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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221123/genetically-diverse-filoviruses-in-rousettus-and-eonycteris-spp-bats-china-2009-and-2015
#1
Xing-Lou Yang, Yun-Zhi Zhang, Ren-Di Jiang, Hua Guo, Wei Zhang, Bei Li, Ning Wang, Li Wang, Cecilia Waruhiu, Ji-Hua Zhou, Shi-Yue Li, Peter Daszak, Lin-Fa Wang, Zheng-Li Shi
Genetically divergent filoviruses detected in Rousettus and Eonycteris spp. bats in China exhibited 61%-99% nt identity with reported filoviruses, based on partial replicase sequences, and they demonstrated lung tropism. Co-infection with 4 different filoviruses was found in 1 bat. These results demonstrate that fruit bats are key reservoirs of filoviruses.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216187/recombinant-proteins-of-zaire-ebolavirus-induce-potent-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-and-protect-against-live-virus-infection-in-mice
#2
Axel T Lehrer, Teri-Ann S Wong, Michael M Lieberman, Tom Humphreys, David E Clements, Russell R Bakken, Mary Kate Hart, William D Pratt, John M Dye
Infections with filoviruses in humans are highly virulent, causing hemorrhagic fevers which result in up to 90% mortality. In addition to natural infections, the ability to use these viruses as bioterrorist weapons is of significant concern. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available to combat these infections. The pathogenesis of disease involves the dysregulation of the host's immune system, which results in impairment of the innate and adaptive immune responses, with subsequent development of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, and death...
February 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197923/viral-interplay-with-the-host-sumoylation-system
#3
Van G Wilson
Viruses have evolved elaborate means to regulate diverse cellular pathways in order to create a cellular environment that facilitates viral survival and reproduction. This includes enhancing viral macromolecular synthesis and assembly, as well as preventing antiviral responses, including intrinsic, innate, and adaptive immunity. There are numerous mechanisms by which viruses mediate their effects on the host cell, and this includes targeting various cellular post-translational modification systems, including sumoylation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194016/modelling-filovirus-maintenance-in-nature-by-experimental-transmission-of-marburg-virus-between-egyptian-rousette-bats
#4
Amy J Schuh, Brian R Amman, Megan E B Jones, Tara K Sealy, Luke S Uebelhoer, Jessica R Spengler, Brock E Martin, Jo Ann D Coleman-McCray, Stuart T Nichol, Jonathan S Towner
The Egyptian rousette bat (ERB) is a natural reservoir host for Marburg virus (MARV); however, the mechanisms by which MARV is transmitted bat-to-bat and to other animals are unclear. Here we co-house MARV-inoculated donor ERBs with naive contact ERBs. MARV shedding is detected in oral, rectal and urine specimens from inoculated bats from 5-19 days post infection. Simultaneously, MARV is detected in oral specimens from contact bats, indicating oral exposure to the virus. In the late study phase, we provide evidence that MARV can be horizontally transmitted from inoculated to contact ERBs by finding MARV RNA in blood and oral specimens from contact bats, followed by MARV IgG antibodies in these same bats...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192094/filovirus-proteins-for-antiviral-drug-discovery-structure-function-bases-of-the-replication-cycle
#5
REVIEW
Baptiste Martin, Bruno Canard, Etienne Decroly
Filoviruses are important pathogens that cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans, for which no approved vaccines and antiviral treatments are yet available. In an earlier article (Martin et al., Antiviral Research, 2016), we reviewed the role of the filovirus surface glycoprotein in replication and as a target for drugs and vaccines. In this review, we focus on recent findings on the filovirus replication machinery and how they could be used for the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of new antiviral compounds...
February 9, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152588/a-sensitive-in-vitro-high-throughput-screen-to-identify-pan-filoviral-replication-inhibitors-targeting-the-vp35-np-interface
#6
Gai Liu, Peter J Nash, Britney Johnson, Colette Pietzsch, Ma Xenia G Ilagan, Alexander Bukreyev, Christopher F Basler, Terry L Bowlin, Donald T Moir, Daisy W Leung, Gaya K Amarasinghe
The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the largest outbreak on record, highlighted the need for novel approaches to therapeutics targeting Ebola virus (EBOV). Within the EBOV replication complex, the interaction between polymerase cofactor, viral protein 35 (VP35), and nucleoprotein (NP) is critical for viral RNA synthesis. We recently identified a peptide at the N-terminus of VP35 (termed NPBP) that is sufficient for interaction with NP and suppresses EBOV replication, suggesting that the NPBP binding pocket can serve as a potential drug target...
February 9, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122983/innate-immune-response-of-bat-and-human-cells-to-filoviruses-commonalities-and-distinctions
#7
Ivan V Kuzmin, Toni M Schwarz, Philipp A Ilinykh, Ingo Jordan, Thomas G Ksiazek, Ravi Sachidanandam, Christopher F Basler, Alexander Bukreyev
: Marburg (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV) viruses are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. The natural reservoir of MARV is the Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus); that of EBOV is unknown but believed to be another bat species. The Egyptian rousette develops subclinical productive infection with MARV but is refractory to EBOV. Interaction of filoviruses with hosts is greatly affected by the viral interferon (IFN)-inhibiting domains (IID). Our study was aimed at characterization of innate immune responses to filoviruses and the role of filovirus IID in bat and human cells...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076420/chaperone-mediated-autophagy-protein-bag3-negatively-regulates-ebola-and-marburg-vp40-mediated-egress
#8
Jingjing Liang, Cari A Sagum, Mark T Bedford, Sachdev S Sidhu, Marius Sudol, Ziying Han, Ronald N Harty
Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses are members of the Filoviridae family which cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever. The filovirus VP40 matrix protein is essential for virus assembly and budding, and its PPxY L-domain motif interacts with WW-domains of specific host proteins, such as Nedd4 and ITCH, to facilitate the late stage of virus-cell separation. To identify additional WW-domain-bearing host proteins that interact with VP40, we used an EBOV PPxY-containing peptide to screen an array of 115 mammalian WW-domain-bearing proteins...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012412/human-transmission-of-ebola-virus
#9
REVIEW
Philip Lawrence, Nicolas Danet, Olivier Reynard, Valentina Volchkova, Viktor Volchkov
Ever since the first recognised outbreak of Ebolavirus in 1976, retrospective epidemiological analyses and extensive studies with animal models have given us insight into the nature of the pathology and transmission mechanisms of this virus. In this review focusing on Ebolavirus, we present an outline of our current understanding of filovirus human-to-human transmission and of our knowledge concerning the molecular basis of viral transmission and potential for adaptation, with particular focus on what we have learnt from the 2014 outbreak in West Africa...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979676/ebola-virus-derived-g-quadruplexes-thiazole-orange-interaction
#10
Petra Krafčíková, Erika Demkovičová, Viktor Víglaský
The Ebola and Marburg viruses are some of the deadliest viruses in the world. In this study a series of G-rich DNA sequences derived from these types of viruses which possess the potential to form G-quadruplex structures are analyzed. A set of DNA oligonucleotides derived from original viral isolates was used as a representative modeling sequence with which to demonstrate the influence of thiazole orange on circular dichroism (CD) spectral profiles. The results show the unique profile of the induced CD (ICD) signal in the visible region caused by interactions between the ligand and G-quadruplexes...
December 13, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959626/the-pathogenesis-of-ebola-virus-disease
#11
Laura Baseler, Daniel S Chertow, Karl M Johnson, Heinz Feldmann, David M Morens
For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930961/novel-activities-by-ebolavirus-and-marburgvirus-interferon-antagonists-revealed-using-a-standardized-in-vitro-reporter-system
#12
Jonathan C Guito, César G Albariño, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Jonathan S Towner
Filoviruses are highly lethal in humans and nonhuman primates, likely due to potent antagonism of host interferon (IFN) responses early in infection. Filoviral protein VP35 is implicated as the major IFN induction antagonist, while Ebola virus (EBOV) VP24 or Marburg virus (MARV) VP40 are known to block downstream IFN signaling. Despite progress elucidating EBOV and MARV antagonist function, those for most other filoviruses, including Reston (RESTV), Sudan (SUDV), Taï Forest (TAFV), Bundibugyo (BDBV) and Ravn (RAVV) viruses, remain largely neglected...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918527/induction-and-suppression-of-antiviral-rna-interference-by-influenza-a-virus-in-mammalian-cells
#13
Yang Li, Megha Basavappa, Jinfeng Lu, Shuwei Dong, D Alexander Cronkite, John T Prior, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Paul Hertzog, Yanhong Han, Wan-Xiang Li, Sihem Cheloufi, Fedor V Karginov, Shou-Wei Ding, Kate L Jeffrey
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, and is one of the best-characterized human RNA viral pathogens(1). However, a physiologically relevant role for the RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor activity of the IAV non-structural protein 1 (NS1), reported over a decade ago(2), remains unknown(3). Plant and insect viruses have evolved diverse virulence proteins to suppress RNAi as their hosts produce virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct specific antiviral defence(4-7) by an RNAi mechanism dependent on the slicing activity of Argonaute proteins (AGOs)(8,9)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908828/assessment-of-the-potential-for-host-targeted-iminosugars-uv-4-and-uv-5-activity-against-filovirus-infections-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#14
Kelly L Warfield, Travis K Warren, Xiangguo Qiu, Jay Wells, Chad E Mire, Joan B Geisbert, Kelly S Stuthman, Nicole L Garza, Sean A Van Tongeren, Amy C Shurtleff, Krystle N Agans, Gary Wong, Michael V Callahan, Thomas W Geisbert, Brennan Klose, Urban Ramstedt, Anthony M Treston
Iminosugars are host-directed antivirals with broad-spectrum activity. The iminosugar, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ or Miglustat(®)), is used in humans for treatment of Gaucher's disease and has mild antiviral properties. More potent analogs of NB-DNJ have been generated and have demonstrated activity against a variety of viruses including flaviviruses, influenza, herpesviruses and filoviruses. In the current study, a panel of analogs based on NB-DNJ was analyzed for activity against Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg viruses (MARV)...
February 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902321/the-serology-of-ebolavirus-a-wider-geographical-range-a-wider-genus-of-viruses-or-a-wider-range-of-virulence
#15
Magdalena Formella, Derek Gatherer
Viruses of the genus Ebolavirus are the causative agents of Ebola virus disease (EVD), of which there have been only 25 recorded outbreaks since the discovery of Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses in the late 1970s. Until the west African outbreak commencing in late 2013, EVD was confined to an area of central Africa stretching from the coast of Gabon through the Congo river basin and eastward to the Great Lakes. Nevertheless, population serological studies since 1976, most of which were carried out in the first two decades after that date, have suggested a wider distribution and more frequent occurrence across tropical Africa...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887599/how-severe-and-prevalent-are-ebola-and-marburg-viruses-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-case-fatality-rates-and-seroprevalence
#16
Luke Nyakarahuka, Clovice Kankya, Randi Krontveit, Benjamin Mayer, Frank N Mwiine, Julius Lutwama, Eystein Skjerve
BACKGROUND: Ebola and Marburg virus diseases are said to occur at a low prevalence, but are very severe diseases with high lethalities. The fatality rates reported in different outbreaks ranged from 24-100%. In addition, sero-surveys conducted have shown different seropositivity for both Ebola and Marburg viruses. We aimed to use a meta-analysis approach to estimate the case fatality and seroprevalence rates of these filoviruses, providing vital information for epidemic response and preparedness in countries affected by these diseases...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847355/crystal-structure-of-the-marburg-virus-vp35-oligomerization-domain
#17
Jessica F Bruhn, Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Sarah M Urata, Sheng Li, Ian J Tickle, Gérard Bricogne, Erica Ollmann Saphire
: Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that is classified in a genus distinct from that of Ebola virus (EBOV) (genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus, respectively). Both viruses produce a multifunctional protein termed VP35, which acts as a polymerase cofactor, a viral protein chaperone, and an antagonist of the innate immune response. VP35 contains a central oligomerization domain with a predicted coiled-coil motif. This domain has been shown to be essential for RNA polymerase function...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755595/the-ebola-virus-vp30-np-interaction-is-a-regulator-of-viral-rna-synthesis
#18
Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Crystal L Moyer, Dafna M Abelson, Erica Ollmann Saphire
Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP), a phosphoprotein (VP35) and a polymerase (L). However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746072/comparative-phylogeography-of-african-fruit-bats-chiroptera-pteropodidae-provide-new-insights-into-the-outbreak-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa-2014-2016
#19
Alexandre Hassanin, Nicolas Nesi, Julie Marin, Blaise Kadjo, Xavier Pourrut, Éric Leroy, Guy-Crispin Gembu, Prescott Musaba Akawa, Carine Ngoagouni, Emmanuel Nakouné, Manuel Ruedi, Didier Tshikung, Célestin Pongombo Shongo, Céline Bonillo
Both Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. After four decades of Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks in Central Africa, the virus was detected for the first time in West Africa in 2014. To better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between Central and West Africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phylogeography of Pteropodidae...
November 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713552/differential-transcriptional-responses-to-ebola-and-marburg-virus-infection-in-bat-and-human-cells
#20
Martin Hölzer, Verena Krähling, Fabian Amman, Emanuel Barth, Stephan H Bernhart, Victor A O Carmelo, Maximilian Collatz, Gero Doose, Florian Eggenhofer, Jan Ewald, Jörg Fallmann, Lasse M Feldhahn, Markus Fricke, Juliane Gebauer, Andreas J Gruber, Franziska Hufsky, Henrike Indrischek, Sabina Kanton, Jörg Linde, Nelly Mostajo, Roman Ochsenreiter, Konstantin Riege, Lorena Rivarola-Duarte, Abdullah H Sahyoun, Sita J Saunders, Stefan E Seemann, Andrea Tanzer, Bertram Vogel, Stefanie Wehner, Michael T Wolfinger, Rolf Backofen, Jan Gorodkin, Ivo Grosse, Ivo Hofacker, Steve Hoffmann, Christoph Kaleta, Peter F Stadler, Stephan Becker, Manja Marz
The unprecedented outbreak of Ebola in West Africa resulted in over 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths, underlining the need for a better understanding of the biology of this highly pathogenic virus to develop specific counter strategies. Two filoviruses, the Ebola and Marburg viruses, result in a severe and often fatal infection in humans. However, bats are natural hosts and survive filovirus infections without obvious symptoms. The molecular basis of this striking difference in the response to filovirus infections is not well understood...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
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