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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776014/association-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-with-brain-structure-uk-biobank-study
#1
Mark Hamer, Nikhil Sharma, G David Batty
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may be beneficial for cognition but mechanisms are unclear. We examined the association between objectively assessed physical activity and brain volume, with a focus on the hippocampus region. METHODS: We used data from UK Biobank (n=5,272; aged 55.4±7.5 yrs; 45.6% men) collected through 2013-2016. Participants wore the Axivity AX3 wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer for seven days to assess habitual physical activity. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a standard Siemens Skyra 3T running VD13A SP4 to obtain images of the brain...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776007/development-and-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-swedish-propensity-to-achieve-healthy-lifestyle-scale-in-patients-with-hypertension
#2
Anders Broström, A H Pakpour, Martin Ulander, Per Nilsen
PURPOSE: To develop and validate a Swedish questionnaire to measure propensity for behaviour change regarding food habits, physical activity and weight reduction in patients with hypertension. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. METHODS: A total of 270 consecutive patients with hypertension diagnosed at 4 primary care centres in Sweden were included. The 6-item Swedish version of the Propensity to Achieve Healthy Lifestyle Scale (PAHLS) was developed to measure propensity for behaviour change regarding food habits, physical activity and weight reduction...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775962/preterm-birth-and-oxidative-stress-effects-of-acute-physical-exercise-and-hypoxia-physiological-responses
#3
Agnès Martin, Camille Faes, Tadej Debevec, Chantal Rytz, Grégoire Millet, Vincent Pialoux
Preterm birth is a global health issue that can induce lifelong medical sequela. Presently, at least one in ten newborns are born prematurely. At birth, preterm newborns exhibit higher levels of oxidative stress (OS) due to the inability to face the oxygen rich environment in which they are born into. Moreover, their immature respiratory, digestive, immune and antioxidant defense systems, as well as the potential numerous medical interventions following a preterm birth, such as oxygen resuscitation, nutrition, phototherapy and blood transfusion further contribute to high levels of OS...
May 1, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775886/sprint-interval-training-sit-substantially-reduces-depressive-symptoms-in-major-depressive-disorder-mdd-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Alice Minghetti, Oliver Faude, Henner Hanssen, Lukas Zahner, Markus Gerber, Lars Donath
Continuous aerobic exercise training (CAT) is considered a complementary treatment option in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Intermittent exercise training protocols, such as sprint interval training (SIT) have gained increasing popularity, but no studies on depressive symptoms following SIT in patients with MDD are available. Fifty-nine in-patients with MDD were randomly assigned to a SIT or CAT group. Medication was counterbalanced in both intervention arms. Both intervention groups received 3 weekly training sessions for 4-weeks (12 sessions in total)...
May 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775747/mediterranean-diet-and-depression-among-older-individuals-the-multinational-medis-study
#5
Maria F Masana, Josep Maria Haro, Anargiros Mariolis, Suzanne Piscopo, Giuseppe Valacchi, Vassiliki Bountziouka, Foteini Anastasiou, Akis Zeimbekis, Dimitra Tyrovola, Efthimios Gotsis, George Metallinos, Anna Polystipioti, Josep-Antoni Tur, Antonia-Leda Matalas, Christos Lionis, Evangelos Polychronopoulos, Labros S Sidossis, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
BACKGROUND: Depression has been linked to a large and growing economic and societal burden worldwide. In Europe, depression is one of the most frequent mental disorders across all age groups, but particularly in people aged 65 years and over, and higher depressive symptoms have been reported among individuals with chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes and heart disease). AIM: To evaluate the role of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) in depression in a sample of older people living in the Mediterranean basin...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775746/anthropometric-measurements-and-mortality-in-frail-older-adults
#6
Jonathan F Easton, Christopher R Stephens, Heriberto Román-Sicilia, Matteo Cesari, Mario Ulises Pérez-Zepeda
BACKGROUND: As the number of older adults increases, so does the number of frail older adults. Although anthropometry has been widely used as a way to stratify the overall mortality risk of a person, the significance of these measurements becomes blurred in the case of frail older adults who have changes in body composition. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the association of anthropometric measurements (body mass index, knee-adjusted height body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and calf circumference) with mortality risk in a group of older Mexican adults...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775593/structure-of-telomerase-with-telomeric-dna
#7
Jiansen Jiang, Yaqiang Wang, Lukas Sušac, Henry Chan, Ritwika Basu, Z Hong Zhou, Juli Feigon
Telomerase is an RNA-protein complex (RNP) that extends telomeric DNA at the 3' ends of chromosomes using its telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and integral template-containing telomerase RNA (TER). Its activity is a critical determinant of human health, affecting aging, cancer, and stem cell renewal. Lack of atomic models of telomerase, particularly one with DNA bound, has limited our mechanistic understanding of telomeric DNA repeat synthesis. We report the 4.8 Å resolution cryoelectron microscopy structure of active Tetrahymena telomerase bound to telomeric DNA...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775582/src-3-coactivator-governs-dynamic-estrogen-induced-chromatin-looping-interactions-during-transcription
#8
Anil K Panigrahi, Charles E Foulds, Rainer B Lanz, Ross A Hamilton, Ping Yi, David M Lonard, Ming-Jer Tsai, Sophia Y Tsai, Bert W O'Malley
Enhancers are thought to activate transcription by physically contacting promoters via looping. However, direct assays demonstrating these contacts are required to mechanistically verify such cellular determinants of enhancer function. Here, we present versatile cell-free assays to further determine the role of enhancer-promoter contacts (EPCs). We demonstrate that EPC is linked to mutually stimulatory transcription at the enhancer and promoter in vitro. SRC-3 was identified as a critical looping determinant for the estradiol-(E2)-regulated GREB1 locus...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775580/znfx-1-functions-within-perinuclear-nuage-to-balance-epigenetic-signals
#9
Takao Ishidate, Ahmet R Ozturk, Daniel J Durning, Rita Sharma, En-Zhi Shen, Hao Chen, Meetu Seth, Masaki Shirayama, Craig C Mello
Animal cells have a remarkable capacity to adopt durable and heritable gene expression programs or epigenetic states that define the physical properties and diversity of somatic cell types. The maintenance of epigenetic programs depends on poorly understood pathways that prevent gain or loss of inherited signals. In the germline, epigenetic factors are enriched in liquid-like perinuclear condensates called nuage. Here, we identify the deeply conserved helicase-domain protein, ZNFX-1, as an epigenetic regulator and component of nuage that interacts with Argonaute systems to balance epigenetic inheritance...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775549/growth-trajectories-of-young-children-s-objectively-determined-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-body-mass-index
#10
Zan Gao
PURPOSE: This study examined trajectories in children's physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and body mass index (BMI) for both genders, and relationships among these trajectories, from childhood through early adolescence. METHODS: A total of 261 seconds and third-grade children (135 girls; Meanage  = 7.81; 73% White) from two U.S. elementary schools participated in this study. Their objective PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI were measured yearly from 2012 to 2015...
May 18, 2018: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775483/ldha-gene-is-associated-with-pigeon-survivability-during-racing-competitions
#11
Sherif Ramadan, Takeshi Miyake, Junichi Yamaura, Miho Inoue-Murayama
Pigeon racing is a popular sport worldwide. Pigeons are under continuous selection to improve speed, spatial orientation, and endurance during long flights. However, numerous genetic and non-genetic factors affect survivability and homing ability, making such traits difficult for breeders to control. Polymorphisms in the lactate dehydrogenase A gene (LDHA) likely affects pigeon racing and homing abilities, due to its role in physical and mental performance. Additionally, the adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 gene (ADCYAP1) has been associated with physiological and behavioral shifts that occur during avian migration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775379/decision-to-return-to-sport-participation-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-part-ii-self-reported-and-functional-performance-outcomes
#12
Jennifer L Werner, Julie P Burland, Carl G Mattacola, Jenny Toonstra, Robert A English, Jennifer S Howard
CONTEXT:   Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) is the most commonly used method for helping athletes regain function and return to preinjury activity levels after ACL injury. Outcomes after ACLR have suggested that athletes return to a level of function that would support a return to sport participation; however, in a recent meta-analysis, pooled return rates were only 55%. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is a result of functional impairments. OBJECTIVE:   To compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs), dynamic balance, dynamic functional performance, strength, and muscular endurance in athletes who have returned to sport (RTS) and athletes who have not returned to sport (NRTS) after ACLR...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775377/rate-and-state-friction-relation-for-nanoscale-contacts-thermally-activated-prandtl-tomlinson-model-with-chemical-aging
#13
Kaiwen Tian, David L Goldsby, Robert W Carpick
Rate and state friction (RSF) laws are widely used empirical relationships that describe macroscale to microscale frictional behavior. They entail a linear combination of the direct effect (the increase of friction with sliding velocity due to the reduced influence of thermal excitations) and the evolution effect (the change in friction with changes in contact "state," such as the real contact area or the degree of interfacial chemical bonds). Recent atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments and simulations found that nanoscale single-asperity amorphous silica-silica contacts exhibit logarithmic aging (increasing friction with time) over several decades of contact time, due to the formation of interfacial chemical bonds...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775247/microspheres-self-assembled-by-anti-site-defect-less-nanocrystal-lifepo4-c-rgo-to-achieve-both-high-rate-capability-and-high-tap-density-for-li-ion-batteries
#14
Hongbin Wang, Lijia Liu, Runwei Wang, Xiao Yan, Ziqi Wang, Jiangtao Hu, Haibiao Chen, Shang Jiang, Ling Ni, Hailong Qiu, Haitong Tang, Yingjin Wei, Zongtao Zhang, Qiu Shilun, Feng Pan
LiFePO4@C/rGO hierarchical microspheres with superior electrochemical activity and high tap density were first synthesized using a Fe3+-based single inorganic precursor (LiFePO4OH@RF/GO) obtained from a template-free self-assembly synthesis, following with direct calcination. The synthesis process requires no physical mixing step. The phase transformation path way from tavorite LiFePO4OH to olivine LiFePO4 upon calcination was determined by the in situ high temperature XRD technique. Benefitted from the unique structure of the material, these microspheres can be densely packed together, giving a high tap density of 1...
May 18, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775076/walking-with-controlled-breathing-improves-exercise-tolerance-anxiety-and-quality-of-life-in-heart-failure-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Hsiu-Chin Teng, Mei-Ling Yeh, Mei-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure experience not only impaired physical condition, but also their physical activity, moods, and quality of life may be diminished. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12-week walking with breathing program on physical activity tolerance considering time-dependent physiological factors and time-independent interoceptive awareness, as well as psychosocial factors. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial recruited 90 heart failure patients and randomly assigned them...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774990/searching-for-a-mitochondrial-root-to-the-decline-in-muscle-function-with-ageing
#16
EDITORIAL
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Fatemeh Adelnia, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is linked to a range of adverse outcomes, such as impaired physical performance, cognitive function, and mortality. Preventing sarcopenia may reduce the burden of functional decline with aging and its impact on physiological and economic well-being in older adults. Mitochondria in muscle cells lose their intrinsic efficiency and capacity to produce energy during aging, and it has been hypothesized that such a decline is the main driver of sarcopenia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774952/plant-roots-redesign-the-rhizosphere-to-alter-the-three-dimensional-physical-architecture-and-water-dynamics
#17
Sheikh M F Rabbi, Matthew K Tighe, Richard J Flavel, Brent N Kaiser, Chris N Guppy, Xiaoxian Zhang, Iain M Young
The mechanisms controlling the genesis of rhizosheaths are not well understood, despite their importance in controlling the flux of nutrients and water from soil to root. Here, we examine the development of rhizosheaths from drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive chickpea varieties; focusing on the three-dimensional characterization of the pore volume (> 16 μm voxel spatial resolution) obtained from X-ray microtomography, along with the characterization of mucilage and root hairs, and water sorption. We observe that drought-tolerant plants generate a larger diameter root, and a greater and more porous mass of rhizosheath, which also has a significantly increased water sorptivity, as compared with bulk soil...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774619/different-types-of-multiple-synapse-boutons-in-the-cerebellar-cortex-between-physically-enriched-and-ataxic-mutant-mice
#18
Hyun-Wook Kim, Seunghak Oh, Seung Hwan Lee, Sanghoon Lee, Ji-Eun Na, Kea Joo Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
Experience-dependent synapse remodeling is associated with information storage in the nervous system. Neuronal synapses show alteration in various neurological and cognitive disorders in their structure and function. At the ultrastructural level, parallel fiber boutons contacting multiple spines of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex are commonly observed in physiologically enriched animals as well as pathological ataxic mutants. However, the dendritic origin of those spines on parallel fiber multiple-synapse boutons (MSBs) has been poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774489/the-role-of-lifestyle-in-male-infertility-diet-physical-activity-and-body-habitus
#19
REVIEW
Russell P Hayden, Ryan Flannigan, Peter N Schlegel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing attention to primary and secondary prevention of male infertility through modifiable lifestyle factors has gained traction amongst both patients and infertility specialists. In this review, the available evidence of modifiable lifestyle choices, specifically diet, physical activity, and body habitus, are evaluated. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examining diet, exercise/physical activity, and body habitus are characterized by conflicting conclusions, difficult confounders, and imperfect end points to judge male reproductive potential...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774358/successful-ageing-in-singapore-prevalence-and-correlates-from-a-national-survey-of-older-adults
#20
Mythily Subramaniam, Edimansyah Abdin, Janhavi A Vaingankar, Rajeswari Sambasivam, Esmond Seow, Louisa Picco, Hong Choon Chua, Rathi Mahendran, Li Ling Ng, Siow Ann Chong
INTRODUCTION: The current study aimed to estimate the overall prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of successful ageing, as defined by Rowe and Kahn, among a national sample of multiethnic adults aged 60 years and older in Singapore. METHODS: Data from older adults who participated in the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study were analysed in the present study. Successful ageing included five indicators: no major diseases; no disability; high cognitive functioning; high physical functioning; and active engagement with life...
May 18, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
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