh, Vandana Arya
Severe pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) complicated by deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in adults has been reported previously in the medical literature; however, childhood extrapulmonary TB complicated by DVT is rare. We report a 13-year-old girl who presented to the Department of Pediatrics at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences in Rohtak, India, in 2012 with abdominal TB complicated by DVT and intracranial sinus thrombosis. She was treated with a course of four antitubercular drugs and short-term anticoagulation therapy with a positive outcome over the next six months...
November 2016: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955992/pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-clinical-trials-challenges-and-opportunities
#14
REVIEW
S E McAnaw, A C Hesseling, J A Seddon, K E Dooley, A J Garcia-Prats, S Kim, H E Jenkins, H S Schaaf, T R Sterling, C R Horsburgh
On June 17, 2016, RESIST-TB, IMPAACT, Vital Strategies, and New Ventures jointly hosted the Pediatric Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Clinical Trials Landscape Meeting in Arlington, Virginia, USA. The meeting provided updates on current multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) trials targeting pediatric populations and adult trials that have included pediatric patients. A series of presentations were given that discussed site capacity needs, community engagement, and additional interventions necessary for clinical trials to improve the treatment of pediatric MDR-TB...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935825/microglia-activation-in-a-pediatric-rabbit-model-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#15
Elizabeth W Tucker, Supriya Pokkali, Zhi Zhang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah Klunk, Elizabeth S Smith, Alvaro A Ordonez, Marie-France Penet, Zaver Bhujwalla, Sanjay K Jain, Sujatha Kannan
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes...
December 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882294/cough-and-fever-in-an-immigrant-adolescent-with-abnormal-chest-x-ray
#16
Nicole Giles, Rajeev Bhatia
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide with 80,000 pediatric deaths annually. Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is usually asymptomatic in pediatric patients and resolves after completion of standard therapy with isoniazid (INH). Rare reports document children greater than 10 years of age in endemic regions developing adult type cavitary disease, an infectious pulmonary tuberculosis lesion. This is a notable case of post-infectious pulmonary TB disease with adult type cavitation in an immigrant adolescent, which developed even after completing standard therapy with INH...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875026/disseminated-bcg-pneumonitis-revealing-severe-combined-immunodeficiencyxs-in-charge-syndrome
#17
Hyung Young Kim, Yoo-Mi Kim, Hee Ju Park
CHARGE (coloboma, heart defect, atresia choanae, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, and ear anomalies/deafness) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by CHD7 mutation and is related to immunodeficiency. A 6-month-old girl with right lung agenesis, congenital heart defects, and ear anomalies developed repeated and serious respiratory infection for a short period. She was clinically diagnosed with typical CHARGE syndrome with severe combined immunodeficiency (T-, B+, NK-); however, CHD7 mutation was not detected...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867136/pediatric-orthopedic-surgery-in-humanitarian-aid
#18
REVIEW
J Sales de Gauzy, J-F Trinchero, J-L Jouve
Pediatric orthopedic surgery in humanitarian aid is conducted mainly in cooperation with emerging countries. Each mission is different, and depends on numerous parameters such as the country, the frequency of such missions, the pathologies encountered, the local structure and team, and the non-governmental organization (NGO) involved. Pathologies vary in etiology (tuberculosis, poliomyelitis) and severity. Each mission requires the presence of an experienced surgeon. Working conditions are often rudimentary...
November 17, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863623/tuberculous-lymphadenitis-of-the-head-and-neck-in-canadian-children-experience-from-a-low-burden-region
#19
Jason J Xu, Shazia Peer, Blake C Papsin, Ian Kitai, Evan J Propst
BACKGROUND: Children are more likely than adults to develop extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which often presents as cervical lymphadenopathy. The role of surgery in management is uncertain. We reviewed all head and neck EPTB cases presenting to our tertiary care pediatric institution over a twelve-year period. METHODS: All children 18 years of age and younger with EPTB involving the head and neck were included. We recorded clinical data and age at diagnosis, birth country, BCG vaccination status, as well as radiographic, surgical, histological, and microbiological results...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854508/new-repurposed-drugs-for-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-practice-based-recommendations
#20
Elizabeth P Harausz, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, James A Seddon, H Simon Schaaf, Anneke C Hesseling, Jay Achar, Jonathan Bernheimer, Andrea Cruz, Lia D'Ambrosio, Anne Detjen, Stephen M Graham, Jennifer Hughes, Sylvie Jonckheere, Ben J Marais, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Lindsay McKenna, Alena Skrahina, Marina Tadolini, Peyton Wilson, Jennifer Furin
It is estimated that 33,000 children develop multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) each year. In spite of these numbers, children and adolescents have limited access to the new and repurposed MDR-TB drugs. There is also little clinical guidance for the use of these drugs and for the shorter MDR-TB regimen in the pediatric population. This is despite the fact that these drugs and regimens are associated with improved interim outcomes and acceptable safety profiles in adults. This review fills a gap in the pediatric MDR-TB literature by providing practice-based recommendations for the use of the new (delamanid and bedaquiline) and repurposed (linezolid and clofazimine) MDR-TB drugs and the new shorter MDR-TB regimen in children and adolescents...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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