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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790161/time-after-seawater-transfer-influences-immune-cell-abundance-and-responses-to-sav3-infection-in-atlantic-salmon
#1
J Jarungsriapisit, L J Moore, I U Fiksdal, H Bjørgen, A Tangerås, B Köllner, E O Koppang, S Patel
Pancreas disease (PD) caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) severely affects salmonid aquaculture during the seawater phase. To characterize immune cells in target tissues for SAV infection, heart, pancreas and pyloric caeca were analysed from two groups of fish adapted to seawater for 2 and 9 weeks. The sections were scored for the relative abundance of cells expressing MHC class II, IgM, CD3, CD8 or neutrophil/granulocyte markers using immuno-histochemical techniques. In general, necrosis of tissue was more severe in fish infected at 2 weeks post-seawater transfer (wpt) compared with those infected at 9 wpt...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783708/following-acute-encephalitis-semliki-forest-virus-is-undetectable-in-the-brain-by-infectivity-assays-but-functional-virus-rna-capable-of-generating-infectious-virus-persists-for-life
#2
Rennos Fragkoudis, Catherine M Dixon-Ballany, Adrian K Zagrajek, Lukasz Kedzierski, John K Fazakerley
Alphaviruses are mosquito-transmitted RNA viruses which generally cause acute disease including mild febrile illness, rash, arthralgia, myalgia and more severely, encephalitis. In the mouse, peripheral infection with Semliki Forest virus (SFV) results in encephalitis. With non-virulent strains, infectious virus is detectable in the brain, by standard infectivity assays, for around ten days. As we have shown previously, in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, infectious virus is detectable for months in the brain...
May 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772674/encapsidated-host-factors-in-alphavirus-particles-influence-midgut-infection-of-aedes-aegypti
#3
David Mackenzie-Liu, Kevin J Sokoloski, Sarah Purdy, Richard W Hardy
Transmission of mosquito-borne viruses requires the efficient infection of both a permissive vertebrate host and a competent mosquito vector. The infectivity of Sindbis virus (SINV), the type species of the Alphavirus genus, is influenced by both the original and new host cell. We have shown that infection of vertebrate cells by SINV, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Ross River virus (RRV) produces two subpopulations of virus particles separable based on density. In contrast, a single population of viral particles is produced by mosquito cells...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769725/mxra8-is-a-receptor-for-multiple-arthritogenic-alphaviruses
#4
Rong Zhang, Arthur S Kim, Julie M Fox, Sharmila Nair, Katherine Basore, William B Klimstra, Rebecca Rimkunas, Rachel H Fong, Hueylie Lin, Subhajit Poddar, James E Crowe, Benjamin J Doranz, Daved H Fremont, Michael S Diamond
Arthritogenic alphaviruses comprise a group of enveloped RNA viruses that are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes and cause debilitating acute and chronic musculoskeletal disease 1 . The host factors required for alphavirus entry remain poorly characterized 2 . Here we use a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9-based screen to identify the cell adhesion molecule Mxra8 as an entry mediator for multiple emerging arthritogenic alphaviruses, including chikungunya, Ross River, Mayaro and O'nyong nyong viruses. Gene editing of mouse Mxra8 or human MXRA8 resulted in reduced levels of viral infection of cells and, reciprocally, ectopic expression of these genes resulted in increased infection...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769351/protein-phosphatase-1%C3%AE-interacts-with-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-capsid-protein-and-regulates-viral-replication-through-modulation-of-capsid-phosphorylation
#5
Brian D Carey, Tatiana Ammosova, Chelsea Pinkham, Xionghao Lin, Weidong Zhou, Lance A Liotta, Sergei Nekhai, Kylene Kehn-Hall
Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase which has been implicated in the regulation of a number of viruses including HIV-1, Ebolavirus and Rift Valley fever virus. Catalytic subunits of PP1 (PP1α, PP1β, or PP1γ) interact with a host of regulatory subunits and target a wide variety of cellular substrates through a combination of short binding motifs, including an RVxF motif present in the majority of PP1 regulatory subunits. Targeting the RVxF interacting site on PP1 with the small molecule, 1E7-03 inhibits HIV-1, Ebolavirus, and Rift Valley fever virus replication...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745869/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-togaviridae
#6
Rubing Chen, Suchetana Mukhopadhyay, Andres Merits, Bethany Bolling, Farooq Nasar, Lark L Coffey, Ann Powers, Scott C Weaver, Ictv Report Consortium
The Togaviridae is a family of small, enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 10-12 kb. Within the family, the genus Alphavirus includes a large number of diverse species, while the genus Rubivirus includes the single species Rubella virus. Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and are pathogenic in their vertebrate hosts. Many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. chikungunya virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus). Rubella virus is transmitted by respiratory routes among humans...
May 10, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743363/comparative-characterization-of-the-sindbis-virus-proteome-from-mammalian-and-invertebrate-hosts-identifies-nsp2-as-a-component-of-the-virus-nucleocapsid-and-sorting-nexin-5-as-a-significant-host-factor-for-alphavirus-replication
#7
Ryan Schuchman, Andy Kilianski, Amanda Piper, Ricardo Vancini, José M C Ribeiro, Thomas R Sprague, Farooq Nasar, Gabrielle Boyd, Raquel Hernandez, Trevor Glaros
Recent advances in mass spectrometry methods and instrumentation now allow for more accurate identification of proteins in low abundance. This technology was applied to Sindbis virus, the prototypical alphavirus to investigate the viral proteome. To determine if host proteins are specifically packaged into alphavirus virions, Sindbis virus (SINV) was grown in multiple host cells representing vertebrate and mosquito hosts and total protein content of purified virions was determined. This analysis identified host factors not previously associated with alphavirus entry, replication, or egress...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737271/human-and-equine-infection-with-alphaviruses-and-flaviviruses-in-panam%C3%A3-during-2010-a-cross-sectional-study-of-household-contacts-during-an-encephalitis-outbreak
#8
Jean-Paul Carrera, Karoun H Bagamian, Amelia P Travassos da Rosa, Eryu Wang, Davis Beltran, Nathan D Gundaker, Blas Armien, Gianfranco Arroyo, Néstor Sosa, Juan Miguel Pascale, Anayansi Valderrama, Robert B Tesh, Amy Y Vittor, Scott C Weaver
Members of the genera Alphavirus (family Togaviridae ) and Flavivirus (family Flaviridae ) are important zoonotic human and equine etiologic agents of neurologic diseases in the New World. In 2010, an outbreak of Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly eastern equine encephalitis virus) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infections was reported in eastern Panamá. We further characterized the epidemiology of the outbreak by studying household contacts of confirmed human cases and equine cases with neurological disease signs...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730006/crystal-structure-of-chikungunya-virus-nsp2-cysteine-protease-reveals-a-putative-flexible-loop-blocking-its-active-site
#9
Manju Narwal, Harvijay Singh, Shivendra Pratap, Anjali Malik, Richard J Kuhn, Pravindra Kumar, Shailly Tomar
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne pathogenic alphavirus is a growing public health threat. No vaccines or antiviral drug is currently available in the market for chikungunya treatment. nsP2pro, the viral cysteine protease, carries out an essential function of nonstructural polyprotein processing and forms four nonstructural proteins (nsPs) that makes the replication complex, hence constitute a promising drug target. In this study, crystal structure of nsP2pro has been determined at 2.59 Ǻ, which reveals that the protein consists of two subdomains: N-terminal protease subdomain and C-terminal methyltransferase subdomain...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717692/corrigendum-death-and-gastrointestinal-bleeding-complicate-encephalomyelitis-in-mice-with-delayed-appearance-of-cns-igm-after-intranasal-alphavirus-infection
#10
Victoria K Baxter, Elizabeth M Troisi, Nathan M Pate, Julia N Zhao, Diane E Griffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702546/mutation-of-cd2ap-and-sh3kbp1-binding-motif-in-alphavirus-nsp3-hypervariable-domain-results-in-attenuated-virus
#11
Margit Mutso, Ainhoa Moliner Morro, Cecilia Smedberg, Sergo Kasvandik, Muriel Aquilimeba, Mona Teppor, Liisi Tarve, Aleksei Lulla, Valeria Lulla, Sirle Saul, Bastian Thaa, Gerald M McInerney, Andres Merits, Margus Varjak
Infection by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) of the Old World alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) in humans can cause arthritis and arthralgia. The virus encodes four non-structural proteins (nsP) (nsP1, nsp2, nsP3 and nsP4) that act as subunits of the virus replicase. These proteins also interact with numerous host proteins and some crucial interactions are mediated by the unstructured C-terminal hypervariable domain (HVD) of nsP3. In this study, a human cell line expressing EGFP tagged with CHIKV nsP3 HVD was established...
April 27, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695694/-maturation-and-antigen-loading-protocols-influence-activity-of-anticancer-dendritic-cells
#12
Zh K Nazarkina, A Zajakina, P P Laktionov
The practical use of dendritic cell-based vaccines in anticancer therapy is limited by a lack of standards for dendritic cell (DC) generation, as well as standard procedures for controlling their activation and the technique of DC loading with nucleic acids encoding tumor antigens. Analyzing the currently available data, the most promising cocktails for DC maturation were selected and a comparative study of the cocktails and time of maturation on the capacity of DC to activate T-cell immune response has been performed...
March 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695432/a-chikungunya-virus-trans-replicase-system-reveals-the-importance-of-delayed-non-structural-polyprotein-processing-for-efficient-replication-complex-formation-in-mosquito-cells
#13
Koen Bartholomeeusen, Age Utt, Sandra Coppens, Kai Rausalu, Katleen Vereecken, Kevin K Ariën, Andres Merits
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a medically important alphavirus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The viral replicase complex consists of four non-structural proteins (nsPs) expressed as polyprotein precursor and encompasses all enzymatic activities required for viral RNA replication. nsPs interact with host components of which most are still poorly understood, especially in mosquitos. A CHIKV trans-replicase system that allows the uncoupling of RNA replication and nsPs expression was adapted to mosquito cells and subsequently used for analysis of universal and host-specific effects of 17 different non-structural (ns) polyprotein mutations...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695431/timeliness-of-proteolytic-events-is-prerequisite-for-efficient-functioning-of-the-alphaviral-replicase
#14
Valeria Lulla, Liis Karo-Astover, Kai Rausalu, Sirle Saul, Andres Merits, Aleksei Lulla
Polyprotein processing has an important regulatory role in the lifecycle of positive-strand RNA viruses. In the case of alphaviruses, sequential cleavage of non-structural (ns) polyprotein at three sites eventually yields four mature ns-proteins that continue working in complex to replicate viral genomic RNA and transcribe subgenomic RNA. Recognition of cleavage sites by viral nsP2 protease is guided by short sequences upstream of the scissile bond and, more importantly, by the spatial organization of the replication complex...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692243/isatin-derivatives-and-their-antiviral-properties-against-arboviruses-a-review
#15
Paulo Andre Teixeira De Moraes Gomes, Lindomar Jose Pena, Ana Cristina Lima Leite
Arboviruses have been spreading rapidly throughout the Western Hemisphere in recent decades. Among the arboviruses with high morbidity and mortality are members of the Alphavirus and Flavivirus genera. Within the first genus, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is considered one of the most challenging human arboviral infections with global significance and without any specific antiviral agent. Flaviviruses are some of the most important causes of encephalitis, haemorrhagic disease, and developmental defects. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are examples of flaviviruses without clinically approved antiviral agents...
April 23, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680670/identification-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-the-chikungunya-virus-nsp1-rna-capping-enzyme
#16
Kristen M Feibelman, Benjamin P Fuller, Linfeng Li, Daniel V LaBarbera, Brian J Geiss
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus. Alphaviruses are positive strand RNA viruses that require a 5' cap structure to direct translation of the viral polyprotein and prevent degradation of the viral RNA genome by host cell nucleases. Formation of the 5' RNA cap is orchestrated by the viral protein nsP1, which binds GTP and provides the N-7 methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase activities that are necessary for cap formation. Viruses with aberrant nsP1 activity are unable to replicate effectively suggesting that nsP1 is a promising target for antiviral drug discovery...
April 20, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672511/vector-competence-of-italian-aedes-albopictus-populations-for-the-chikungunya-virus-e1-226v
#17
Francesco Severini, Daniela Boccolini, Claudia Fortuna, Marco Di Luca, Luciano Toma, Antonello Amendola, Eleonora Benedetti, Giada Minelli, Roberto Romi, Giulietta Venturi, Giovanni Rezza, Maria Elena Remoli
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus, belonging to the Togaviridae family, Alphavirus genus, transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Since 2007, two different CHIKV stains (E1-226A and E1-226V) have been responsible for outbreaks in European countries, including Italy, sustained by Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. FINDINGS: In this study, we assessed the susceptibility to the CHIKV E1-226V, strain responsible for the Italian 2007 outbreak, of eight Ae...
April 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652644/alphaviruses-serological-evidence-of-human-infection-in-paraguay-2012-2013
#18
Fátima Cardozo, Brenda Konigheim, Guillermo Albrieu-Llinás, María Elisa Rivarola, Javier Aguilar, Alejandra Rojas, Agustín Ignacio Quaglia, Malvina Paez, Yvalena Guillén, Adrian Diaz, María Asunción Vallejos, Lilian Herebia, María Lidia Recalde, Marta Silvia Contigiani, Laura Mendoza
INTRODUCTION: Alphaviruses can produce febrile illness and encephalitis in dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. Within this genus, the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) complex includes pathogenic epizootic subtypes and enzootic subtypes that are not pathogenic in horses (except subtype IE, Mexican strains), although they can cause febrile symptoms in humans. The Rio Negro virus (RNV-VEEV subtype VI) circulates in Argentina, where it was associated with undifferentiated febrile illness...
March 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643398/deciphering-the-dark-proteome-of-chikungunya-virus
#19
Ankur Singh, Ankur Kumar, Rakhi Yadav, Vladimir N Uversky, Rajanish Giri
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus. The outbreak of CHIKV infection has been seen in many tropical and subtropical regions of the biosphere. Current reports evidenced that after outbreaks in 2005-06, the fitness of this virus propagating in Aedes albopictus enhanced due to the epistatic mutational changes in its envelope protein. In our study, we evaluated the prevalence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions (IDPRs) in CHIKV proteome. IDPs/IDPRs are known as members of a 'Dark Proteome' that defined as a set of polypeptide segments or whole protein without unique three-dimensional structure within the cellular milieu but with significant biological functions, such as cell cycle regulation, control of signaling pathways, and maintenance of viral proteomes...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624598/high-costs-of-infection-alphavirus-infection-reduces-digestive-function-and-bone-and-feather-growth-in-nestling-house-sparrows-passer-domesticus
#20
Carol A Fassbinder-Orth, Tess L Killpack, Dylan S Goto, Ellecia L Rainwater, Valerie I Shearn-Bochsler
Increasingly, ecoimmunology studies aim to use relevant pathogen exposure to examine the impacts of infection on physiological processes in wild animals. Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses ("arboviruses") responsible for millions of cases of human illnesses each year. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is a unique alphavirus that is transmitted by a cimicid insect, the swallow bug, and is amplified in two avian species: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)...
2018: PloS One
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