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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208379/prediction-of-the-moments-in-advection-diffusion-lattice-boltzmann-method-i-truncation-dispersion-skewness-and-kurtosis
#1
Irina Ginzburg
The effect of the heterogeneity in the soil structure or the nonuniformity of the velocity field on the modeled resident time distribution (RTD) and breakthrough curves is quantified by their moments. While the first moment provides the effective velocity, the second moment is related to the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (k_{T}) in the developed Taylor regime; the third and fourth moments are characterized by their normalized values skewness (Sk) and kurtosis (Ku), respectively. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the role of the truncation corrections of the numerical scheme in k_{T}, Sk, and Ku because of their interference with the second moment, in the form of the numerical dispersion, and in the higher-order moments, by their definition...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162597/-355-riluzole-actions-on-sk-channels-in-the-amygdala-in-acute-arthritic-and-chronic-neuropathic-pain
#2
J Thompson, G Ji, V Neugebauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115487/cholinergic-interneurons-underlie-spontaneous-dopamine-release-in-nucleus-accumbens
#3
Jordan T Yorgason, Douglas M Zeppenfeld, John T Williams
: The release of dopamine from terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is regulated by a number of factors, including voltage gated ion channels, D2-autoreceptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Cholinergic interneurons (CINs) drive dopamine release through activation of nAChRs on dopamine terminals. Using cyclic voltammetry in mouse brain slices, nAChR-dependent spontaneous dopamine transients and the mechanisms underlying the origin were examined in the NAc. Spontaneous events were infrequent (0...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108814/the-small-neurotoxin-apamin-blocks-not-only-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channels-sk-type-but-also-the-voltage-dependent-kv1-3-channel
#4
Patrick Voos, Mehtap Yazar, René Lautenschläger, Oliver Rauh, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel
Apamin is frequently used as a specific blocker of small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated (SK type) K(+) channels. Here we show that the small neurotoxin is not as specific as anticipated. It is also a high-affinity inhibitor with an IC50 of 13 nM of the Kv1.3 channel; it blocks the latter with potency similar to the Kv1.3 blocker PAP-1. Since SK type channels and Kv1.3 channels are frequently coexpressed in different tissues such as cells of the immune system, apamin must be used with caution as a pharmacological tool...
January 20, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096168/sk-channel-enhancers-attenuate-ca2-dependent-arrhythmia-in-hypertrophic-hearts-by-regulating-mito-ros-dependent-oxidation-and-activity-of-ryr
#5
Tae Yun Kim, Radmila Terentyeva, Karim H F Roder, Weiyan Li, Man Liu, Ian Greener, Shanna Hamilton, Iuliia Polina, Kevin R Murphy, Richard T Clements, Samuel C Dudley, Gideon Koren, Bum-Rak Choi, Dmitry Terentyev
AIM: s: Plasmamembrane small conductance Ca<su2+p>-activated K<su+ p > (SK) channels were implicated in ventricular arrhythmias in infarcted and failing hearts. Recently, SK channels were detected in the mitochondria inner membrane (mSK), and their activation protected from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that mSK play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function in chronic cardiac diseases...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093473/differential-regulation-of-nmda-receptor-mediated-transmission-by-sk-channels-underlies-dorsal-ventral-differences-in-dynamics-of-schaffer-collateral-synaptic-function
#6
Walter E Babiec, Shekib A Jami, Ryan Guglietta, Patrick B Chen, Thomas J O'Dell
: Behavioral, physiological, and anatomical evidence indicates that the dorsal and ventral zones of the hippocampus have distinct roles in cognition. How the unique functions of these zones might depend on differences in synaptic and neuronal function arising from the strikingly different gene expression profiles exhibited by dorsal and ventral CA1 pyramidal cells is unclear. To begin to address this question, we investigated the mechanisms underlying differences in synaptic transmission and plasticity at dorsal and ventral Schaffer collateral (SC) synapses in the mouse hippocampus...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089668/ebio-does-not-induce-cardiomyogenesis-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-but-modulates-cardiac-subtype-enrichment-by-lineage-selective-survival
#7
Monica Jara-Avaca, Henning Kempf, Michael Rückert, Diana Robles-Diaz, Annika Franke, Jeanne de la Roche, Martin Fischer, Daniela Malan, Philipp Sasse, Wladimir Solodenko, Gerald Dräger, Andreas Kirschning, Ulrich Martin, Robert Zweigerdt
Subtype-specific human cardiomyocytes (CMs) are valuable for basic and applied research. Induction of cardiomyogenesis and enrichment of nodal-like CMs was described for mouse pluripotent stem cells (mPSCs) in response to 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (EBIO), a chemical modulator of small-/intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels (SKs 1-4). Investigating EBIO in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), we have applied three independent differentiation protocols of low to high cardiomyogenic efficiency...
February 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065942/neuregulin-1-erbb-module-in-c-bouton-synapses-on-somatic-motor-neurons-molecular-compartmentation-and-response-to-peripheral-nerve-injury
#8
Anna Casanovas, Sara Salvany, Víctor Lahoz, Olga Tarabal, Lídia Piedrafita, Raimundo Sabater, Sara Hernández, Jordi Calderó, Josep E Esquerda
The electric activity of lower motor neurons (MNs) appears to play a role in determining cell-vulnerability in MN diseases. MN excitability is modulated by cholinergic inputs through C-type synaptic boutons, which display an endoplasmic reticulum-related subsurface cistern (SSC) adjacent to the postsynaptic membrane. Besides cholinergic molecules, a constellation of proteins involved in different signal-transduction pathways are clustered at C-type synaptic sites (M2 muscarinic receptors, Kv2.1 potassium channels, Ca(2+) activated K(+) [SK] channels, and sigma-1 receptors [S1R]), but their collective functional significance so far remains unknown...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050270/downregulation-of-purkinje-cell-activity-by-modulators-of-small-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels-in-rat-cerebellum
#9
T V Karelina, Yu D Stepanenko, P A Abushik, D A Sibarov, S M Antonov
Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK channels) are widely expressed in CNS tissues. Their functions, however, have not been well studied. Participation of SK channels in Purkinje cell (PC) pacemaker activity has been studied predominantly in vitro. Here we studied for the first time the effects of SK channel activation by NS309 or CyPPA on the PC simple spike frequency in vivo in adult (3 - 6 months) and aged (22 - 28 months) rats using extracellular microelectrode recordings. Both pharmacological agents caused a statistically significant decrease in the PC simple spike frequency...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049949/differential-contribution-of-nerve-derived-noradrenaline-to-high-k-induced-contraction-depending-on-type-of-artery
#10
Hirotake Ishida, Shin-Ya Saito, Eita Hishinuma, Tomohisa Ishikawa
High K(+)-induced contraction of arterial smooth muscle is thought to be mediated by membrane depolarization and subsequent activation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs). In line with this, this study found that contraction induced by 80 mM K(+) was almost abolished by nifedipine (1 µM), a VDCC inhibitor, in isolated rat aorta, and was markedly suppressed in the iliac artery. However, nifedipine (1 µM) only partially suppressed high K(+)-induced contraction in the tail artery. The contractions remaining in the arteries were further reduced by non-selective cation channel (NSCC) inhibitors, including 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (100 µM), SK&F96365 (10 µM), and 3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-α-phenyl-N,N-bis[2-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-1-isoquinolineacetamide hydrochloride (LOE908) (10 µM)...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026020/low-pho-boosts-burst-firing-and-catecholamine-release-by-blocking-task-1-and-bk-channels-while-preserving-cav1-channels-in-mouse-chromaffin-cells
#11
Laura Guarina, David H F Vandael, Valentina Carabelli, Emilio Carbone
Mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) generate action potential (AP) firing that regulates the Ca(2+) -dependent release of catecholamines (CAs). Recent findings indicate that MCCs possess a variety of spontaneous firing modes that span from the common "tonic-irregular" to the less frequent "burst" firing. This latter is evident in a small fraction of MCCs but occurs regularly when Nav1.3/1.7 channels are made less available or when the Slo1β2-subunit responsible for BK channel inactivation is deleted. Burst firing causes massive increases of Ca(2+) -entry and potentiates CA release ∼3...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008669/r-type-ca-2-channels-couple-to-inhibitory-neurotransmission-to-the-longitudinal-muscle-in-the-guinea-pig-ileum
#12
Eileen S Rodriguez-Tapia, Vinogran Naidoo, Matthew DeVries, Alberto Perez-Medina, James J Galligan
What is the central question of this study? Subtypes of enteric neurons are coded by the neurotransmitters they synthesize, but it is not known whether enteric neuron subtypes might also be coded by other proteins, including calcium channel subtypes controlling neurotransmitter release. What is the main finding and its importance? Our data indicate that guinea-pig ileum myenteric neuron subtypes may be coded by calcium channel subtypes. We found that R-type calcium channels are expressed by inhibitory but not excitatory longitudinal muscle motoneurons...
December 23, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903742/p2y6-receptor-antagonist-mrs2578-inhibits-neutrophil-activation-and-aggregated-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-induced-by-gout-associated-monosodium-urate-crystals
#13
Payel Sil, Craig P Hayes, Barbara J Reaves, Patrick Breen, Shannon Quinn, Jeremy Sokolove, Balázs Rada
Human neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) generate inflammatory responses within the joints of gout patients upon encountering monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are found abundantly in the synovial fluid of gout patients. The detailed mechanism of MSU crystal-induced NET formation remains unknown. Our goal was to shed light on possible roles of purinergic signaling and neutrophil migration in mediating NET formation induced by MSU crystals. Interaction of human neutrophils with MSU crystals was evaluated by high-throughput live imaging using confocal microscopy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874831/chronic-social-isolation-reduces-5-ht-neuronal-activity-via-upregulated-sk3-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#14
Derya Sargin, David K Oliver, Evelyn K Lambe
The activity of serotonin (5-HT) neurons is critical for mood regulation. In a mouse model of chronic social isolation, a known risk factor for depressive illness, we show that 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus are less responsive to stimulation. Probing the responsible cellular mechanisms pinpoints a disturbance in the expression and function of small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels and reveals an important role for both SK2 and SK3 channels in normal regulation of 5-HT neuronal excitability...
November 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861914/a-unifying-hypothesis-for-m1-muscarinic-receptor-signalling-in-pyramidal-neurons
#15
Sameera Dasari, Corey Hill, Allan T Gulledge
KEY POINTS: Phasic release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the neocortex facilitates attentional processes. Acting at a single metabotropic receptor subtype, ACh exerts two opposing actions in cortical pyramidal neurons: transient inhibition and longer-lasting excitation. Cholinergic inhibitory responses depend on calcium release from intracellular calcium stores, and run down rapidly at resting membrane potentials when calcium stores become depleted. We demonstrate that cholinergic excitation promotes calcium entry at subthreshold membrane potentials to rapidly refill calcium stores, thereby maintaining the fidelity of inhibitory cholinergic signalling...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856251/local-calcium-signalling-is-mediated-by-mechanosensitive-ion-channels-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Vladislav I Chubinskiy-Nadezhdin, Valeria Y Vasileva, Natalia A Pugovkina, Irina O Vassilieva, Elena A Morachevskaya, Nikolay N Nikolsky, Yuri A Negulyaev
Mechanical forces are implicated in key physiological processes in stem cells, including proliferation, differentiation and lineage switching. To date, there is an evident lack of understanding of how external mechanical cues are coupled with calcium signalling in stem cells. Mechanical reactions are of particular interest in adult mesenchymal stem cells because of their promising potential for use in tissue remodelling and clinical therapy. Here, single channel patch-clamp technique was employed to search for cation channels involved in mechanosensitivity in mesenchymal endometrial-derived stem cells (hMESCs)...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844406/partial-bladder-outlet-obstruction-is-associated-with-decreased-expression-and-function-of-the-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channel-in-guinea-pig-detrusor-smooth-muscle
#17
Ning Li, Xiaoning He, Zizheng Li, Yili Liu, Ping Wang
PURPOSE: Partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) usually induces overactive bladder (OAB) associated with detrusor overactivity (DO) which is related to the increased contractility of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM). The pharmacological activation of small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels dramatically attenuates DSM contractility. However, the role of SK channels in the PBOO DSM is less clear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PBOO is associated with decreased expression and function of SK channels in DSM and that the activation of SK channels is a potential target to regulate DO...
November 14, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825825/changes-in-sk-channel-expression-in-the-basal-ganglia-after-partial-nigrostriatal-dopamine-lesions-in-rats-functional-consequences
#18
Christiane Mourre, Christine Manrique, Jeremy Camon, Sabrine Aidi-Knani, Thierry Deltheil, Nathalie Turle-Lorenzo, Gaelle Guiraudie-Capraz, Marianne Amalric
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease originating from the loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC). The small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels play an essential role in the regulation of midbrain DA neuron activity patterns, as well as excitability of other types of neurons of the basal ganglia. We therefore questioned whether the SK channel expression in the basal ganglia is modified in parkinsonian rats and how this could impact behavioral performance in a reaction time task...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798131/cocaine-exposure-enhances-the-activity-of-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons-via-calcium-impermeable-nmdars
#19
Meaghan Creed, Jennifer Kaufling, Giulia R Fois, Marion Jalabert, Tifei Yuan, Christian Lüscher, Francois Georges, Camilla Bellone
: Potentiation of excitatory inputs onto dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) induced by cocaine exposure allows remodeling of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, which ultimately drives drug-adaptive behavior. This potentiation is mediated by changes in NMDAR and AMPAR subunit composition. It remains unknown how this synaptic plasticity affects the activity of dopamine neurons. Here, using rodents, we demonstrate that a single cocaine injection increases the firing rate and bursting activity of VTA dopamine neurons, and that these increases persist for 7 d...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779751/distinct-subcellular-mechanisms-for-the-enhancement-of-the-surface-membrane-expression-of-sk2-channel-by-its-interacting-proteins-%C3%AE-actinin2-and-filamin-a
#20
Zheng Zhang, Hannah A Ledford, Seojin Park, Wenying Wang, Sassan Rafizadeh, Hyo Jeong Kim, Wilson Xu, Ling Lu, Victor C Lau, Anne A Knowlton, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Ebenezer N Yamoah, Nipavan Chiamvimonvat
KEY POINTS: Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that are synthesized within the cells but need to be trafficked to the cell membrane for the channels to function. Small-conductance, Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels (SK, KCa 2) are unique subclasses of K(+) channels that are regulated by Ca(2+) inside the cells; they are expressed in human atrial myocytes and responsible for shaping atrial action potentials. We have previously shown that interacting proteins of SK2 channels are important for channel trafficking to the membrane...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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