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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634237/the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-psl-polysaccharide-is-a-social-but-noncheatable-trait-in-biofilms
#1
Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E L Roberts, Kasper N Kragh, Vernita D Gordon, Jaime Hutchison, Rosalind J Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A West, Stephen P Diggle
Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides population-level benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic tolerance; (iii) the benefits of PSL production are social and are shared with other cells; (iv) the benefits of PSL production appear to be preferentially directed toward cells which produce PSL; (v) cells which do not produce PSL are unable to successfully exploit cells which produce PSL...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621657/a-surgical-intervention-for-the-body-politic-generation-squeeze-applies-the-advocacy-coalition-framework-to-social-determinants-of-health-knowledge-translation
#2
Paul Kershaw, Eric Swanson, Andrea Stucchi
SETTING: The World Health Organization Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) observes that building political will is central to all its recommendations, because governments respond to those who organize and show up. Since younger Canadians are less likely to vote or to organize in between elections, they are less effective at building political will than their older counterparts. This results in an age gap between SDoH research and government budget priorities. Whereas Global AgeWatch ranks Canada among the top countries for aging, UNICEF ranks Canada among the least generous OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries for the generations raising young children...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620429/novel-approaches-to-ultrasonography-of-the-lung-and-pleural-space-where-are-we-now
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Lichtenstein
This review article is an update of what should be known for practicing basic lung ultrasound in the critically ill (LUCI) and is also of interest for less critical disciplines (e.g. pulmonology). It pinpoints on the necessity of a professional machine (not necessarily a sophisticated one) and probe. It lists the 10 main signs of LUCI and some of the main protocols made possible using LUCI: the BLUE protocol for a respiratory failure, the FALLS protocol for a circulatory failure, the SESAME protocol for a cardiac arrest and the investigation of a ventilated acute respiratory distress syndrome patient, etc...
June 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619713/molecular-model-of-fission-yeast-centrosome-assembly-determined-by-superresolution-imaging
#4
Andrew J Bestul, Zulin Yu, Jay R Unruh, Sue L Jaspersen
Microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs), known as centrosomes in animals and spindle pole bodies (SPBs) in fungi, are important for the faithful distribution of chromosomes between daughter cells during mitosis as well as for other cellular functions. The cytoplasmic duplication cycle and regulation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe SPB is analogous to centrosomes, making it an ideal model to study MTOC assembly. Here, we use superresolution structured illumination microscopy with single-particle averaging to localize 14 S...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617851/severity-classification-of-repeated-isoflurane-anesthesia-in-c57bl-6jrj-mice-assessing-the-degree-of-distress
#5
Katharina Hohlbaum, Bettina Bert, Silke Dietze, Rupert Palme, Heidrun Fink, Christa Thöne-Reineke
According to the EU Directive 2010/63, the severity of a procedure has to be classified as mild, moderate or severe. General anesthesia is thought to be mild, but the Directive does not differentiate between single and repeated anesthesia. Therefore, we investigated the impact of repeated administration of isoflurane, the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic, on the well-being of adult C57BL/6JRj mice, in comparison to single administrations and to untreated animals, when applied six times for 45 min at an interval of 3-4 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614464/assessment-of-current-occupational-safety-and-health-regulations-and-legislation-in-the-caribbean
#6
Muge Akpinar-Elci, MyNgoc Nguyen, Marvin Randall, Satesh Bidaisee, Omur Elci, Olaniyi Olayinka, Julieta Rodriguez Guzman
Neglecting occupational safety and health (OSH) can have adverse and even deadly consequences. While OSH is important in any nation, the issue is particularly concerning in developing countries, including ones in the Caribbean. The purpose of this study, which was carried out in 2012 and 2013, was to examine the reasons for an apparent fundamental lack of awareness of OSH in the Caribbean. We conducted a descriptive study, in which a questionnaire was administered, via telephone, to key policy-making representatives from six English-speaking Caribbean nations, in order to assess the current OSH environment in their countries...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612890/technology-in-rehabilitation-comparing-personalised-and-global-classification-methodologies-in-evaluating-the-squat-exercise-with-wearable-imus
#7
Martin A O'Reilly, Darragh Whelan, Tomás E Ward, Eamonn Delahunt, Brian Caulfield
BACKGROUND: The barbell squat is a popularly used lower limb rehabilitation exercise. It is also an integral exercise in injury risk screening protocols. To date athlete/patient technique has been assessed using expensive laboratory equipment or subjective clinical judgement; both of which are not without shortcomings. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) may offer a low cost solution for the objective evaluation of athlete/patient technique. However, it is not yet known if global classification techniques are effective in identifying naturally occurring, minor deviations in barbell squat technique...
June 14, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612467/the-effect-of-age-and-demographics-on-rib-shape
#8
Sven A Holcombe, Stewart C Wang, James B Grotberg
Elderly populations have a higher risk of rib fractures and other associated thoracic injuries than younger adults, and the changes in body morphology that occur with age are a potential cause of this increased risk. Rib centroidal path geometry for 20 627 ribs was extracted from computed tomography (CT) scans of 1042 live adult subjects, then fitted to a six-parameter mathematical model that accurately characterizes rib size and shape, and a three-parameter model of rib orientation within the body. Multivariable regression characterized the independent effect of age, height, weight, and sex on the rib shape and orientation across the adult population, and statistically significant effects were seen from all demographic factors (P < 0...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609943/-i-mimaporia-i-a-new-genus-of-epicopeiidae-lepidoptera-with-description-of-a-new-species-from-vietnam
#9
Chia-Hsuan Wei, Shen-Horn Yen
The Epicopeiidae is a small geometroid family distributed in the East Palaearctic and Oriental regions. It exhibits high morphological diversity in body size and wing shape, while their wing patterns involve in various complex mimicry rings. In the present study, we attempted to describe a new genus, and a new species from Vietnam, with comments on two assumed congeneric novel species from China and India. To address its phylogenetic affinity, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the family by using sequence data of COI, EF-1α, and 28S gene regions obtained from seven genera of Epicopeiidae with Pseudobiston pinratanai as the outgroup...
April 20, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609852/engaging-with-residents-perceived-risks-and-benefits-about-technologies-as-a-way-of-resolving-remediation-dilemmas
#10
Jason Prior, Tapan Rai
In recent decades the diversity of remediation technologies has increased significantly, with the breadth of technologies ranging from dig and dump to emergent technologies like phytoremediation and nanoremediation. The benefits of these technologies to the environment and human health are believed to be substantial. However, they also potentially constitute risks. Whilst there is a growing body of knowledge about the risks and benefits of these technologies from the perspective of experts, little is known about how residents perceive the risks and benefits of the application of these technologies to address contaminants in their local environment...
June 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609175/center-for-the-polyurethanes-industry-summary-of-unpublished-industrial-hygiene-studies-related-to-the-evaluation-of-emissions-of-spray-polyurethane-foam-insulation
#11
Richard D Wood
Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation is used as thermal insulation for residential and commercial buildings. It has many advantages over other forms insulation; however, concerns have been raised related to chemical emissions during and after application. The American Chemistry Council's (ACC's) Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) has gathered previously unpublished industrial hygiene air sampling studies submitted by member companies that were completed during an eight year period from 2007 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604029/staring-reality-in-the-face-a-comparison-of-social-attention-across-laboratory-and-real-world-measures-suggests-little-common-ground
#12
Dana A Hayward, Willa Voorhies, Jenna L Morris, Francesca Capozzi, Jelena Ristic
The ability to attend to someone else's gaze is thought to represent 1 of the essential building blocks of the human sociocognitive system. This behavior, termed social attention, has traditionally been assessed using laboratory procedures in which participants' response time and/or accuracy performance indexes attentional function. Recently, a parallel body of emerging research has started to examine social attention during real life social interactions using naturalistic and observational methodologies. The main goal of the present work was to begin connecting these two lines of inquiry...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600159/building-research-in-diet-and-cognition-the-bridge-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Lisa Tussing-Humphreys, Melissa Lamar, James A Blumenthal, Michael Babyak, Giamila Fantuzzi, Lara Blumstein, Linda Schiffer, Marian L Fitzgibbon
Obesity has been linked to cognitive impairment, cognitive decline and dementia. Given that 38.5% of U.S. adults 60years and older are obese and these numbers are rapidly increasing, strategies to decouple obesity from cognitive decline are needed. Innovative lifestyle strategies that may postpone the onset of subclinical symptoms or even arrest the transition to overt dementia in at-risk individuals are critically needed. Poor diet is central to the development of obesity and diet may affect cognition. Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is associated with reduced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia...
June 7, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596750/self-concept-in-childhood-the-role-of-body-image-and-sport-practice
#14
Santiago Mendo-Lázaro, María I Polo-Del-Río, Diana Amado-Alonso, Damián Iglesias-Gallego, Benito León-Del-Barco
The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in satisfaction with body image depending on whether the subject practices organized sport or not, as well as the gender of the children. In addition, the study aims to examine the role of body image and the practice of organized sport on the process of building the academic, social, emotional, family and physical dimensions of self-concept in childhood. To do so, a sample of 944 pupils was used. These children were attending primary school in different centers of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) and were between 9 and 12 years of age...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596423/integration-of-over-9-000-mass-spectrometry-experiments-builds-a-global-map-of-human-protein%C3%A2-complexes
#15
Kevin Drew, Chanjae Lee, Ryan L Huizar, Fan Tu, Blake Borgeson, Claire D McWhite, Yun Ma, John B Wallingford, Edward M Marcotte
Macromolecular protein complexes carry out many of the essential functions of cells, and many genetic diseases arise from disrupting the functions of such complexes. Currently, there is great interest in defining the complete set of human protein complexes, but recent published maps lack comprehensive coverage. Here, through the synthesis of over 9,000 published mass spectrometry experiments, we present hu.MAP, the most comprehensive and accurate human protein complex map to date, containing > 4,600 total complexes, > 7,700 proteins, and > 56,000 unique interactions, including thousands of confident protein interactions not identified by the original publications...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596092/stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-executive-summary-of-an-astro-evidence-based-guideline
#16
Gregory M M Videtic, Jessica Donington, Meredith Giuliani, John Heinzerling, Tomer Z Karas, Chris R Kelsey, Brian E Lally, Karen Latzka, Simon S Lo, Drew Moghanaki, Benjamin Movsas, Andreas Rimner, Michael Roach, George Rodrigues, Shervin M Shirvani, Charles B Simone, Robert Timmerman, Megan E Daly
PURPOSE: This guideline presents evidence-based recommendations for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in challenging clinical scenarios in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The American Society for Radiation Oncology convened a task force to perform a systematic literature review on 4 key questions addressing: (1) application of SBRT to operable patients; (2) appropriate use of SBRT in tumors that are centrally located, large, multifocal, or unbiopsied; (3) individual tailoring of SBRT in "high-risk" clinical scenarios; and (4) SBRT as salvage therapy after recurrence...
June 5, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592674/three-month-old-human-infants-use-vocal-cues-of-body-size
#17
David Pietraszewski, Annie E Wertz, Gregory A Bryant, Karen Wynn
Differences in vocal fundamental (F0) and average formant (Fn) frequencies covary with body size in most terrestrial mammals, such that larger organisms tend to produce lower frequency sounds than smaller organisms, both between species and also across different sex and life-stage morphs within species. Here we examined whether three-month-old human infants are sensitive to the relationship between body size and sound frequencies. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we found that infants looked longer at stimuli inconsistent with the relationship-that is, a smaller organism producing lower frequency sounds, and a larger organism producing higher frequency sounds-than at stimuli that were consistent with it...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592387/dabrafenib-plus-trametinib-in-patients-with-braf-v600-mutant-melanoma-brain-metastases-combi-mb-a-multicentre-multicohort-open-label-phase-2-trial
#18
Michael A Davies, Philippe Saiag, Caroline Robert, Jean-Jacques Grob, Keith T Flaherty, Ana Arance, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, Luc Thomas, Thierry Lesimple, Laurent Mortier, Stergios J Moschos, David Hogg, Iván Márquez-Rodas, Michele Del Vecchio, Céleste Lebbé, Nicolas Meyer, Ying Zhang, Yingjie Huang, Bijoyesh Mookerjee, Georgina V Long
BACKGROUND: Dabrafenib plus trametinib improves clinical outcomes in BRAF(V600)-mutant metastatic melanoma without brain metastases; however, the activity of dabrafenib plus trametinib has not been studied in active melanoma brain metastases. Here, we report results from the phase 2 COMBI-MB trial. Our aim was to build on the current body of evidence of targeted therapy in melanoma brain metastases through an evaluation of dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma brain metastases...
June 2, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588474/a-life-long-approach-to-physical-activity-for-brain-health
#19
Helen Macpherson, Wei-P Teo, Luke A Schneider, Ashleigh E Smith
It is well established that engaging in lifelong Physical activity (PA) can help delay the onset of many chronic lifestyle related and non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type two diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. Additionally, growing evidence also documents the importance of PA for brain health, with numerous studies indicating regular engagement in physical activities may be protective against cognitive decline and dementia in late life. Indeed, the link between PA and brain health may be different at each stage of life from childhood, mid-life and late life...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585832/polymer-chlorosome-nanocomposites-consisting-of-non-native-combinations-of-self-assembling-bacteriochlorophylls
#20
Gregory S Orf, Aaron M Collins, Dariusz M Niedzwiedzki, Marcus Tank, Vera Thiel, Adam Kell, Donald A Bryant, Gabriel A Montaño, Robert E Blankenship
Chlorosomes are one of the characteristic light-harvesting antennas from green sulfur bacteria. These complexes represent a unique paradigm: self-assembly of bacteriochlorophyll pigments within a lipid monolayer without the influence of protein. Because of their large size and reduced complexity, they have been targeted as models for the development of bioinspired light-harvesting arrays. We report the production of biohybrid light-harvesting nanocomposites mimicking chlorosomes, composed of amphiphilic diblock copolymer membrane bodies that incorporate thousands of natural self-assembling bacteriochlorophyll molecules derived from green sulfur bacteria...
June 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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