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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610987/comparison-of-the-capture-efficiency-prey-processing-and-nutrient-extraction-in-a-generalist-and-a-specialist-spider-predator
#1
Luis Fernando García, Carmen Viera, Stano Pekár
Predators are traditionally classified as generalists and specialists based on the presence of adaptations that increase efficiency of prey capture and consumption and selection of particular prey types. Nevertheless, empirical evidence comparing foraging efficiency between generalist and specialist carnivores is scarce. We compared the prey-capture and feeding efficiency in a generalist and a specialist (araneophagous) spider predator. By using two related species, the generalist Harpactea rubicunda (Dysderidae) and the specialist Nops cf...
April 2, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602732/-impact-of-obesity-in-kidney-transplantation-monocentric-cohort-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Clarisse Grèze, Bruno Pereira, Yves Boirie, Laurent Guy, Cyril Garrouste, Anne-Élisabeth Heng
Post-kidney transplantation outcomes in obese patients remain uncertain. The aim of this study is to compare patient and graft survival and post-transplant complications in obese patients and non-obese patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of a sample of 245kidney transplantations performed between 2008 and 2014 in Clermont-Ferrand. Obese patients and non-obese patients have been compared. Then we compared obese patients who have lost at least 5% of their weight (OPP) with obese patients who did not lose weight (OPS), and non-obese patients who have lost at least 5% of their weight (NOPP) with non-obese patients who did not lose weight (NOPS)...
March 27, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588336/measurement-of-gross-photosynthesis-respiration-in-the-light-and-mesophyll-conductance-using-h-2-18-o-labeling
#3
Paul Pg Gauthier, Mark O Battle, Kevin L Griffin, Michael L Bender
A fundamental challenge in plant physiology is independently determining the rates of gross O2 production by photosynthesis and O2 consumption by respiration, photorespiration, and other processes. Previous studies on isolated chloroplasts or leaves have separately constrained net and gross O2 production (NOP and GOP, respectively) by labeling ambient O2 with 18O while leaf water was unlabeled. Here, we describe a method to accurately measure GOP and NOP of whole detached leaves in a cuvette as a routine gas exchange measurement...
March 27, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582417/dissecting-the-spinal-nop-receptor-distribution-under-a-chronic-pain-model-using-nop-egfp-knock-in-mice
#4
Akihiko Ozawa, Gloria Brunori, Andrea Cippitelli, Nicholas Toll, Jennifer Schoch, Brigitte L Kieffer, Lawrence Toll
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Nociceptin/orphanin FQ Opioid Peptide (NOP) receptor system plays a significant role in the regulation of pain, and functions differently in the spinal cord and brain. The mechanism by which the NOP receptor agonists regulate pain transmission in these regions is not clearly understood. Here we investigate the peripheral and spinal NOP receptor distribution and antinociceptive effects of intrathecally (i.t) administered nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) under chronic neuropathic pain state...
March 26, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536238/damage-control-surgery-in-perforated-diverticulitis-ongoing-peritonitis-at-second-surgery-predicts-a-worse-outcome
#5
M A Sohn, A Agha, P Steiner, A Hochrein, M Komm, R Ruppert, P Ritschl, F Aigner, I Iesalnieks
PURPOSE: Damage control strategy (DCS) is a two-staged procedure for the treatment of perforated diverticular disease complicated by generalized peritonitis. The aim of this retrospective multicenter cohort study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of an ongoing peritonitis at the time of second surgery. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent DCS for perforated diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon with generalized peritonitis at four surgical centers were included...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524385/selectivity-profiling-of-nop-mop-dop-and-kop-receptor-antagonists-in-the-rat-spinal-nerve-ligation-model-of-mononeuropathic-pain
#6
Kris Rutten, Wolfgang Schröder, Thomas Christoph, Thomas Koch, Thomas M Tzschentke
Agonists selectively acting at NOP, MOP, DOP and KOP receptors as well as mixed opioid receptor agonists are known to exert anti-hypersensitive efficacy in the rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain. To investigate the relative contribution of individual opioid receptor activation to the overall efficacy of mixed opioid receptor agonists, selective doses of respective opioid receptor antagonists have to be employed. In order to identify such selective antagonist doses, doses of the selective NOP, MOP, DOP and KOP receptor agonists Ro65-6570, morphine, SNC-80 and U50488H, that produced maximum efficacy without apparent side effects, were challenged by each of the receptor antagonists J-113397 (NOP receptor), naloxone (MOP receptor), naltrindole (DOP receptor) and nor-binaltorphimine (KOP receptor)...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518234/comparison-of-dosimetric-parameters-in-the-treatment-planning-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-intracavitary-image-guided-adaptive-brachytherapy-with-and-without-optimization-using-the-central-shielding-technique
#7
Ryo Nishikawa, Kenji Yoshida, Yasuhiko Ebina, Mayumi Omoteda, Daisuke Miyawaki, Takeaki Ishihara, Yasuo Ejima, Hiroaki Akasaka, Hitoaki Satoh, Katsusuke Kyotani, Satoru Takahashi, Ryohei Sasaki
This study aimed to compare dosimetric parameters between non-optimized and optimized treatment planning (NOP and OP, respectively) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -based intracavitary (IC) image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) using the central shielding (CS) technique for cervical cancer. Fifty-three patients treated with external beam radiotherapy using CS and MRI-based IGABT with the IC approach alone were evaluated. The total high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) D90 was aimed at >70 Gy equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497085/recognition-motif-and-mechanism-of-ripening-inhibitory-peptides-in-plant-hormone-receptor-etr1
#8
Dalibor Milić, Markus Dick, Daniel Mulnaes, Christopher Pfleger, Anna Kinnen, Holger Gohlke, Georg Groth
Synthetic peptides derived from ethylene-insensitive protein 2 (EIN2), a central regulator of ethylene signalling, were recently shown to delay fruit ripening by interrupting protein-protein interactions in the ethylene signalling pathway. Here, we show that the inhibitory peptide NOP-1 binds to the GAF domain of ETR1 - the prototype of the plant ethylene receptor family. Site-directed mutagenesis and computational studies reveal the peptide interaction site and a plausible molecular mechanism for the ripening inhibition...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470146/towards-an-effective-peripheral-visceral-analgesic-responding-to-the-national-opioid-crisis
#9
Michael Camilleri
This is an editorial summarizing recent new developments in visceral analgesics. This promising field is important as a new approach to address abdominal pain with peripheral visceral analgesics is considered a key approach to addressing the current opioid crisis. Some of the novel compounds address peripheral pain mechanisms through modulation of opioid receptors through biased ligands, nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide (NOP) receptor or dual action on NOP and μ-opioid receptor, buprenorphine and morphiceptin analogs...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469023/influence-of-a-multidisciplinary-protocol-on-nutritional-status-at-diagnosis-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
Juan José López-Gómez, Beatriz Torres-Torres, Emilia Gómez-Hoyos, Nieves Fernández-Buey, Ana Ortolá-Buigues, Ángeles Castro-Lozano, Juan F Arenillas-Lara, Daniel A De Luis-Román
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study were to understand the influence of a multidisciplinary care protocol in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on the change in the delay of remission to the nutrition specialist and the initial nutritional status. METHODS: A cohort study was performed in 43 patients with ALS who were referred to the Nutrition Unit between April 2015 and April 2017. Anthropometric parameters and diagnostic times were collected, and the nutritional status was studied through subjective global assessment (SGA)...
November 28, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391860/the-relationship-between-ocular-itch-ocular-pain-and-dry-eye-symptoms-an-american-ophthalmological-society-thesis
#11
Anat Galor, Leslie Small, William Feuer, Roy C Levitt, Konstantinos D Sarantopoulos, Gil Yosipovitch
Purpose: To evaluate associations between sensations of ocular itch and dry eye (DE) symptoms, including ocular pain, and DE signs. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 324 patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic was performed. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding ocular itch, DE symptoms, descriptors of neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP), and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing...
August 2017: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378191/involvement-of-the-n-ofq-nop-system-in-rat-morphine-antinociceptive-tolerance-are-astrocytes-the-crossroad
#12
Laura Micheli, Elena Lucarini, Francesca Corti, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Girolamo Calò, Anna Rizzi, Carla Ghelardini, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli
The development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect is a main problem associated with the repeated administration of opioids. The progressively higher doses required to relieve pain reduce safety and exacerbate the side effects of classical opioid receptor agonists like morphine. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its NOP receptor constitute the fourth endogenous opioid system that is involved in the control of broad spectrum of biological functions, including pain transmission. Aim of this work was to evaluate the relevance of the N/OFQ-NOP system in morphine antinociceptive action and in the development of morphine tolerance in the rat...
January 26, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372025/cytotoxic-activity-and-subset-populations-of-peripheral-blood-natural-killer-cells-in-patients-with-chronic-pain
#13
Jae Joon Yoon, Ji A Song, Sue Youn Park, Jeong Il Choi
Background: Chronic pain reportedly exerts complex effects on immune function. Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that play a critical role in cellular and innate immunity. This study examined changes in the subset populations and cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood NK cells in patients with chronic pain. Methods: Thirty patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain (group P) and age-matched pain-free subjects (group NoP) were enrolled. Peripheral whole blood was analyzed for the percentage and expression of NK cell surface markers (CD56 and CD16) by flow cytometry...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340866/-in-silico-study-of-the-binding-of-two-novel-antagonists-to-the-nociceptin-receptor
#14
Stefano Della Longa, Alessandro Arcovito
Antagonists of the nociceptin receptor (NOP) are raising interest for their possible clinical use as antidepressant drugs. Recently, the structure of NOP in complex with some piperidine-based antagonists has been revealed by X-ray crystallography. In this study, a multi-flexible docking (MF-docking) procedure, i.e. docking to multiple receptor conformations extracted by preliminary molecular dynamics trajectories, together with hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations have been carried out to provide the binding mode of two novel NOP antagonists, one of them selective (BTRX-246040, formerly named LY-2940094) and one non selective (AT-076), i...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332567/nociceptin-orphanin-fq-peptide-nop-receptor-modulators-an-update-in-structure-activity-relationships
#15
Carlo Mustazza, Stefano Pieretti, Francesca Marzoli
Nociceptin /Orphanin FQ Peptide" receptor (NOPr) is a G-protein-coupled receptor with the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (N/OFQ) as endogenous agonist. It is expressed in the nervous system as well as in some non-neural tissues. Its activation has pronociceptive effect at the supraspinal level, whereas at the spinal level it produces nociceptive effects at low doses and antinociceptive effects at higher doses. NOPr is also involved in mood and blood pressure regulation, immunoregulation, airway constriction, feeding, urination, bowel motility, learning and memory...
January 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316911/the-standardized-withania-somnifera-dunal-root-extract-alters-basal-and-morphine-induced-opioid-receptor-gene-expression-changes-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#16
Francesca Felicia Caputi, Elio Acquas, Sanjay Kasture, Stefania Ruiu, Sanzio Candeletti, Patrizia Romualdi
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies demonstrated that the administration of Withania somnifera Dunal roots extract (WSE), prolongs morphine-elicited analgesia and reduces the development of tolerance to the morphine's analgesic effect; however, little is known about the underpinning molecular mechanism(s). In order to shed light on this issue in the present paper we explored whether WSE promotes alterations of μ (MOP) and nociceptin (NOP) opioid receptors gene expression in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
January 10, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249118/endovascular-thoracic-aortic-transection-repair-has-equivalent-survival-to-open-repair-after-blunt-thoracic-aortic-injury
#17
Young Erben, Gerardo Trejo, Adam J Brownstein, Raymond A Jean, Bulat A Ziganshin, Davide Carino, John A Elefteriades, Adrian A Maung
BACKGROUND: Blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) is highly lethal and its management has evolved with the advent of endovascular approaches. We hypothesized that endovascular repair (ER) would have equivalent/improved survival compared to open repair (OR). The aim of our study was to review our center's morbidity and mortality after BTAI. METHODS: Our Level I trauma center registry was queried for BTAI between 2002-2015. This cohort was stratified into three groups: ER, OR and those patients managed non-operatively (NOP)...
April 2018: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235037/expression-and-significance-of-cytokeratin-7-a-squamocolumnar-junction-marker-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Mitra Mehrad, William D Dupont, W Dale Plummer, James S Lewis
The favorable features of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in the head and neck are limited to those harboring transcriptionally-active HPV, which occur predominantly in the oropharynx (OP). Factors rendering the OP susceptible to HPV oncogenesis are largely unexplored. The role of cytokeratin 7 (CK7) in predisposition to HPV and cancer in the cervix has been evaluated. However, its significance in the H&N is unknown. CK7 immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue microarray cohort of OP and non-oropharyngeal (NOP) squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) with known clinical follow-up and HPV E6/7 mRNA status...
December 12, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232769/anti-parkinsonian-and-anti-dyskinetic-profiles-of-two-novel-potent-and-selective-nociceptin-orphanin-fq-receptor-agonists
#19
Ludovico Arcuri, Salvatore Novello, Martina Frassineti, Daniela Mercatelli, Clarissa Anna Pisanò, Ilaria Morella, Stefania Fasano, Blair V Journigan, Michael E Meyer, Willma E Polgar, Riccardo Brambilla, Nurulain T Zaveri, Michele Morari
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We previously showed that nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide (NOP) receptor agonists attenuate the expression of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease. We now investigate the efficacy of two novel, potent and chemically distinct NOP receptor agonists, AT-390 and AT-403, to improve Parkinsonian disabilities and attenuate dyskinesia development and expression. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Binding affinity and functional efficacy of AT-390 and AT-403 at the opioid receptors were determined in radioligand displacement assays and in GTPγS binding assays respectively, conducted in CHO cells...
March 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231765/imaging-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-nociceptin-in-addiction-and-ptsd-models
#20
Savannah Tollefson, Michael Himes, Rajesh Narendran
Addiction is composed of three phases: intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Negative reinforcement, strengthening a behaviour by removing an aversive stimulus, has been associated with the withdrawal phase. An imbalance of neurotransmitters within the brain's stress (nociceptin, neuropeptide Y) and anti-stress (CRF, norepinephrine, etc.) system is attributed to negatively reinforced compulsive behaviours associated with relapse. Similarly, post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by an overactive stress system...
December 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
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