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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225577/if-channel-as-an-emerging-therapeutic-target-for-cardiovascular-diseases-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-controversies
#1
REVIEW
Hayelom G Mengesha, Tadesse B Tafesse, Mohammed H Bule
In 2015, non-communicable diseases accounted for 39.5 million (70%) of the total 56.4 million deaths that occurred globally, of which 17.7 million (45%) were due to cardiovascular diseases. An elevated heart rate is considered to be one of the independent predictors and markers of future cardiovascular diseases. A variety of experimental and epidemiological studies have found that atherosclerosis, heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, and arrhythmia are linked to elevated heart rate. Although there are established drugs to reduce the heart rate, these drugs have undesirable side effects...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222932/a-fibers-mediate-cold-hyperalgesia-in-patients-with-oxaliplatin-induced-neuropathy
#2
Julia Forstenpointner, Violetta C Oberlojer, Dennis Naleschinski, Johanna Höper, Stephanie M Helfert, Andreas Binder, Janne Gierthmühlen, Ralf Baron
Cold hyperalgesia is a common side effect of oxaliplatin treatment; still the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms as well as the contribution of different primary afferent fiber systems are unclear. Therefore, patients with oxaliplatin-induced acute neuropathy with (n=6) and without (n=7) cold hyperalgesia were tested by applying a preferential blockade of peripheral myelinated A-fiber afferents in combination with quantitative sensory testing. Additionally, an interview-based questionnaire assessed the severity of symptoms and the impact on daily activities...
December 9, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222687/chrysophyllum-cainito-apple-star-a-fruit-with-gastroprotective-activity-in-experimental-ulcer-models
#3
Roseane Leandra da Rosa, Camila Leandra de Almeida, Lincon Bordigon Somensi, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Clarissa de Medeiros Amorim Krueger, Priscila de Souza, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
The gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extracts from peels (MEPe), seeds (MESe) and pulp (MEPu) of Chrysophyllum cainito L. (Sapotaceae) fruits was evaluated in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer, as well as the antiulcer effect of the juice and flour from this fruit. The lowest oral gastroprotective dose of MEPe, MESe and MEPu against ethanol/HCl was 3, 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, all extracts increased mucin secretion at 176, 198 and 193%. Intraperitoneal administration of MEPe (0...
December 8, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222517/input-dependent-regulation-of-excitability-controls-dendritic-maturation-in-somatosensory-thalamocortical-neurons
#4
Laura Frangeul, Vassilis Kehayas, Jose V Sanchez-Mut, Sabine Fièvre, K Krishna-K, Gabrielle Pouchelon, Ludovic Telley, Camilla Bellone, Anthony Holtmaat, Johannes Gräff, Jeffrey D Macklis, Denis Jabaudon
Input from the sensory organs is required to pattern neurons into topographical maps during development. Dendritic complexity critically determines this patterning process; yet, how signals from the periphery act to control dendritic maturation is unclear. Here, using genetic and surgical manipulations of sensory input in mouse somatosensory thalamocortical neurons, we show that membrane excitability is a critical component of dendritic development. Using a combination of genetic approaches, we find that ablation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors during postnatal development leads to epigenetic repression of Kv1...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222092/targeted-disruption-of-the-kcnj5-gene-in-the-female-mouse-lowers-aldosterone-levels
#5
Iris Hardege, Lu Long, Raya Al Maskari, Nicola Figg, Kevin M O'Shaughnessy
Aldosterone is released from adrenal zona glomerulosa cells and plays an important role in Na and K homeostasis. Mutations in the human KCNJ5 gene encoding the GIRK4 potassium channel cause abnormal aldosterone secretion and hypertension. To better understand the role of wild-type (WT) GIRK4 in regulating aldosterone release we have looked at aldosterone secretion in a Kcnj5 knock-out (KO) mouse.  We found that female, but not male, KO mice have reduced aldosterone levels compared to WT female controls, but higher levels of aldosterone after Ang-II stimulation...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222073/the-functional-impairments-in-a-patient-with-morvan-s-syndrome-a-case-report
#6
Stephanie Tow, Desi Carozza, Kim Barker
A 48 year-old man with lung squamous cell carcinoma was admitted to acute care with cognitive impairment after recent chemotherapy. He developed myoclonus, ataxia, agitation, and visual hallucinations. Morvan's Syndrome, a rare voltage-gated potassium channel antibody disorder characterized by neuromyotonia with central nervous system dysfunction, was eventually diagnosed. He received plasmapheresis and was admitted to inpatient rehabilitation, where he safely participated in therapies. By focusing on neuromuscular rehabilitation, balance training, fine motor skills, and cognitive retraining emphasizing skills relevant to the patient's premorbid cognitive activities, the patient demonstrated significant functional improvement, decreasing the burden of care of his caregivers...
December 5, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220359/synthesis-of-novel-purpurealidin-analogs-and-evaluation-of-their-effect-on-the-cancer-relevant-potassium-channel-kv10-1
#7
Lien Moreels, Chinmay Bhat, Manuela Voráčová, Steve Peigneur, Hannah Goovaerts, Eero Mäki-Lohiluoma, Farrah Zahed, Luis A Pardo, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Paula Kiuru, Jan Tytgat
In the search for novel anticancer drugs, the potassium channel KV10.1 has emerged as an interesting cancer target. Here, we report a new group of KV10.1 inhibitors, namely the purpurealidin analogs. These alkaloids are produced by the Verongida sponges and are known for their wide variety of bioactivities. In this study, we describe the synthesis and characterization of 27 purpurealidin analogs. Structurally, bromine substituents at the central phenyl ring and a methoxy group at the distal phenyl ring seem to enhance the activity on KV10...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219824/thyrotoxic-periodic-paralysis-an-unusual-presentation-of-hyperthyroidism
#8
M Salih, C M J van Kinschot, R P Peeters, W W de Herder, E J J Duschek, J van der Linden, C van Noord
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a complication of hyperthyroidism among Asians, characterised by sudden onset of hypokalaemia and muscle paralysis. Several factors may contribute to a delay in diagnosis, including the subtlety of hyperthyroidism, the transient nature of the events and the rarity of this disease in the West. As life-threatening arrhythmias may occur during an attack, awareness among physicians is necessary for early recognition and treatment. Advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiological mechanism leading to hypokalaemia, which include recently identified mutations of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir2...
October 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219667/endothelial-biology-and-atp-sensitive-potassium-channels
#9
Qadeer Aziz, Yiwen Li, Andrew Tinker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219187/integrated-molecular-biochemical-and-physiological-assessment-unravels-key-extraction-method-mediated-influences-on-rat-neonatal-cardiomyocytes
#10
Leonardo Jensen, Elida Neri, Vinicius Bassaneze, Nathalia Corrêa De Almeida Oliveira, Rafael Dariolli, Thiago Lauro Turaça, Débora Levy, Douglas Veronez, Mariana Sacrini Ayres Ferraz, Adriano Mesquita Alencar, Sérgio Paulo Bydlowski, Idágene Aparecida Cestari, José Eduardo Krieger
Neonatal cardiomyocytes are instrumental for disease modeling, but the effects of different cell extraction methods on basic cell biological processes remain poorly understood. We assessed the influence of two popular methods to extract rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, Pre-plating (PP) and Percoll (PC) on cell structure, metabolism, and function. Cardiomyocytes obtained from PP showed higher gene expression for troponins, titin, and potassium and sodium channels compared to PC. Also, PP cells displayed higher levels of troponin I protein...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218789/precise-localizations-of-voltage-gated-sodium-and-potassium-channels-in-neurons
#11
REVIEW
Hiroaki Misonou
Neurons are extremely large and complex cells, and they regulate membrane potentials in multiple subcellular compartments using a variety of ion channels. Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels are crucial in regulating neuronal membrane excitability owing to their diversity in subtypes, biophysical properties, and localizations. In particular, specific localizations of Nav and Kv channels in specific membrane compartments are essential to achieve a precise control of local membrane excitability...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218312/potassium-homeostasis-oxidative-stress-and-human-disease
#12
Udensi K Udensi, Paul B Tchounwou
Potassium is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid and it plays a vital role in the maintenance of normal cell functions. Thus, potassium homeostasis across the cell membrane, is very critical because a tilt in this balance can result in different diseases that could be life threatening. Both Oxidative stress (OS) and potassium imbalance can cause life threatening health conditions. OS and abnormalities in potassium channel have been reported in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights the major factors involved in potassium homeostasis (dietary, hormonal, genetic, and physiologic influences), and discusses the major diseases and abnormalities associated with potassium imbalance including hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and Gordon's syndrome, Bartter syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome...
2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218016/synergistic-anti-arrhythmic-effects-in-human-atria-with-combined-use-of-sodium-blockers-and-acacetin
#13
Haibo Ni, Dominic G Whittaker, Wei Wang, Wayne R Giles, Sanjiv M Narayan, Henggui Zhang
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Developing effective and safe anti-AF drugs remains an unmet challenge. Simultaneous block of both atrial-specific ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium (K+) current (IKur) and the Na+ current (INa) has been hypothesized to be anti-AF, without inducing significant QT prolongation and ventricular side effects. However, the antiarrhythmic advantage of simultaneously blocking these two channels vs. individual block in the setting of AF-induced electrical remodeling remains to be documented...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217678/hrpu-2-a-homologue-of-mammalian-hnrnp-u-regulates-synaptic-transmission-by-controlling-the-expression-of-slo-2-potassium-channel-in-c-elegans
#14
Ping Liu, Sijie Jason Wang, Zhao-Wen Wang, Bojun Chen
Slo2 channels are large-conductance potassium channels abundantly expressed in the nervous system. However, it is unclear how their expression level in neurons is regulated. Here we report that HRPU-2, an RNA-binding protein homologous to mammalian hnRNP U, plays an important role in regulating the expression of SLO-2 (a homologue of mammalian Slo2) in C. elegans Loss-of-function (lf) mutants of hrpu-2 were isolated in a genetic screen for suppressors of a sluggish phenotype caused by a hyperactive SLO-2. In hrpu-2(lf) mutants, SLO-2-mediated delayed outward currents in neurons are greatly decreased, and neuromuscular synaptic transmission is enhanced...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216270/generation-and-characterization-of-kctd15-mutations-in-zebrafish
#15
Alison Heffer, Gregory D Marquart, Allisan Aquilina-Beck, Nabil Saleem, Harold A Burgess, Igor B Dawid
Potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15 (Kctd15) was previously found to have a role in early neural crest (NC) patterning, specifically delimiting the region where NC markers are expressed via repression of transcription factor AP-2a and inhibition of Wnt signaling. We used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to generate null mutations in zebrafish kctd15a and kctd15b paralogs to study the in vivo role of Kctd15. We found that while deletions producing frame-shift mutations in each paralog showed no apparent phenotype, kctd15a/b double mutant zebrafish are smaller in size and show several phenotypes including some affecting the NC, such as expansion of the early NC domain, increased pigmentation, and craniofacial defects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216239/effects-of-early-afterdepolarizations-on-excitation-patterns-in-an-accurate-model-of-the-human-ventricles
#16
Enid Van Nieuwenhuyse, Gunnar Seemann, Alexander V Panfilov, Nele Vandersickel
Early Afterdepolarizations, EADs, are defined as the reversal of the action potential before completion of the repolarization phase, which can result in ectopic beats. However, the series of mechanisms of EADs leading to these ectopic beats and related cardiac arrhythmias are not well understood. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of this single cell behavior on the whole heart level. For this study we used a modified version of the Ten Tusscher-Panfilov model of human ventricular cells (TP06) which we implemented in a 3D ventricle model including realistic fiber orientations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214635/kv4-2-channel-activity-controls-intrinsic-firing-dynamics-of-arcuate-kisspeptin-neurons
#17
Philipe R F Mendonça, Victoria Kyle, Shel-Hwa Yeo, William H Colledge, Hugh P C Robinson
Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus are critically involved in reproductive function, via their effect on GnRH neuron activity and consequent gonadotropin release. Kisspeptin neurons show an intrinsic irregularity of firing, but the mechanism of this remains unclear. To address this, we carried out targeted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Kiss1Arc ), in brain slices isolated from adult male Kiss-Cre:tdTomato mice. Cells fired irregularly in response to constant current stimuli, with a wide range of spike time variability, and prominent subthreshold voltage fluctuations...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212920/phasic-and-tonic-cell-types-in-the-zebra-finch-auditory-caudal-mesopallium
#18
Andrew N Chen, C Daniel Meliza
The caudal mesopallium (CM) is a cortical-level area in the songbird auditory pathway where selective, invariant responses to familiar songs emerge. To characterize the cell types that perform this computation, we made whole-cell recordings from brain slices in juvenile zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) of both sexes. We found three groups of putatively excitatory neurons with distinct firing patterns. Tonic cells produced sustained responses to depolarizing step currents, phasic cells produced only a few spikes at the onset, and an intermediate group was also phasic but responded for up to a few hundred ms...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212756/the-interaction-between-electromagnetic-fields-at-megahertz-gigahertz-and-terahertz-frequencies-with-cells-tissues-and-organisms-risks-and-potential
#19
Sergii Romanenko, Ryan Begley, Alan R Harvey, Livia Hool, Vincent P Wallace
Since regular radio broadcasts started in the 1920s, the exposure to human-made electromagnetic fields has steadily increased. These days we are not only exposed to radio waves but also other frequencies from a variety of sources, mainly from communication and security devices. Considering that nearly all biological systems interact with electromagnetic fields, understanding the affects is essential for safety and technological progress. This paper systematically reviews the role and effects of static and pulsed radio frequencies (100-109 Hz), millimetre waves (MMWs) or gigahertz (109-1011 Hz), and terahertz (1011-1013 Hz) on various biomolecules, cells and tissues...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212407/-express-rna-interference-based-functional-knockdown-of-the-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-kv7-2-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-after-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-gene-transfer-by-adeno-associated-virus-aav-vectors
#20
Markus Valdor, Anke Wagner, Viola Roehrs, Johanna Berg, Henry Fechner, Wolfgang Schroeder, Gregor Bahrenberg, Thomas Tzschentke, Thomas Christoph, Jens Kurreck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Molecular Pain
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