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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771475/evolution-and-spread-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-complex-alphavirus-in-the-americas
#1
Naomi L Forrester, Joel O Wertheim, Vivian G Dugan, Albert J Auguste, David Lin, A Paige Adams, Rubing Chen, Rodion Gorchakov, Grace Leal, Jose G Estrada-Franco, Jyotsna Pandya, Rebecca A Halpin, Kumar Hari, Ravi Jain, Timothy B Stockwell, Suman R Das, David E Wentworth, Martin D Smith, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Scott C Weaver
Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphaviruses are important re-emerging arboviruses that cause life-threatening disease in equids during epizootics as well as spillover human infections. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of VEE complex alphaviruses by sequencing the genomes of 94 strains and performing phylogenetic analyses of 130 isolates using complete open reading frames for the nonstructural and structural polyproteins. Our analyses confirmed purifying selection as a major mechanism influencing the evolution of these viruses as well as a confounding factor in molecular clock dating of ancestors...
August 3, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760614/regulatory-considerations-in-development-of-vaccines-to-prevent-disease-caused-by-chikungunya-virus
#2
REVIEW
Sixun Yang, Doran Fink, Andrea Hulse, R Douglas Pratt
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus. Chikungunya disease (CHIK) in humans is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, cutaneous rash, myalgia and debilitating polyarthralgia. Until recently the virus was considered endemic to only Africa and Asia, but since 2004 CHIK has spread to previously non-endemic regions, including Europe and the Americas, thereby emerging as a global health threat. Although a variety of CHIKV vaccine candidates have been tested in animals, and a few have advanced to human clinical trials, no licensed vaccine is currently available for prevention of disease...
July 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754345/ross-river-virus-disease-clinical-presentation-pathogenesis-and-current-therapeutic-strategies
#3
Xiang Liu, Kothila Tharmarajah, Adam Taylor
Ross River virus (RRV) is an arthitogenic alphavirus capable of causing outbreaks of debilitating musculoskeletal inflammatory disease in humans. RRV is the most common mosquito-borne disease in Australia, with outbreaks of RRV generally occurring during seasonal wet and warm conditions. Patients with Ross River virus disease (RRVD) typically present with fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia and a maculopapular erythematous rash. Treatment of the disease is usually palliative with no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies currently available...
July 25, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747508/mutations-in-the-e2-glycoprotein-and-the-3-untranslated-region-enhance-chikungunya-virus-virulence-in-mice
#4
David W Hawman, Kathryn S Carpentier, Julie M Fox, Nicholas A May, Wes Sanders, Stephanie A Montgomery, Nathaniel J Moorman, Michael S Diamond, Thomas E Morrison
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes debilitating musculoskeletal pain and inflammation and can persist for months to years after acute infection. Although studies in humans and experimentally-infected animals suggest that CHIKV infection persists in musculoskeletal tissues, the mechanisms for this remain poorly understood. To evaluate this further, we isolated CHIKV from the serum of persistently infected Rag1(-/-) mice at day 28. When inoculated into naïve WT mice, this persistently circulating CHIKV strain displayed a capacity for earlier dissemination and greater pathogenicity compared with the parental virus...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744856/age-has-a-role-in-driving-host-immuno-pathological-response-to-alphavirus-infection
#5
REVIEW
Yi-Hao Chan, Lisa F P Ng
Alphaviruses are a group arthropod-borne pathogens capable of causing a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from milder symptoms like rashes, fever, and polyarthralgia, to life-threatening encephalitis. This genus of viruses is prevalent globally, and can infect patients across a wide age range. Interestingly, disease severity of virus-infected patients is wide-ranging. Definition on the pathogenesis of alphaviruses, as well as the host factors influencing disease severity remains limited. The innate and adaptive immune systems are important host defenses against alphavirus infections...
July 26, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738838/improved-detection-of-genus-specific-alphavirus-using-a-generic-taqman%C3%A2-assay
#6
Claude Giry, Bénédicte Roquebert, Ghislaine Li-Pat-Yuen, Philippe Gasque, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee
BACKGROUND: Alphaviruses are arthropod borne RNA viruses of medical importance. Geographical expansion of mosquitoes of the Aedes genus in the past decades has been associated with major Alphavirus-associated outbreaks. Climate changes and intensification of air travels have favored vector expansion and virus dissemination in new territories leading to virus emergence not only in tropical areas but also in temperate regions. The detection of emergence is based upon surveillance networks with epidemiological and laboratory investigation...
July 24, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720784/snap-tagged-chikungunya-virus-replicons-improve-visualisation-of-non-structural-protein-3-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#7
Roland Remenyi, Grace C Roberts, Carsten Zothner, Andres Merits, Mark Harris
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus, causes febrile disease, muscle and joint pain, which can become chronic in some individuals. The non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) plays essential roles during infection, but a complete understanding of its function is lacking. Here we used a microscopy-based approach to image CHIKV nsP3 inside human cells. The SNAP system consists of a self-labelling enzyme tag, which catalyses the covalent linking of exogenously supplemented synthetic ligands. Genetic insertion of this tag resulted in viable replicons and specific labelling while preserving the effect of nsP3 on stress granule responses and co-localisation with GTPase Activating Protein (SH3 domain) Binding Proteins (G3BPs)...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720756/pixuna-virus-modifies-host-cell-cytoskeleton-to-secure-infection
#8
Pedro Ignacio Gil, Guillermo Albrieu-Llinás, Estela Cecilia Mlewski, Marina Monetti, Laura Fozzatti, Cecilia Cuffini, José Fernández Romero, Patricia Kunda, María Gabriela Paglini
Pixuna virus (PIXV) is an enzootic member of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus complex and belongs to the New World cluster of alphaviruses. Herein we explore the role of the cellular cytoskeleton during PIXV replication. We first identified that PIXV undergoes an eclipse phase consisting of 4 h followed by 20 h of an exponential phase in Vero cells. The infected cells showed morphological changes due to structural modifications in actin microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs). Cytoskeleton-binding agents, that alter the architecture and dynamics of MFs and MTs, were used to study the role of cytoskeleton on PIXV replication...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719301/development-of-a-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-o-nyong-nyong-virus-and-evaluation-with-clinical-and-mosquito-specimens-from-kenya
#9
Jesse Waggoner, Claire Jane Heath, Bryson Ndenga, Francis Mutuku, Malaya K Sahoo, Alisha Mohamed-Hadley, John Vulule, Dunstan Mukoko, A Desiree LaBeaud, Benjamin A Pinsky
O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), an alphavirus closely related to chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has been the documented cause of two large outbreaks in east Africa; however, little is known about the contribution of ONNV to cases of acute febrile illness during interepidemic periods. An ONNV real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was developed and evaluated using clinical and mosquito pool samples. The ONNV rRT-PCR linear range extended from 8.0 to 2.0 log10 copies/μL, and the lower limit of 95% detection was 22...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718925/a-historical-review-of-the-key-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens-of-scottish-wild-fish
#10
REVIEW
I S Wallace, P McKay, A G Murray
Thousands of Scottish wild fish were screened for pathogens by Marine Scotland Science. A systematic review of published and unpublished data on six key pathogens (Renibacterium salmoninarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, IPNV, ISAV, SAV and VHSV) found in Scottish wild and farmed fish was undertaken. Despite many reported cases in farmed fish, there was a limited number of positive samples from Scottish wild fish, however, there was evidence for interactions between wild and farmed fish. A slightly elevated IPNV prevalence was reported in wild marine fish caught close to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715413/zika-virus-alters-the-microrna-expression-profile-and-elicits-an-rnai-response-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#11
Miguel A Saldaña, Kayvan Etebari, Charles E Hart, Steven G Widen, Thomas G Wood, Saravanan Thangamani, Sassan Asgari, Grant L Hughes
Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti, has recently spread globally in an unprecedented fashion, yet we have a poor understanding of host-microbe interactions in this system. To gain insights into the interplay between ZIKV and the mosquito, we sequenced the small RNA profiles in ZIKV-infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes at 2, 7 and 14 days post-infection. ZIKA induced an RNAi response in the mosquito with virus-derived short interfering RNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs dramatically increased in abundance post-infection...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701392/partially-uncleaved-alphavirus-replicase-forms-spherule-structures-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-rna-template
#12
Kirsi Hellström, Katri Kallio, Age Utt, Tania Quirin, Eija Jokitalo, Andres Merits, Tero Ahola
Alphaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses expressing their replicase as a polyprotein P1234, which is cleaved to four final products, nonstructural proteins nsP1-nsP4. The replicase proteins together with viral RNA and host factors form membrane invaginations termed spherules, which act as the replication complexes producing progeny RNAs. We have previously shown that the wild type alphavirus replicase requires a functional RNA template and active polymerase to generate spherule structures. However, we now find that specific partially processed forms of the replicase proteins alone can give rise to membrane invaginations, in the absence of RNA or replication...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700065/encephalitis-associated-with-the-chikungunya-epidemic-outbreak-in-brazil-report-of-2-cases-with-neuroimaging-findings
#13
Licia Pacheco Pereira, Rafaela Villas-Bôas, Stephanie Suzanne de Oliveira Scott, Paulo Ribeiro Nóbrega, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto, José Daniel Vieira de Castro, Bruno Cavalcante, Pedro Braga-Neto
Chikungunya, an alphavirus infection presenting with fever, rash, and polyarthritis, is most often an acute febrile illness. Neurologic complications of chikungunya infection have been reported. Here we report the clinical and neuroimaging data of 2 patients with chikungunya-associated encephalitis during the recent Brazilian epidemic.
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689975/the-medicinal-chemistry-of-chikungunya-virus
#14
REVIEW
Edeildo F da Silva-Júnior, Giovanni O Leoncini, Érica E S Rodrigues, Thiago M Aquino, João X Araújo-Júnior
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are an important threat to human and animal health globally. Among these, zoonotic diseases account for billions of cases of human illness and millions of deaths every year, representing an increasing public health problem. Chikungunya virus belongs to the genus Alphavirus of the family Togariridae, and is transmitted mainly by the bite of female mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti and/or A. albopictus species. The focus of this review will be on the medicinal chemistry of Chikungunya virus, including synthetic and natural products, as well as rationally designed compounds...
August 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688628/will-mayaro-virus-be-responsible-for-the-next-outbreak-of-an-arthropod-borne-virus-in-brazil
#15
REVIEW
Danillo Lucas Alves Esposito, Benedito Antonio Lopes da Fonseca
Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family and is transmitted mainly by Hemagogus mosquitoes. This virus circulates in high-density tropical forests or rural areas of Central and South America causing a disease characterized by high-grade fever, maculopapular skin rash and marked arthralgia that, in some patients, can persist for long periods after infection and may be misinterpreted as chikungunya. Although only a few outbreaks involving this virus have been reported, in the last years the number of MAYV infections has increased in the central and northern regions of Brazil...
July 6, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686653/ribbon-scanning-confocal-for-high-speed-high-resolution-volume-imaging-of-brain
#16
Alan M Watson, Annika H Rose, Gregory A Gibson, Christina L Gardner, Chengqun Sun, Douglas S Reed, L K Metthew Lam, Claudette M St Croix, Peter L Strick, William B Klimstra, Simon C Watkins
Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686540/replicon-particle-expressing-the-e2-glycoprotein-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-immunization-and-evaluation-of-antibody-response
#17
Mohammad M Hossain, Raymond R Rowland
The objective of this study was to develop a new antigen delivery system using an alphavirus replicon particle (RP) to induce humoral antibody responses against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) recombinant antigen produced from envelope glycoprotein E2. An alphavirus RP expressing the E2 glycoprotein of BVDV was used for immunization of pigs. A fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) has been applied to detect BVDV E2 antigen-specific antibody isotype in pig immunized with alphavirus RP. Full-length BVDV E2 (aa 1-375) was cleaved into several pieces, eight E2 DNA fragments, including full-length DNA, were cloned into expression vector pHUE, and the recombinant proteins expressed in BL-21 (DE3) Escherichia coli...
July 7, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673021/emergence-of-west-nile-virus-in-west-bengal-india-a-new-report
#18
Tanuja Khatun, Shyamalendu Chatterjee
Background: The ICMR virus unit in Kolkata functions as an Appex Referral Laboratory for the detection of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) infections in the eastern part of India. In spite of efforts for confirmatory diagnosis, some samples remain undiagnosed every year. West Nile virus (WNV) infection may mimic either dengue (flavivirus) or chikungunya (alphavirus) like illness. WNV is endemic in the tropical region where its principal/potential vectors are Aedes and Culex. Methods: We explored the existence of WNV within undiagnosed samples to identify the emergence of a new public health problem...
April 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668710/accurate-virus-quantitation-using-a-scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy-stem-detector-in-a-scanning-electron-microscope
#19
Candace D Blancett, David P Fetterer, Keith A Koistinen, Elaine M Morazzani, Mitchell K Monninger, Ashley E Piper, Kathleen A Kuehl, Brian J Kearney, Sarah L Norris, Cynthia A Rossi, Pamela J Glass, Mei G Sun
A method for accurate quantitation of virus particles has long been sought, but a perfect method still eludes the scientific community. Electron Microscopy (EM) quantitation is a valuable technique because it provides direct morphology information and counts of all viral particles, whether or not they are infectious. In the past, EM negative stain quantitation methods have been cited as inaccurate, non-reproducible, and with detection limits that were too high to be useful. To improve accuracy and reproducibility, we have developed a method termed Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy - Virus Quantitation (STEM-VQ), which simplifies sample preparation and uses a high throughput STEM detector in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with commercially available software...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662211/identification-of-interactions-between-sindbis-virus-capsid-protein-and-cytoplasmic-vrna-as-novel-virulence-determinants
#20
Kevin J Sokoloski, Lauren M Nease, Nicholas A May, Natasha N Gebhart, Claire E Jones, Thomas E Morrison, Richard W Hardy
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that represent a significant threat to public health at a global level. While the formation of alphaviral nucleocapsid cores, consisting of cargo nucleic acid and the viral capsid protein, is an essential molecular process of infection, the precise interactions between the two partners are ill-defined. A CLIP-seq approach was used to screen for candidate sites of interaction between the viral Capsid protein and genomic RNA of Sindbis virus (SINV), a model alphavirus...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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