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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434193/mediators-of-socioeconomic-differences-in-adiposity-among-youth-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
M K Gebremariam, N Lien, R A Nianogo, O A Arah
BACKGROUND: Youth with a low socioeconomic position in developed countries are at a disproportionately higher risk of being overweight or obese than their counterparts. Tackling these inequalities requires that the mechanisms behind them are well understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to summarize existing evidence regarding the factors that mediate or contribute to the explanation of the relationship between socioeconomic position and adiposity among youth...
April 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434185/can-targeted-policies-reduce-obesity-and-improve-obesity-related-behaviours-in-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-populations-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
D L Olstad, R Ancilotto, M Teychenne, L M Minaker, D R Taber, K D Raine, C I J Nykiforuk, K Ball
This review synthesized evidence from controlled studies pertaining to the impact of targeted policies on anthropometric, dietary and physical activity outcomes amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged children and adults. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Equity guidelines were followed. Eligible studies were published from 2004 to August 2015 and examined the impact of targeted policies on anthropometric, dietary and physical activity outcomes amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged populations...
April 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434180/stated-uptake-of-physical-activity-rewards-programmes-among-active-and-insufficiently-active-full-time-employees
#3
Semra Ozdemir, Marcel Bilger, Eric A Finkelstein
BACKGROUND: Employers are increasingly relying on rewards programmes in an effort to promote greater levels of activity among employees; however, if enrolment in these programmes is dominated by active employees, then they are unlikely to be a good use of resources. OBJECTIVE: This study uses a stated-preference survey to better understand who participates in rewards-based physical activity programmes, and to quantify stated uptake by active and insufficiently active employees...
April 22, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433934/amino-acid-functionalized-gadofullerene-nanoparticles-with-superior-antitumor-activity-via-destruction-of-tumor-vasculature-in%C3%A2-vivo
#4
Yue Zhou, Ruijun Deng, Mingming Zhen, Jie Li, Mirong Guan, Wang Jia, Xue Li, Ying Zhang, Tong Yu, Toujun Zou, Zhigao Lu, Jun Guo, Lei Sun, Chunying Shu, Chunru Wang
Researchers have been puzzled of the therapy of malignant tumors and the current therapeutic strategies are always accompanied by toxicity or side effects. Developing efficient nanodrugs could reduce the dosage and greatly improve the therapeutic effects in cancer treatments. Here we initially reported a novel kind of gadofullerene nanoparticles functionalized with amino acid (β-alanine), which exhibited a superior antitumor activity in hepatoma H22 models via a novel therapeutic mechanism. The involvement of β-alanine improved the tumor inhibition rate up to 76...
April 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433552/roscovitine-attenuates-intimal-hyperplasia-via-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-stat3-activation-induced-by-tnf-%C3%AE-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#5
Ming He, Chao Wang, Jia-Huan Sun, Yu Liu, Hong Wang, Jing-Shan Zhao, Yun-Feng Li, Hong Chang, Jian-Ming Hou, Jun-Na Song, Ai-Ying Li, En-Sheng Ji
Roscovitine is a selective CDK inhibitor originally designed as anti-cancer agent, which has also been shown to inhibit proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, its effect on vascular remodeling and its mechanism of action remain unknown. In our study, we created a new intimal hyperplasia model in male Sprague-Dawley rats by trypsin digestion method, which cause to vascular injury as well as the model of rat carotid balloon angioplasty. Roscovitine administration led to a significant reduction in neointimal formation and VSMCs proliferation after injury in rats...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433473/sex-difference-in-the-heat-shock-response-to-high-external-load-resistance-training-in-older-humans
#6
Rose Njemini, Louis Nuvagah Forti, Tony Mets, Evelien Van Roie, Walter Coudyzer, Ingo Beyer, Christophe Delecluse, Ivan Bautmans
BACKGROUND: Literature reports on the effects of resistance training on heat shock protein70 (Hsp70) adaptation in older subjects are scarce. Moreover, the optimum training load required to obtain a beneficial adaptation profile is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training at various external loads on extracellular Hsp70 (eHsp70) resting levels in older humans. METHODS: Fifty-six community-dwelling older (68±5years) volunteers were randomized to 12weeks of resistance training (3×/week) at either high-resistance (HIGH, 8 males, 10 females, 2×10-15 repetitions at 80%1RM), low resistance (LOW, 9 Males, 10 Females, 1×80-100 repetitions at 20%1RM), or mixed low resistance (LOW+, 9 Males, 10 Females, 1×60 repetitions at 20%1RM followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40%1RM)...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433457/spatial-and-temporal-expression-patterns-of-genes-around-nine-neuroticism-associated-loci
#7
Kazutaka Ohi, Takamitsu Shimada, Toshiki Yasuyama, Kohei Kimura, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
Neuroticism is a high-order personality trait. Individuals with higher neuroticism have increased risks of various psychiatric disorders and physical health outcomes. Neuroticism is related to physiological differences in the brain. A recent genome-wide association study identified nine distinct genomic loci that contribute to neuroticism. Brain development and function depend on the precise regulation of gene expression, which is differentially regulated across brain regions and developmental stages. Using multiple publicly available human post-mortem databases, we investigated, in brain and non-brain tissues and across several developmental life stages, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of genes arising from nine neuroticism-associated loci...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433180/novel-carboxymethyl-cellulose-polyvinyl-alcohol-blend-films-stabilized-by-pickering-emulsion-incorporation-method
#8
Hadi Fasihi, Mohammad Fazilati, Mahdi Hashemi, Nooshin Noshirvani
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of increasing the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of biodegradable active films stabilized via Pickering emulsions. The blend films were prepared from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), emulsified with oleic acid (OL) and incorporated with rosemary essential oil (REO). Formation of Pickering emulsion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy, mean droplet size and emulsion stability. Morphological, optical, physical, mechanical, thermal, antifungal and antioxidant properties of the films incorporated with different concentrations of REO (0...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433168/evaluation-of-the-physical-properties-and-conservation-of-the-antioxidants-content-employing-inulin-and-maltodextrin-in-the-spray-drying-of-blueberry-juice
#9
S B Araujo-Díaz, C Leyva-Porras, P Aguirre-Bañuelos, C Álvarez-Salas, Z Saavedra-Leos
In this work, two carbohydrate polymers, inulin (I) and maltodextrin (MX), were compared as carrying agents in the spray drying of blueberry juice (BJ). The physicochemical properties and the conservation of the antioxidants content were characterized. Both systems, showed non-agglomerated particles and light-purple color appearance. Powders were subjected to the adsorption of water, and the glass transition temperature (Tg) decreased with the water activity. The evolution of the microstructure in the MX-BJ remained unchanged, while the I-BJ presented an abrupt change from amorphous to crystalline...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433163/fabrication-of-schizophyllan-hydrogel-via-orthogonal-thiol-ene-photopolymerization
#10
Sora Lee, Hyunhyuk Tae, Chang Seok Ki
Schizophyllan (SPG) is a water soluble β-glucan, which is obtained from Schizophyllum commune. SPG has been widely explored with its unique properties such as triple helical structure, immune-modulation, and anti-tumoral activity. In this study, we tried to fabricate SPG hydrogel via thiol-ene photopolymerization. SPG-norbornene and SPG-thiol were synthesized from ultrasonicated SPG. Two types of SPG hydrogels (SPG and PEG/SPG hybrid) were formed via thiol-ene photo-click reaction. By controlling the SPG content and stoichiometric balance of norbornene and thiol groups, swelling ratio and shear elastic modulus of SPG hydrogel could be controlled in the range of 20-60 and 0...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432710/medical-students-perceptions-of-the-importance-of-exercise-and-their-perceived-competence-in-prescribing-exercise-to-older-people
#11
Agathe Daria Jadczak, Khai Loon Tam, Solomon Yu, Renuka Visvanathan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a 4.5-week geriatric medicine course on fifth year medical students' perception of the importance of and their competence in prescribing exercise to older people. METHODS: The modified Exercise and Physical Activity Competence Questionnaire was administered to 81 students before and after the course. Scores ranged from 0 to 6. One open-ended question about perceived barriers to exercise prescription was asked. RESULTS: Students' perceptions of the importance of designing an exercise prescription (P = 0...
April 22, 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432680/longitudinal-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour-in-preschool-aged-children-with-cerebral-palsy-across-all-functional-levels
#12
Piyapa Keawutan, Kristie L Bell, Stina Oftedal, Robert S Ware, Richard D Stevenson, Peter S W Davies, Roslyn N Boyd
AIM: To investigate longitudinal changes of habitual physical activity (HPA) and sedentary time in children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 1 year 6 months to 5 years across all functional abilities. METHOD: At study entry, 95 children (62 males, 33 females) were classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) at levels I (50), II (9), III (16), IV (6), and V (14). Physical activity was recorded on a total of 159 occasions at four possible time points: 1 year 6 months to 2 years; 2 years 6 months to 3 years; 4 years; and 5 years using ActiGraph for 3 days...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432611/comparison-of-human-erythrocyte-purine-nucleotide-metabolism-and-blood-purine-and-pyrimidine-degradation-product-concentrations-before-and-after-acute-exercise-in-trained-and-sedentary-subjects
#13
Wioleta Dudzinska, M Suska, A Lubkowska, K Jakubowska, M Olszewska, K Safranow, D Chlubek
This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of erythrocyte purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) in trained and sedentary subjects before and after maximal physical exercise together with measuring the activity of purine metabolism enzymes as well as the concentration of purine (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid) and pyrimidine (uridine) degradation products in blood. The study included 15 male elite rowers [mean age 24.3 ± 2.56 years; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 52.8 ± 4.54 mL/kg/min; endurance and strength training 8...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432494/primary-prevention-and-screening-practices-among-long-term-breast-cancer-survivors
#14
Lori Mandelzweig, Angela Chetrit, Tova Amitai, Barbara Silverman, Nava Siegelmann-Danieli, Siegal Sadetzki
PURPOSE: Parallel to increasing survival of breast cancer (BC) patients, a need has arisen to characterize the follow-up required to improve and maintain their health. Our study aimed to assess changes in lifestyle habits over time among the study population, compare compliance rates of selected primary and secondary prevention practices between long-term BC survivors and an age-matched comparison group, and identify factors associated with compliance to these practices. METHODS: The study population comprised 250 Israeli BC survivors, diagnosed with BC between 1999 and 2003, without evidence of disease after 8-12 years, and 250 women with no cancer history, individually matched to survivors by age and area of residence...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432448/resistance-to-radial-expansion-limits-muscle-strain-and-work
#15
E Azizi, A R Deslauriers, N C Holt, C E Eaton
The collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle functions to transmit force, protect sensitive structures, and generate passive tension to resist stretch. The mechanical properties of the ECM change with age, atrophy, and neuromuscular pathologies, resulting in an increase in the relative amount of collagen and an increase in stiffness. Although numerous studies have focused on the effect of muscle fibrosis on passive muscle stiffness, few have examined how these structural changes may compromise contractile performance...
April 21, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432136/selective-modulation-of-the-pupil-light-reflex-by-prefrontal-cortex-microstimulation
#16
R Becket Ebitz, Tirin Moore
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to flexibly regulate sensorimotor responses. One way the PFC regulates sensorimotor transformations is to modulate activity in other circuits. However, the scope of that control remains unknown: it remains unclear whether the prefrontal cortex can modulate basic reflexes. One canonical example of a central reflex is the pupil light reflex (PLR): the automatic constriction of the pupil in response to luminance increments. Unlike pupil size, which depends the interaction of multiple physiological and neuromodulatory influences, the PLR reflects the action of a simple brainstem circuit...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432116/effects-of-exercise-and-aging-on-skeletal-muscle
#17
Giovanna Distefano, Bret H Goodpaster
A substantial loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia), a decreased regenerative capacity, and a compromised physical performance are hallmarks of aging skeletal muscle. These changes are typically accompanied by impaired muscle metabolism, including mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. A challenge in the field of muscle aging is to dissociate the effects of chronological aging per se on muscle characteristics from the secondary influence of lifestyle and disease processes. Remarkably, physical activity and exercise are well-established countermeasures against muscle aging, and have been shown to attenuate age-related decreases in muscle mass, strength, and regenerative capacity, and slow or prevent impairments in muscle metabolism...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#18
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432033/lipids-as-central-modulators-of-sensory-trp-channels
#19
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Ciardo, Antonio Ferrer-Montiel
The transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family is involved in a diversity of physiological processes including sensory and homeostatic functions, as well as muscle contraction and vasomotor control. Their dysfunction contributes to the etiology of several diseases, being validated as therapeutic targets. These ion channels may be activated by physical or chemical stimuli and their function is highly influenced by signaling molecules activated by extracellular signals. Notably, as integral membrane proteins, lipid molecules also modulate their membrane location and function either by direct interaction with the channel structure or by modulating the physico-chemical properties of the cellular membrane...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432018/on-the-role-of-api-in-determining-porosity-pore-structure-and-bulk-modulus-of-the-skeletal-material-in-pharmaceutical-tablets-formed-with-mcc-excipient
#20
Cathy Ridgway, Prince Bawuah, Daniel Markl, J Axel Zeitler, Jarkko Ketolainen, Kai-Erik Peiponen, Patrick Gane
The physical properties and mechanical integrity of pharmaceutical tablets are of major importance when loading with active pharmaceutical ingredient(s) (API) in order to ensure ease of processing, control of dosage and stability during transportation and handling prior to patient consumption. The interaction between API and excipient, acting as functional extender and binder, however, is little understood in this context. The API indomethacin is combined in this study with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) at increasing loading levels...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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