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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813975/a-lightweight-robotic-ankle-prosthesis-with-non-backdrivable-cam-based-transmission
#1
Tommaso Lenzi, Marco Cempini, Jeremy Newkirk, Levi J Hargrove, Todd A Kuiken
Below-knee level amputation significantly impacts the ability of an individual to ambulate. Transtibial amputees are typically prescribed energetically passive ankle-foot prostheses that behave as a spring or controlled damper, and therefore cannot fully replace the function of the missing limb. More recently, fully-powered devices have been proposed to more closely match the power generation ability of intact limbs. However, these fully-powered devices are significantly heavier than passive devices, thus increasing the stress on the socket-residual limb interface...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813243/arts-participation-counterbalancing-forces-to-the-social-stigma-of-a-dementia-diagnosis
#2
Beth Bienvenu, Gay Hanna
A diagnosis of dementia profoundly impacts a person in terms of both the functional progression of the disease and the social stigma associated with the diagnosis. A growing body of research demonstrates the effectiveness of innovative programs such as the Alzheimer's Poetry Project, Meet Me at MoMA, and TimeSlips™ in counterbalancing social stigma by building a social and emotional framework for strength-based living for people diagnosed with dementia through arts participation. These programs focus on supporting autonomy and generativity through creative expression to help sustain the social, emotional, and community fabric of people's lives in the face of significant counterbalancing forces (e...
July 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811500/human-microcephaly-protein-rttn-interacts-with-stil-and-is-required-to-build-full-length-centrioles
#3
Hsin-Yi Chen, Chien-Ting Wu, Chieh-Ju C Tang, Yi-Nan Lin, Won-Jing Wang, Tang K Tang
Mutations in many centriolar protein-encoding genes cause primary microcephaly. Using super-resolution and electron microscopy, we find that the human microcephaly protein, RTTN, is recruited to the proximal end of the procentriole at early S phase, and is located at the inner luminal walls of centrioles. Further studies demonstrate that RTTN directly interacts with STIL and acts downstream of STIL-mediated centriole assembly. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated RTTN gene knockout in p53-deficient cells induce amplification of primitive procentriole bodies that lack the distal-half centriolar proteins, POC5 and POC1B...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811268/antecedent-adhd-dementia-and-metabolic-dysregulation-a-u-s-based-cohort-analysis
#4
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological and genetic studies have reported a link between antecedent ADHD and dementia. The underpinning mechanisms of these associations are not known and have generated considerable speculation. METHODS: We have extracted hospitalization discharge data on dementia and ADHD (representing a severe phenotype) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUPnet) and utilized a Poisson regression with two-ways fixed effects to investigate this association...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808914/from-pleistocene-to-holocene-the-prehistory-of-southwest-asia-in-evolutionary-context
#5
Trevor Watkins
In this paper I seek to show how cultural niche construction theory offers the potential to extend the human evolutionary story beyond the Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, towards the kind of very large-scale societies in which we live today. The study of the human past has been compartmentalised, each compartment using different analytical vocabularies, so that their accounts are written in mutually incompatible languages. In recent years social, cognitive and cultural evolutionary theories, building on a growing body of archaeological evidence, have made substantial sense of the social and cultural evolution of the genus Homo...
August 14, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808551/evolutionary-responses-to-a-changing-climate-implications-for-reindeer-population-viability
#6
Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen
If we want to understand how climate change affects long-lived organisms, we must know how individuals allocate resources between current reproduction and survival. This trade-off is affected by expected environmental conditions, but the extent to which density independent (DI) and density dependent (DD) processes interact in shaping individual life histories is less clear. Female reindeer (or caribou: Rangifer tarandus) are a monotocous large herbivore with a circumpolar distribution. Individuals that experience unpredictable and potentially harsh winters typically adopt risk averse strategies where they allocate more resources to building own body reserves during summer and less to reproduction...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807884/escrt-and-autophagies-endosomal-functions-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Christophe Lefebvre, Renaud Legouis, Emmanuel Culetto
ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery has been initially identified for its role during endocytosis, which allows membrane proteins and lipids to be degraded in the lysosome. ESCRT function is required to form intraluminal vesicles permitting internalization of cytosolic components or membrane embedded cargoes and promoting endosome maturation. ESCRT machinery also contributes to multiple key cell mechanisms in which it reshapes membranes. In addition, ESCRT actively participates in different types of autophagy processes for degrading cytosolic components, such as endosomal microautophagy and macroautophagy...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807006/the-impact-of-active-stakeholder-involvement-on-recruitment-retention-and-engagement-of-schools-children-and-their-families-in-the-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-healthy-lifestyles-programme-help-a-school-based-intervention-to-prevent-obesity
#8
J Lloyd, C McHugh, J Minton, H Eke, K Wyatt
BACKGROUND: Recruitment and retention of participants is crucial for statistical power and internal and external validity and participant engagement is essential for behaviour change. However, many school-based interventions focus on programme content rather than the building of supportive relationships with all participants and tend to employ specific standalone strategies, such as incentives, to improve retention. We believe that actively involving stakeholders in both intervention and trial design improves recruitment and retention and increases the chances of creating an effective intervention...
August 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803702/patient-and-physician-reported-satisfaction-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-treatment-in-us-clinical-practice
#9
Katie Pascoe, Steve Lobosco, David Bell, Ben Hoskin, David J Chang, Bonnie Pobiner, Sulabha Ramachandran
PURPOSE: This two-part study comprised two descriptive, cross-sectional surveys to evaluate treatment satisfaction among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their physicians from US clinical practices. The Lupus Plus Project (LPP; part one) involved belimumab-containing regimens; the Disease Specific Program (DSP; part two) included all treatments and was designed to build on the body of evidence from part one. METHODS: The LPP recruited patients receiving belimumab, and comprised 2 paper questionnaires: a patient self-completion questionnaire (PSC) and a patient record form (PRF) completed by the physician...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802700/salivary-extracellular-rna-biomarkers-for-insulin-resistance-detection-in-hispanics
#10
Yong Zhang, Jie Sun, Feng Li, Tristan R Grogan, Jose L Vergara, QingXian Luan, Moon-Soo Park, David Chia, David Elashoff, Kaumudi J Joshipura, David T W Wong
AIMS: Insulin resistance (IR) detection is challenging and no test is currently used in clinical practice. We developed salivary biomarkers that could be used for IR detection. METHODS: We collected saliva from 186 healthy and 276 pre-diabetic participants, divided them into high and low IR groups based on a HOMA cutoff of 2.5. We profiled extracellular transcriptome by microarray in saliva supernatant from 23 high IR and 15 low IR participants, and pre-validated the top ten extracellular mRNA (exRNA) markers in a new cohort of 40 high and 40 low IR participants...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800293/rotating-shift-work-associated-with-obesity-in-men-from-northeastern-ontario
#11
Anne Grundy, Michelle Cotterchio, Victoria A Kirsh, Victoria Nadalin, Nancy Lightfoot, Nancy Kreiger
INTRODUCTION: While some studies have suggested associations between shift work and obesity, few have been population-based or considered multiple shift schedules. Since obesity is linked with several chronic health conditions, understanding which types of shift work influence obesity is important and additional work with more detailed exposure assessment of shift work is warranted. METHODS: Using multivariate polytomous logistic regression, we investigated the associations between shift work (evening/night, rotating and other shift schedules) and overweight and obesity as measured by body mass index cross-sectionally among 1561 men...
August 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798671/bodily-sensory-inputs-and-anomalous-bodily-experiences-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-evaluation-of-the-potential-effects-of-sound-feedback
#12
Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Helen Cohen, Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze
Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD). BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790429/cross-scale-habitat-structure-driven-by-coral-species-composition-on-tropical-reefs
#13
Laura E Richardson, Nicholas A J Graham, Andrew S Hoey
The availability of habitat structure across spatial scales can determine ecological organization and resilience. However, anthropogenic disturbances are altering the abundance and composition of habitat-forming organisms. How such shifts in the composition of these organisms alter the physical structure of habitats across ecologically important scales remains unclear. At a time of unprecedented coral loss and homogenization of coral assemblages globally, we investigate the inherent structural complexity of taxonomically distinct reefs, across five ecologically relevant scales of measurement (4-64 cm)...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777743/origami-based-earthworm-like-locomotion-robots
#14
Hongbin Fang, Yetong Zhang, Kon-Well Wang
Inspired by the morphology characteristics of the earthworms and the excellent deformability of origami structures, this research creates a novel earthworm-like locomotion robot through exploiting the origami techniques. In this innovation, appropriate actuation mechanisms are incorporated with origami ball structures into the earthworm-like robot 'body', and the earthworm's locomotion mechanism is mim-icked to develop a gait generator as the robot 'centralized controller'. The origami ball, which is a peri-odic repetition of waterbomb units, could output significant bidirectional (axial and radial) deformations in an antagonistic way similar as the earthworm's body segment...
August 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773204/on-identification-of-critical-material-attributes-for-compression-behaviour-of-pharmaceutical-diluent-powders
#15
Jianyi Zhang, Chuan-Yu Wu, Xin Pan, Chuanbin Wu
As one of the commonly-used solid dosage forms, pharmaceutical tablets have been widely used to deliver active drugs into the human body, satisfying patient's therapeutic requirements. To manufacture tablets of good quality, diluent powders are generally used in formulation development to increase the bulk of formulations and to bind other inactive ingredients with the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). For formulations of a low API dose, the drug products generally consist of a large fraction of diluent powders...
July 23, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772461/properties-of-residue-from-olive-oil-extraction-as-a-raw-material-for-sustainable-construction-materials-part-i-physical-properties
#16
Almudena Díaz-García, Carmen Martínez-García, Teresa Cotes-Palomino
Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method...
January 25, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772017/an-initiative-to-improve-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-adults-with-type-ii-diabetes-based-on-the-acc-aha-2013-and-ada-2016-guidelines
#17
Litzie Garza, Jean Dols, Maria Gillespie
PURPOSE: This project was designed to increase family practice clinicians' adherence to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (2013) and American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2016) clinical practice guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 40- to 75-year-old adults with type II diabetes (DMII) through interactive education, an electronic alert, and quality improvement sessions on the treatment and management of cholesterol in a family practice primary care setting...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771474/a-flagellum-specific-chaperone-facilitates-assembly-of-the-core-type-iii-export-apparatus-of-the-bacterial-flagellum
#18
Florian D Fabiani, Thibaud T Renault, Britta Peters, Tobias Dietsche, Eric J C Gálvez, Alina Guse, Karen Freier, Emmanuelle Charpentier, Till Strowig, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Boris Macek, Samuel Wagner, Michael Hensel, Marc Erhardt
Many bacteria move using a complex, self-assembling nanomachine, the bacterial flagellum. Biosynthesis of the flagellum depends on a flagellar-specific type III secretion system (T3SS), a protein export machine homologous to the export machinery of the virulence-associated injectisome. Six cytoplasmic (FliH/I/J/G/M/N) and seven integral-membrane proteins (FlhA/B FliF/O/P/Q/R) form the flagellar basal body and are involved in the transport of flagellar building blocks across the inner membrane in a proton motive force-dependent manner...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768167/burning-fat-and-building-bone-by-fsh-blockade
#19
Carlos Henrique Sponton, Shingo Kajimura
The rise of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hallmark of menopause associated with osteoporosis and visceral adiposity. In Nature, Zaidi and colleagues (Liu et al., 2017) report that blocking FSH action reduces body fat by promoting brown/beige fat thermogenesis, potentially providing a new intervention for the treatment of menopause-related metabolic diseases.
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768159/hens-can-ingest-extruded-polystyrene-in-rearing-buildings-and-lay-eggs-contaminated-with-hexabromocyclododecane
#20
Catherine Jondreville, Ronan Cariou, Angélique Travel, Louis-Jean Belhomme, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Bruno Le Bizec, Adeline Huneau-Salaün, Sophie Le Bouquin-Leneveu
The overall concentration of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) in eggs is low although abnormally high concentrations exceeding 3000 ng g(-1) lw have been reported. In order to test whether these contaminations may originate from the ingestion of insulating materials in rearing buildings, a group of 55 hens raised in a collective cage was provided with a 64-g piece of extruded polystyrene (XPS, 2.59% HBCDD of which 75, 15 and 10% as α-, β- and γ-HBCDD, respectively). Hens entirely consumed the piece within 3 days, leading to a mean daily exposure of 4...
July 24, 2017: Chemosphere
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