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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910194/chikungunya-virus-induced-arthritis-role-of-host-and-viral-factors-in-the-pathogenesis
#1
Sarika Amdekar, Deepti Parashar, Kalichamy Alagarasu
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of Alphavirus genus, is responsible for chikungunya fever (CHIKF), which is characterized by the presence of fever, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Reemergence of CHIKV has become a significant public health concern in Asian and African countries and is newly emerging in the Middle East, Pacific, American, and European countries. Cytokines, innate (monocytes, natural killer cells) and adaptive immune response (role of B cells and T cells i.e. CD4(+) and CD8(+)), and/or viral factors contribute to CHIKV-induced arthritis...
September 14, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895870/protection-of-commercial-turkeys-following-inactivated-or-recombinant-h5-vaccine-application-against-the-2015u-s-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#2
Darrell R Kapczynski, Matthew J Sylte, Mary L Killian, Mia K Torchetti, Klaudia Chrzastek, David L Suarez
Between December 2014 and June 2015, North America experienced the largest recorded foreign animal disease outbreak with over 47 million poultry dead or euthanized from viral exposure to a clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic. Soon after the epizootic began, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) began testing the efficacy of different vaccines as a possible future control strategy. The aim of these studies were to evaluate the efficacy three H5 vaccines to aid in control of HPAI in commercial turkeys...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886943/short-and-long-term-protective-efficacy-against-clade-2-3-4-4-h5n2-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-following-prime-boost-vaccination-in-turkeys
#3
Jefferson J S Santos, Adebimpe O Obadan, Stivalis Cardenas Garcia, Silvia Carnaccini, Darrell R Kapczynski, Mary Pantin-Jackwood, David L Suarez, Daniel R Perez
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections are frequently associated with systemic disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, particularly in chickens and turkeys. Clade 2.3.4.4 represents a genetic cluster within the Asian HPAIV H5 Goose/Guangdong lineage that has transmitted through migratory birds and spread throughout the world. In 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 strains entered the U.S. via the Pacific flyway, reassorted with local strains of the North American lineage, and produced novel HPAIV strains of the H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 subtypes...
September 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875416/nmr-study-of-non-structural-proteins-part-iii-1-h-13-c-15-n-backbone-and-side-chain-resonance-assignment-of-macro-domain-from-chikungunya-virus-chikv
#4
Michail V Lykouras, Aikaterini C Tsika, Julie Lichière, Nicolas Papageorgiou, Bruno Coutard, Detlef Bentrop, Georgios A Spyroulias
Macro domains are conserved protein domains found in eukaryotic organisms, bacteria, and archaea as well as in certain viruses. They consist of 130-190 amino acids and can bind ADP-ribose. Although the exact role of these domains is not fully understood, the conserved binding affinity for ADP-ribose indicates that this ligand is important for the function of the domain. Such a macro domain is also present in the non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) of Chikungunya Alphavirus (CHIKV) and consists of 160 amino acids...
September 5, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874015/arboviruses-isolated-from-mosquitoes-collected-in-uganda-2008-2012
#5
Eric C Mossel, Mary B Crabtree, John-Paul Mutebi, Julius J Lutwama, Erin M Borland, Ann M Powers, Barry R Miller
A large number of arthropod-borne viruses are endemic to East Africa. As a part of the process of undertaking a systematic characterization of the mosquito fauna of Uganda, we examined mosquitoes collected from 2008 through early 2012 for known and novel viruses. In all, 8,288 mosquito pools containing 157,554 mosquitoes were tested. Twenty-nine isolations of 11 different viruses were made from mosquitoes of nine distinct species and from pools identified only to genus Culex. Identified viruses were from family Togaviridae, alphaviruses Sindbis and Babanki viruses; family Rhabdoviridae, hapaviruses Mossuril and Kamese viruses; family Flaviviridae, flaviviruses West Nile and Usutu viruses; family Phenuiviridae, phlebovirus Arumowot virus; and family Peribunyaviridae, orthobunyaviruses Witwatersrand, Pongola, and Germiston viruses...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842264/evaluation-of-antiviral-activity-of-piperazine-against-chikungunya-virus-targeting-hydrophobic-pocket-of-alphavirus-capsid-protein
#6
Megha Aggarwal, Ramanjit Kaur, Amrita Saha, Rajat Mudgal, Ravi Yadav, Paban Kumar Dash, Manmohan Parida, Pravindra Kumar, Shailly Tomar
Small heterocyclic molecules such as piperazine are potential pharmacotherapeutic agents and binding of these molecules to the hydrophobic pocket of capsid protein (CP) offers a new perspective for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report the crystal structure of CP from Aura virus (AVCP) in complex with piperazine at 2.2 Å resolution. Piperazine binds to the conserved hydrophobic pocket of CP where dioxane based antivirals bind. Comparative structural studies of the piperazine-bound AVCP structure with the apo, active and dioxane-bound AVCP structures provide insights into the conformational variations in the pocket...
August 24, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835505/interferon-regulatory-factor-1-irf-1-protects-against-chikungunya-virus-induced-immunopathology-by-restricting-infection-in-muscle-cells
#7
Sharmila Nair, Subhajit Poddar, Raeann M Shimak, Michael S Diamond
The innate immune system protects cells against viral pathogens in part through the autocrine and paracrine actions of interferons (IFN)-α/β (type I), -γ (type II), and -λ (type III). The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 has a demonstrated role in shaping innate and adaptive antiviral immunity by inducing the expression of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) and mediating signals downstream of IFN-γ. Although ectopic expression experiments have suggested an inhibitory function of IRF-1 against infection of alphaviruses in cell culture, its role in vivo remains unknown...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829253/o-nyong-nyong-fever-a-neglected-mosquito-borne-viral-disease
#8
Giovanni Rezza, Rubing Chen, Scott C Weaver
O'nyong nyong virus (ONNV), a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, is primarily transmitted through the bite of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, which are also malaria parasite vectors in Africa. The virus, first isolated in Uganda in 1959, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and has caused several major outbreaks both in West and East Africa. ONNV fever, characterized by severe arthralgia, is similar to chikungunya fever, with the exception of cervical lymphadenitis, which is peculiar to the former...
August 22, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820485/disentangling-the-frames-the-state-of-research-on-the-alphavirus-6k-and-tf-proteins
#9
REVIEW
Jolene Ramsey, Suchetana Mukhopadhyay
For 30 years it was thought the alphavirus 6K gene encoded a single 6 kDa protein. However, through a bioinformatics search 10 years ago, it was discovered that there is a frameshifting event and two proteins, 6K and transframe (TF), are translated from the 6K gene. Thus, many functions attributed to the 6K protein needed reevaluation to determine if they properly belong to 6K, TF, or both proteins. In this mini-review, we reevaluate the past research on 6K and put those results in context where there are two proteins, 6K and TF, instead of one...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771475/evolution-and-spread-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-complex-alphavirus-in-the-americas
#10
Naomi L Forrester, Joel O Wertheim, Vivian G Dugan, Albert J Auguste, David Lin, A Paige Adams, Rubing Chen, Rodion Gorchakov, Grace Leal, Jose G Estrada-Franco, Jyotsna Pandya, Rebecca A Halpin, Kumar Hari, Ravi Jain, Timothy B Stockwell, Suman R Das, David E Wentworth, Martin D Smith, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Scott C Weaver
Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphaviruses are important re-emerging arboviruses that cause life-threatening disease in equids during epizootics as well as spillover human infections. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of VEE complex alphaviruses by sequencing the genomes of 94 strains and performing phylogenetic analyses of 130 isolates using complete open reading frames for the nonstructural and structural polyproteins. Our analyses confirmed purifying selection as a major mechanism influencing the evolution of these viruses as well as a confounding factor in molecular clock dating of ancestors...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760614/regulatory-considerations-in-development-of-vaccines-to-prevent-disease-caused-by-chikungunya-virus
#11
REVIEW
Sixun Yang, Doran Fink, Andrea Hulse, R Douglas Pratt
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus. Chikungunya disease (CHIK) in humans is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, cutaneous rash, myalgia and debilitating polyarthralgia. Until recently the virus was considered endemic to only Africa and Asia, but since 2004 CHIK has spread to previously non-endemic regions, including Europe and the Americas, thereby emerging as a global health threat. Although a variety of CHIKV vaccine candidates have been tested in animals, and a few have advanced to human clinical trials, no licensed vaccine is currently available for prevention of disease...
July 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754345/ross-river-virus-disease-clinical-presentation-pathogenesis-and-current-therapeutic-strategies
#12
Xiang Liu, Kothila Tharmarajah, Adam Taylor
Ross River virus (RRV) is an arthitogenic alphavirus capable of causing outbreaks of debilitating musculoskeletal inflammatory disease in humans. RRV is the most common mosquito-borne disease in Australia, with outbreaks of RRV generally occurring during seasonal wet and warm conditions. Patients with Ross River virus disease (RRVD) typically present with fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia and a maculopapular erythematous rash. Treatment of the disease is usually palliative with no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies currently available...
July 25, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747508/mutations-in-the-e2-glycoprotein-and-the-3-untranslated-region-enhance-chikungunya-virus-virulence-in-mice
#13
David W Hawman, Kathryn S Carpentier, Julie M Fox, Nicholas A May, Wes Sanders, Stephanie A Montgomery, Nathaniel J Moorman, Michael S Diamond, Thomas E Morrison
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes debilitating musculoskeletal pain and inflammation and can persist for months to years after acute infection. Although studies in humans and experimentally-infected animals suggest that CHIKV infection persists in musculoskeletal tissues, the mechanisms for this remain poorly understood. To evaluate this further, we isolated CHIKV from the serum of persistently infected Rag1(-/-) mice at day 28. When inoculated into naïve WT mice, this persistently circulating CHIKV strain displayed a capacity for earlier dissemination and greater pathogenicity compared with the parental virus...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744856/age-has-a-role-in-driving-host-immunopathological-response-to-alphavirus-infection
#14
REVIEW
Yi-Hao Chan, Lisa F P Ng
Alphaviruses are a group of arthropod-borne pathogens capable of causing a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from milder symptoms like rashes, fever and polyarthralgia, to life-threatening encephalitis. This genus of viruses is prevalent globally, and can infect patients across a wide age range. Interestingly, disease severity of virus-infected patients is wide-ranging. Definitions of the pathogenesis of alphaviruses, as well as the host factors influencing disease severity, remain limited. The innate and adaptive immune systems are important host defences against alphavirus infections...
July 26, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738838/improved-detection-of-genus-specific-alphavirus-using-a-generic-taqman%C3%A2-assay
#15
Claude Giry, Bénédicte Roquebert, Ghislaine Li-Pat-Yuen, Philippe Gasque, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee
BACKGROUND: Alphaviruses are arthropod borne RNA viruses of medical importance. Geographical expansion of mosquitoes of the Aedes genus in the past decades has been associated with major Alphavirus-associated outbreaks. Climate changes and intensification of air travels have favored vector expansion and virus dissemination in new territories leading to virus emergence not only in tropical areas but also in temperate regions. The detection of emergence is based upon surveillance networks with epidemiological and laboratory investigation...
July 24, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720784/snap-tagged-chikungunya-virus-replicons-improve-visualisation-of-non-structural-protein-3-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#16
Roland Remenyi, Grace C Roberts, Carsten Zothner, Andres Merits, Mark Harris
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus, causes febrile disease, muscle and joint pain, which can become chronic in some individuals. The non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) plays essential roles during infection, but a complete understanding of its function is lacking. Here we used a microscopy-based approach to image CHIKV nsP3 inside human cells. The SNAP system consists of a self-labelling enzyme tag, which catalyses the covalent linking of exogenously supplemented synthetic ligands. Genetic insertion of this tag resulted in viable replicons and specific labelling while preserving the effect of nsP3 on stress granule responses and co-localisation with GTPase Activating Protein (SH3 domain) Binding Proteins (G3BPs)...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720756/pixuna-virus-modifies-host-cell-cytoskeleton-to-secure-infection
#17
Pedro Ignacio Gil, Guillermo Albrieu-Llinás, Estela Cecilia Mlewski, Marina Monetti, Laura Fozzatti, Cecilia Cuffini, José Fernández Romero, Patricia Kunda, María Gabriela Paglini
Pixuna virus (PIXV) is an enzootic member of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus complex and belongs to the New World cluster of alphaviruses. Herein we explore the role of the cellular cytoskeleton during PIXV replication. We first identified that PIXV undergoes an eclipse phase consisting of 4 h followed by 20 h of an exponential phase in Vero cells. The infected cells showed morphological changes due to structural modifications in actin microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs). Cytoskeleton-binding agents, that alter the architecture and dynamics of MFs and MTs, were used to study the role of cytoskeleton on PIXV replication...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719301/development-of-a-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-o-nyong-nyong-virus-and-evaluation-with-clinical-and-mosquito-specimens-from-kenya
#18
Jesse Waggoner, Claire Jane Heath, Bryson Ndenga, Francis Mutuku, Malaya K Sahoo, Alisha Mohamed-Hadley, John Vulule, Dunstan Mukoko, A Desiree LaBeaud, Benjamin A Pinsky
O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), an alphavirus closely related to chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has been the documented cause of two large outbreaks in east Africa; however, little is known about the contribution of ONNV to cases of acute febrile illness during interepidemic periods. An ONNV real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was developed and evaluated using clinical and mosquito pool samples. The ONNV rRT-PCR linear range extended from 8.0 to 2.0 log10 copies/μL, and the lower limit of 95% detection was 22...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718925/a-historical-review-of-the-key-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens-of-scottish-wild-fish
#19
REVIEW
I S Wallace, P McKay, A G Murray
Thousands of Scottish wild fish were screened for pathogens by Marine Scotland Science. A systematic review of published and unpublished data on six key pathogens (Renibacterium salmoninarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, IPNV, ISAV, SAV and VHSV) found in Scottish wild and farmed fish was undertaken. Despite many reported cases in farmed fish, there was a limited number of positive samples from Scottish wild fish, however, there was evidence for interactions between wild and farmed fish. A slightly elevated IPNV prevalence was reported in wild marine fish caught close to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715413/zika-virus-alters-the-microrna-expression-profile-and-elicits-an-rnai-response-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#20
Miguel A Saldaña, Kayvan Etebari, Charles E Hart, Steven G Widen, Thomas G Wood, Saravanan Thangamani, Sassan Asgari, Grant L Hughes
Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti, has recently spread globally in an unprecedented fashion, yet we have a poor understanding of host-microbe interactions in this system. To gain insights into the interplay between ZIKV and the mosquito, we sequenced the small RNA profiles in ZIKV-infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes at 2, 7 and 14 days post-infection. ZIKA induced an RNAi response in the mosquito with virus-derived short interfering RNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs dramatically increased in abundance post-infection...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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