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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820328/lps-induced-inflammatory-response-triggers-cell-cycle-reactivation-in-murine-neuronal-cells-through-retinoblastoma-proteins-induction
#1
Barbara D'Angelo, Carlo Astarita, Silvia Boffo, Mina Massaro-Giordano, Carmelina Iannuzzi, Antonella Caporaso, Marcella Macaluso, Antonio Giordano
Cell cycle reactivation in adult neurons is an early hallmark of neurodegeneration. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a well-known pro-inflammatory factor that provokes neuronal cell death via glial cells activation. The retinoblastoma (RB) family includes RB1/p105, retinoblastoma-like 1 (RBL1/p107), and retinoblastoma-like 2 (Rb2/p130). Several studies have indicated that RB proteins exhibit tumor suppressor activities, and play a central role in cell cycle regulation. In this study, we assessed LPS-mediated inflammatory effect on cell cycle reactivation and apoptosis of neuronally differentiated cells...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819156/cell-damage-produced-by-magnetic-fluid-hyperthermia-on-microglial-bv2-cells
#2
M Pilar Calatayud, Elisa Soler, Teobaldo E Torres, Enrique Campos-Gonzalez, Concepción Junquera, M Ricardo Ibarra, Gerardo F Goya
We present evidence on the effects of exogenous heating by water bath (WB) and magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) on a glial micro-tumor phantom. To this, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of 30-40 nm were designed to obtain particle sizes for maximum heating efficiency. The specific power absorption (SPA) values (f = 560 kHz, H = 23.9 kA/m) for as prepared colloids (533-605 W/g) dropped to 98-279 W/g in culture medium. The analysis of the intracellular MNPs distribution showed vesicle-trapped MNPs agglomerates spread along the cytoplasm, as well as large (~0...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815663/who-2016-classification-of-gliomas
#3
Pieter Wesseling, David Capper
Gliomas are the most frequent intrinsic tumours of the central nervous system and encompass two principle subgroups: diffuse gliomas and gliomas showing a more circumscribed growth pattern ('non-diffuse gliomas'). In the revised 4th edition of the WHO Classification of CNS tumors published in 2016, classification of especially diffuse gliomas has fundamentally changed: for the first time a large subset of these tumours is now defined based on presence/absence of IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion. Following this approach, the diagnosis of (anaplastic) oligoastrocytoma can be expected to largely disappear...
August 16, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812173/melatonin-attenuates-pain-hypersensitivity-and-decreases-astrocyte-mediated-spinal-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-oxaliplatin-induced-pain
#4
Ye-Song Wang, Yuan-Yuan Li, Wei Cui, Li-Bin Li, Zhao-Cai Zhang, Bao-Ping Tian, Gen-Sheng Zhang
Neuroinflammatory response in spinal dorsal horn has been demonstrated to be a critical factor in oxaliplatin-induced pain. Melatonin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-allodynia effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. In the present study, we investigated the role of systemic administration of melatonin on oxaliplatin-induced pain. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with oxaliplatin induced significantly mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Melatonin (i.p.) significantly alleviated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in the oxaliplatin but not sham-treated rats...
August 15, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810545/electroacupuncture-attenuates-learning-and-memory-impairment-via-activation-of-%C3%AE-7nachr-mediated-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-rats
#5
Jiao Liu, Chunyan Li, Hongwei Peng, Kunqiang Yu, Jing Tao, Ruhui Lin, Lidian Chen
Studies have reported that electroacupuncture (EA) may reduce learning and memory impairment following cerebral ischemic injury. However, the precise mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, the attenuation of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by EA in rats was investigated. EA at the Baihui (DU 20) and Shenting (DU 24) acupoints was demonstrated to significantly improve performance in the Morris water maze task, with shortened latency time and increased frequency of passing the platform...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807344/pituicytoma-review-of-commonalities-and-distinguishing-features-among-ttf-1-positive-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
Siba El Hussein, Cristina Vincentelli
Pituicytoma is a rare low-grade glial neoplasm that originates in the distribution of the neurohypophysis, including the posterior pituitary lobe and infundibular stalk. The tumor cells resemble pituicytes, which are specialized glial cells of the neurohypophysis. Pituicytoma can be misdiagnosed pre-operatively as a pituitary adenoma due to overlapping clinical and neuroimaging features between these two entities. Pituicytoma can also mimic other neoplasms of the sellar and parasellar regions microscopically - meningioma, schwannoma and pilocytic astrocytoma - and shares immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1 with spindle cell oncocytoma and granular cell tumor of the sellar region, suggesting a common histogenesis...
August 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802492/blue-nevi-and-related-tumors
#7
REVIEW
Artur Zembowicz
The major entities related to blue nevus are common blue nevus, cellular blue nevus, atypical blue nevus, and malignant blue nevus. These lesions share presence of dermal pigmented dendritic melanocytes derived from embryonal precursors to melanocytes, Schwann cells, and glial cells migrating to the skin from the ventral neural crest. Genetically, blue nevi harbor mutations in G-protein-coupled receptor subunits GNAQ and GNA11. Progression to malignant blue nevus is associated with additional mutations and partial gains and losses of chromosomal material...
September 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800009/pathologic-prognostic-factors-of-pineal-parenchymal-tumor-of-intermediate-differentiation
#8
Debajyoti Chatterjee, Khushboo Lath, Navneet Singla, Narendra Kumar, Bishan D Radotra
INTRODUCTION: Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) is an uncommon tumor of the pineal gland. Although this behaves as a grade II/III tumor, the exact clinical behavior is not well known. There is no well-established pathologic factor that can predict the behavior of PPTID. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the pathologic prognostic factors in PPTID. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All PPTID cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2016 were analyzed retrospectively...
August 9, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798533/a-spontaneous-myoepithelial-carcinoma-in-the-mammary-gland-of-an-aged-female-icr-cd-1-mouse
#9
Tsuyoshi Ito, Toshinori Yoshida, Katsumi Soma, Yoshitaka Katoh, Yuko Shimada, Aya Ohnuma-Koyama, Naofumi Takahashi, Yoshimasa Okazaki, Atsushi Shiga, Maki Kuwahara, Takanori Harada
We report a female Crlj:CD1(ICR) mouse with a spontaneous mammary gland tumor composed of biphasic tumor cells, i.e., epithelioid and spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells. Macroscopically, a subcutaneous mass, approximately 3 cm in diameter was found in the lumbodorsal region. Histopathologically, the epithelioid cells proliferated in an alveolar or nest-like growth pattern, occasionally forming glandular-like structures. On the other hand, the spindle-shaped cells proliferated in a sarcomatous pattern. Normal mammary gland was observed in the vicinity of the tumor...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795017/malignant-renal-schwannoma-in-a-cat
#10
Monier Sharif, Adel Mohamed, Manfred Reinacher
A nine-year-old male European shorthair cat with rapidly enlarging mass at the left kidney doubted to be malignant was presented. The purpose of this study is to present the clinical, radiological and pathological findings of a primary renal tumor in the cat. Grossly, the mass mostly encapsulated the kidney. Histologically, excisional biopsy showed worrying histological features. A sarcoma-like tumor composed mainly of neoplastic spindle-shaped cells. Neoplastic nodules of aggregations of fusiform cells arranged in multidirectional bundles...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793297/calcium-dobesilate-is-protective-against-inflammation-and-oxidative-nitrosative-stress-in-the-retina-of-a-type-1-diabetic-rat-model
#11
Paula Voabil, Joana Liberal, Ermelindo C Leal, Jacques Bauer, José Cunha-Vaz, Ana Raquel Santiago, António Francisco Ambrósio
Calcium dobesilate (CaD) has been prescribed to some patients in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy to delay its progression. We previously reported that the treatment of diabetic animals (4 weeks of diabetes) with CaD, during the last 10 days of diabetes, prevents blood-retinal barrier breakdown. Here, we aimed to investigate whether later treatment of diabetic rats with CaD would reverse inflammatory processes in the retina. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin, and 6 weeks after diabetes onset, CaD (100 mg/kg/day) was administered for 2 weeks...
August 10, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780063/reorganization-of-language-centers-in-patients-with-brain-tumors-located-in-eloquent-speech-areas-a-pre-and-postoperative-preliminary-fmri-study
#12
Katarzyna Gębska-Kośla, Bartosz Bryszewski, Dariusz J Jaskólski, Jan Fortuniak, Maciej Niewodniczy, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Agata Majos
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine in pre- and postsurgical fMRI studies the rearrangement of the Broca's and Wernicke's areas and the lateralization index for these areas in patients with brain tumors located near speech centers. Impact of the surgical treatment on the brain plasticity was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre- and postoperative fMRI examinations were performed in 10 patients with low grade glial, left-sided brain tumors located close to the Broca's (5 patients) or Wernicke's area (5 patients)...
July 29, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765641/hypomethylation-of-cntfr%C3%AE-is-associated-with-proliferation-and-poor-prognosis-in-lower-grade-gliomas
#13
Kun Fan, Xiaowen Wang, Jingwen Zhang, Romela Irene Ramos, Haibo Zhang, Chunjie Li, Dan Ye, Jiansheng Kang, Diego M Marzese, Dave S B Hoon, Wei Hua
Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α subunit (CNTFRα) and CNTF play important roles in neuron survival, glial differentiation and brain tumor growth. However, the molecular mechanisms of CNTFRα regulation and its clinical significance in glioma remain largely unknown. Here, we found CNTFRα was overexpressed in lower grade gliomas (LGG) compared with glioblastoma (GBM) and normal brain specimens in TCGA datasets and in an independent cohort. Bioinformatics analysis revealed a CpG shore of the CNTFRα gene regulated its mRNA expression in TCGA datasets...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761430/mechanisms-underlying-the-promotion-of-functional-recovery-by-deferoxamine-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#14
Jian Hao, Bo Li, Hui-Quan Duan, Chen-Xi Zhao, Yan Zhang, Chao Sun, Bin Pan, Chang Liu, Xiao-Hong Kong, Xue Yao, Shi-Qing Feng
Deferoxamine, a clinically safe drug used for treating iron overload, also repairs spinal cord injury although the mechanism for this action remains unknown. Here, we determined whether deferoxamine was therapeutic in a rat model of spinal cord injury and explored potential mechanisms for this effect. Spinal cord injury was induced by impacting the spinal cord at the thoracic T10 vertebra level. One group of injured rats received deferoxamine, a second injured group received saline, and a third group was sham operated...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758831/tet1-deficiency-attenuates-the-dna-damage-response-and-promotes-resistance-to-dna-damaging-agents
#15
Jonathan B Coulter, Hernando Lopez-Bertoni, Katherine J Kuhns, Richard S Lee, John Laterra, Joseph P Bressler
Recent studies have shown that loss of TET1 may play a significant role in the formation of tumors. Because genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer, we examined the potential involvement of ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) in the DNA damage response (DDR). Here we demonstrate that, in response to clinically relevant doses of ionizing radiation (IR), human glial cells made TET1-deficient with lentiviral vectors displayed greater numbers of colony forming units and lower levels of apoptotic markers compared to glial cells transduced with control vectors; yet, they harbored greater DNA strand breaks...
July 31, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758103/circulating-micrornas-as-emerging-non-invasive-biomarkers-for-gliomas
#16
REVIEW
Alessandra Santangelo, Anna Tamanini, Giulio Cabrini, Maria Cristina Dechecchi
No single circulating biomarker has been put to practice for malignant gliomas so far, the most lethal primary brain tumors. Many promising protein biomarkers such as the mutant EGFRvIII or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have already been detected in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with gliomas, but their clinical value is still pending validation. Furthermore, these and other proteins seem to lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity required for a successful biomarker in this clinical setting...
July 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758095/clinical-presentation-and-epidemiology-of-brain-tumors-firstly-diagnosed-in-adults-in-the-emergency-department-a-10-year-single-center-retrospective-study
#17
Ivan Comelli, Giuseppe Lippi, Valentina Campana, Franco Servadei, Gianfranco Cervellin
BACKGROUND: Several patients with new onset brain tumors present to the Emergency Department (ED) complaining for new symptoms. Although information exists on symptom prevalence in the entire population of patients with brain tumors, little is known about the clinical presentation in ED. This retrospective study was planned to investigate clinical presentation and epidemiology of brain tumors firstly diagnosed in a large urban ED throughout a 10-year period. METHODS: All medical records of patients aged ≥18 years, discharged from our ED with a diagnosis of brain tumor were retrieved from the electronic hospital database during a 10-year period (2006 to 2015)...
July 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755329/brain-tumor-related-epilepsy-a-current-review-of-the-etiologic-basis-and-diagnostic-and-treatment-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Politsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The relationship of brain tumors and seizures remains poorly understood. This article is an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, and diagnostic and treatment approaches of tumor-related epilepsy primarily with regard to glial-based tumors, the most commonly considered brain tumor in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past many years, several novel etiologic mechanisms to explain how tumors induce seizures have been developed, which this article reviews, including the roles of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, matrix metalloproteinases, isocitrate dehydrogenase, methylguanine methyltransferase, and functional network connectivity...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752390/pdgfr%C3%AE-p2a-creer-t2-mice-a-genetic-tool-to-target-pericytes-in-angiogenesis
#19
Henar Cuervo, Brianna Pereira, Taliha Nadeem, Mika Lin, Frances Lee, Jan Kitajewski, Chyuan-Sheng Lin
Pericytes are essential mural cells distinguished by their association with small caliber blood vessels and the presence of a basement membrane shared with endothelial cells. Pericyte interaction with the endothelium plays an important role in angiogenesis; however, very few tools are currently available that allow for the targeting of pericytes in mouse models, limiting our ability to understand their biology. We have generated a novel mouse line expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre-recombinase under the control of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor β promoter: PDGFRβ-P2A-CreER (T2) ...
July 27, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751139/identification-of-driver-genes-and-key-pathways-of-pediatric-brain-tumor-and-comparison-of-molecular-pathogenesis-based-on-pathological-types
#20
Sheng Zhong, Bo Wu, Yujuan Han, Yingshu Cao, Liu Yang, Sean X Luo, Yong Chen, Huimao Zhang, Gang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: This study is to identify pediatric brain tumors (PBT) diver genes, key pathways, to detect the expression of the diver genes and also to clarify the relationship between patients' prognosis and diver genes expression. METHODS: The gene expression profile of GSE50161 was analyzed to identify the DEGs (Differentially Expressed Genes) between tumor tissue and the normal tissue. GO (Gene Ontology), KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis and PPI (Protein-protein interation) network analysis were conducted to find out the enrichment functions, pathways and hub genes...
July 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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