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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343959/antitumor-effect-of-a-new-nano-vector-with-mirna-135a-on-malignant-glioma
#1
Chaofeng Liang, Weitong Sun, Haiyong He, Baoyu Zhang, Cong Ling, Bocheng Wang, Tengchao Huang, Bo Hou, Ying Guo
Introduction: MiR-135a is found to selectively induce apoptosis in glioma cell but not in normal neurons and glial cells. However, low transfection efficacy limits its application in vivo as other miRNAs. We prepared a new kind of nano-vector based on polyethylene glycol methyl ether (mPEG) and hyper-branched polyethylenimine (hy-PEI) in order to improve the miRNA delivery system into the glioma cells. Methods: The mPEG-g-PEI/miR-135a was constructed and detected by 1H NMR and FTIR analyses...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332092/early-life-stress-activates-glial-cells-in-the-hippocampus-but-attenuates-cytokine-secretion-in-response-to-an-immune-challenge-in-rat-pups
#2
Luis Miguel Saavedra, Bertha Fenton Navarro, Luz Torner
OBJECTIVE: Early life stress (ELS) increases the vulnerability to developing psychopathological disorders in adulthood that are accompanied by brain inflammatory processes. However, it is not known how a combined double hit (stress and immune) at an early age affects the response of the neuroimmune system. Here we investigated the effect of periodic maternal separation (MS) followed by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on glial cells in the CA3 region and hilus of the hippocampus and on cytokine release on postnatal day (PN) 15...
January 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331305/tigar-inhibits-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-inflammatory-response-of-astrocytes
#3
Jieyu Chen, Ding-Mei Zhang, Xing Feng, Jian Wang, Yuan-Yuan Qin, Tian Zhang, Qiao Huang, Rui Sheng, Zhong Chen, Mei Li, Zheng-Hong Qin
The inflammatory response of glial cells contributes to neuronal damage or repair after brain ischemia/reperfusion insult. We previously demonstrated a protective role of TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) in ischemic neuronal injury through increasing the flow of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The present study investigated the possible role of TIGAR in ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammatory response of astrocytes. Male ICR mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by 24 h reperfusion and cultured primary astrocytes were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation for 9 h followed by 24 h reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
January 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327816/brain-cortex-microglia-derived-exosomes-novel-nanoparticles-for-glioma-therapy
#4
Adriana-Natalia Murgoci, Dasa Cizkova, Petra Majerova, Eva Petrovova, Lubomir Medvecky, Isabelle Fournier, Michel Salzet
The function and integrity of nervous system require interactive exchanges among neurons and glial cells. Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as a key mediator of intercellular communication, capable to transfer nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, influencing numerous functional and pathological aspects of both donor and recipient cells. The immune response mediated by microglia derived exosomes are most prominently involved in the spread of neuroinflammation, neurodegenerative disorders and brain cancer...
January 12, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325939/liponeurocytoma-of-the-cerebello-pontine-angle
#5
Carmela Chiaramonte, Sylvain Rabaste, Timothee Jacquesson, David Meyronet, François Cotton, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Moncef Berhouma
Liponeurocytoma is a very rare tumor classified as grade II (neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors) according to 2016 WHO classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System. The median age is 50-years-old and the most frequent location is the posterior cranial fossa especially within the cerebellar hemispheres; those arising in the cerebellopontine angle are exceptional. We herein report the clinical, radiological and pathological characteristics of a cerebellopontine angle liponeurocytoma in a 35-year-old woman...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323039/neuronal-injury-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-hippocampus-in-the-early-period-of-asphyxia-induced-cardiac-arrest-under-normothermia
#6
Hyun-Jin Tae, Il Jun Kang, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, Jae-Chul Lee, Myoung Cheol Shin, Yoon Sung Kim, Jun Hwi Cho, Jong-Dai Kim, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Joon Ha Park, In-Shik Kim, Hyang-Ah Lee, Yang Hee Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Young Joo Lee
Low survival rate occurs in patients who initially experience a spontaneous return of circulation after cardiac arrest (CA). In this study, we induced asphyxial CA in adult male Sprague-Daley rats, maintained their body temperature at 37 ± 0.5°C, and then observed the survival rate during the post-resuscitation phase. We examined neuronal damage in the hippocampus using cresyl violet (CV) and Fluore-Jade B (F-J B) staining, and pro-inflammatory response using ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus after asphyxial CA in rats under normothermia...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322978/chromosomal-aberrations-in-chordoid-meningioma-an-analysis
#7
Harsha Sugur, Arun H Shastry, Nishant Sadashiva, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Vani Santosh, Sampath Somanna
INTRODUCTION: Chordoid meningiomas (CMs) are a rare subgroup of tumors, accounting for approximately 0.5% of all meningiomas. These tumors correspond to World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II lesions and behave aggressively, with an increased likelihood of recurrence. There are only two studies that have described the genetic alterations in CMs. While a majority of meningiomas are known to have deletion at many chromosomal loci such as 22q, 18p, 14q, and 1p, which are found to be associated with initiation, progression, and malignancy of these tumors, these have not yet been studied in CMs...
January 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316898/inhibition-of-p38-mapk-activity-leads-to-cell-type-specific-effects-on-the-molecular-circadian-clock-and-time-dependent-reduction-of-glioma-cell-invasiveness
#8
Charles S Goldsmith, Sam Moon Kim, Nirmala Karunarathna, Nichole Neuendorff, L Gerard Toussaint, David J Earnest, Deborah Bell-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock is the basis for biological time keeping in eukaryotic organisms. The clock mechanism relies on biochemical signaling pathways to detect environmental stimuli and to regulate the expression of clock-controlled genes throughout the body. MAPK signaling pathways function in both circadian input and output pathways in mammals depending on the tissue; however, little is known about the role of p38 MAPK, an established tumor suppressor, in the mammalian circadian system...
January 10, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297700/breast-cancer-cell-apoptosis-is-synergistically-induced-by-curcumin-trastuzumab-and-glutathione-peroxidase-1-but-robustly-inhibited-by-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#9
M Gardaneh, S Shojaei, A Rahimi Shamabadi, P Akbari
We hypothesized that synergy between curcumin (CURC), trastuzumab (TZMB), and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1) accelerates breast cancer (BC) cell apoptosis which is inhibited by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We measured survival of BC cell lines treated or cotreated with CURC and TZMB, and then with GDNF, before measuring expression levels of growth and apoptosis genes. These experiments were also repeated on SKBR3 cells transiently expressing GPX-1. CURC+TZMB cotreatment induced BC cell apoptosis more significantly than single treatment...
January 3, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295693/novel-homeodomain-transcription-factor-nkx2-2-in-the-brain-tumor-development
#10
Mubeena Pm Mariyath, Mehdi Hayat Shahi, Shirin Farheen, Mohd Tayyab, Nabeela Khanam, Asif Ali
BACKGROUND: Complex central nervous system (CNS) is made of neuronal cells and glial cells. Cells of central nervous system are able to regenerate after injury and during repairing. Sonic hedgehog pathway initiated by Shh-N a glycoprotein plays vital role in CNS patterning growth, development and now tumorigenesis. Nkx2.2 homeodomain transcription factor is an effecter molecule, which is positively regulated by Shh during normal growth. Nkx2.2 is essential for V3 domain specification during neural tube patterning at embryonic stage...
January 1, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288852/an-infratentorial-pure-pleomorphic-xanthoastrocytoma-arising-from-middle-cerebellar-peduncle-a-rare-location-of-an-uncommon-tumor
#11
Shruti Gupta, Anant Mehrotra, Lily Pal, Kamlesh Singh Bhiashora, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal, Raj Kumar
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXA) are rare tumors of glial origin comprising <1% of all astrocytic tumors of brain. These are rare in the infratentorial compartment and have not known to arise from middle cerebellar peduncle till date. The authors here discuss a case of a 16 year boy who presented in an altered sensorium and features of raised intracranial pressure and was found to have a 4 x 4 x 3 cms mass arising from the middle cerebellar peduncle. The authors also discuss the histopathological features of these tumors suggesting their resemblance to other mal-developmental tumors, the rarity of pure WHO grade II PXA in infratentorial compartment, as well as the appropriate management...
December 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288410/central-nervous-system-involvement-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-possible-role-of-chronic-inflammation-and-tnf-blocker-therapy
#12
Sinem Sağ, Mustafa Serdar Sağ, Ibrahim Tekeoğlu, Ayhan Kamanlı, Kemal Nas, Bilgehan Atilgan Acar
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease, the etiology of which has yet to be clarified, which causes activation of proinflammatory pathways that bring about joint and systemic inflammation. Although peripheral nervous system anomalies are observed widely in RA, very few case reports on changes in the central nervous system (CNS) have been published. In recent years, the pathophysiology of CNS involvement that can occur in RA has attracted a great deal of attention. Emphasis has focused on the possibility that CNS involvement occurs due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage associated with chronic inflammation...
December 29, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282299/an-anti-gdnf-family-receptor-alpha-1-gfra1-antibody-drug-conjugate-for-the-treatment-of-hormone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#13
Sunil Bhakta, Lisa M Crocker, Yvonne Chen, Meredith Hazen, Melissa M Schutten, Dongwei Li, Coenraad Kuijl, Rachana Ohri, Fiona Zhong, Kirsten Achilles Poon, Mary Ann T Go, Eric Cheng, Robert Piskol, Ron Firestein, Aimee Fourie-O'Donohue, Katherine R Kozak, Helga Raab, Jo-Anne Hongo, Deepak Sampath, Mark S Dennis, Richard H Scheller, Paul Polakis, Jagath R Junutula
Luminal A (hormone receptor-positive) breast cancer constitutes 70% of total breast cancer patients. In an attempt to develop a targeted therapeutic for this cancer indication, we have identified and characterized Glial cell line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) Family Receptor Alpha 1 (GFRA1) antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) using a cleavable valine-citrulline-MMAE (vcMMAE) linker-payload. RNAseq and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed the abundant expression of GFRA1 in luminal A breast cancer tissues, while minimal or no expression was observed in most normal tissues...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280053/cd200fc-attenuates-retinal-glial-responses-and-rgcs-apoptosis-after-optic-nerve-crush-by-modulating-cd200-cd200r1-interaction
#14
Rong Huang, Qianqian Lan, Lifei Chen, Haibin Zhong, Ling Cui, Li Jiang, Hui Huang, Li Li, Siming Zeng, Min Li, Xin Zhao, Fan Xu
To explore the hypothesis that CD200Fc, a CD200R1 agonist with anti-inflammatory properties, will inhibit retinal glial cells hyperactivation and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) apoptosis after optic nerve injury. CD200Fc was immediately administered after optic nerve crush (ONC) once by intravitreal injection. Rats were euthanized at 5 days after ONC. The density of RGCs was counted by immunostaining of retina flat mounts for Brn3a. TUNEL assay, immunoblotting analysis of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1(iba1) (microglia marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (astrocytes and Müller cells marker), RT-PCR analysis of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10, ELISA measure protein levels of inflammatory cytokines and western blot analysis of CD200 and CD200R1 were evaluated...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278012/pilocytic-astrocytoma-of-the-cerebellopontine-angle-mimicking-vestibular-schwannoma-report-of-a-rare-entity
#15
Gautam Dutta, Daljit Singh, Hukum Singh, Deepashu Sachdeva, Vikas Kumar, Ashutosh Chaturvedi
We present a rare case of a 55-yr old patient of pilocytic astrocytoma of the cerebello-pontine angle mimicking a vestibular schwannoma. The tumor protruded into the porus acusticus causing enlargement of the internal auditory meatus, which is quite an unusual feature of glial tumours.
December 26, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261132/molecular-determinants-of-malignant-brain-cancers-from-intracellular-alterations-to-invasion-mediated-by-extracellular-vesicles
#16
REVIEW
Gabriella Schiera, Carlo Maria Di Liegro, Italia Di Liegro
Malignant glioma cells invade the surrounding brain parenchyma, by migrating along the blood vessels, thus promoting cancer growth. The biological bases of these activities are grounded in profound alterations of the metabolism and the structural organization of the cells, which consequently acquire the ability to modify the surrounding microenvironment, by altering the extracellular matrix and affecting the properties of the other cells present in the brain, such as normal glial-, endothelial- and immune-cells...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260069/atypical-intravitreal-growth-of-retinoblastoma-with-a-multi-branching-configuration
#17
Sachiko Nishina, Satoshi Katagiri, Atsuko Nakazawa, Chikako Kiyotani, Tadashi Yokoi, Noriyuki Azuma
Purpose: To report the clinical and histopathological findings of atypical intravitreal growth of a retinoblastoma with a multi-branching configuration. Observations: A 7-month-old boy was referred to our hospital due to leukocoria in the right eye. Ophthalmic examinations identified multi-branching vessels surrounded by diaphanous tissue behind the lens in the right eye. Imaging modalities showed microphthalmos, band-shaped calcification, and cystic lesions in that eye...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258553/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-is-a-risk-factor-for-adult-neuropathic-pain-via-aberrant-neuroimmune-function
#18
Joshua J Sanchez, Shahani Noor, Suzy Davies, Daniel Savage, Erin D Milligan
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies show that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in effects that persist into adulthood. Experimental animal models of moderate PAE demonstrate that young adults with PAE display potentiated sensitivity to light touch, clinically termed allodynia, following sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) that coincides with heightened spinal glial, spinal macrophage, and peripheral immune responses. However, basal touch sensitivity and corresponding glial and leukocyte activation are unaltered...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250686/ovarian-strumal-carcinoid-case-report
#19
Delia Gabriela Ciobanu Apostol, Tudor Andrei BuŢureanu, Demetra Gabriela Socolov, Daniela Claudia Scripcaru, Oana LuminiŢa Rosin, Ludmila Lozneanu
Strumal carcinoid represents a rare form of ovarian teratoma, consisting of both thyroid tissue and carcinoid structures. The carcinoid component is a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with excellent prognosis. Strumal carcinoid tumors are commonly found in peri-menopausal women who are not usually interested in preserving their fertility and who are thus open to radical surgical treatment. In this report, we present a 24-year-old, nulliparous patient with strumal carcinoid, confirmed by histopathology and a large panel of immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers, who wished to preserve her fertility...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248175/calvarium-mass-as-the-first-presentation-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-very-rare-manifestation-of-high-grade-glioma
#20
S Taghipour Zahir, M Mortaz, M Baghi Yazdi, N Sefidrokh Sharahjin, M Shabani
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a high grade glial tumor, primarily located in cerebral hemispheres. The most common clinical presentations are slowly progressive neurological deficit such as motor weakness, seizure, and headaches that last less than three months. Calvarium and extra-axial invasion are very rare and generally occur after a brain biopsy or surgery, or secondary to radiotherapy of primary intra-axial glial tumors. We report a case of GBM with calvarium involvement in a 60-year-old man who presented with a frontal bump and left-sided clumsiness...
December 13, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
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