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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223925/effects-of-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-emotion-and-cognition-a-potential-role-for-the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-and-neuroinflammation
#1
Laura Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J Pavon, Juan Decara, Juan Suarez, Ana Gavito, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222441/unusual-occurrence-of-multifocal-desmoplastic-infantile-astrocytoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Vinayak Narayan, Amey R Savardekar, Anita Mahadevan, Arimappamagan Arivazhagan, Lingegowda Appaji
Desmoplastic infantile gliomas are rare, benign tumors of the early infancy period. Two histological subtypes - desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma - have been described. The characteristic features of DIAs are lobar location, glial histology, and excellent prognosis after complete surgical excision. DIAs usually present as solitary, cortical-surfacing, solid-cystic neoplasms; however, atypical, aggressive, and multifocal variants of DIA have been reported in the literature...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217890/cerebellar-hemangioblastoma-with-perivascular-pseudorosette-formation-and-glial-differentiation-a-case-report
#3
Jian Wang, Xu-Yong Lin, Xue-Shan Qiu, En-Hua Wang, Lian-He Yang, Juan-Han Yu
Hemangioblastoma is a well-circumscribed, highly vascular, lipid-rich and low-grade tumor of uncertain histogenesis. Its histopathological features have been well established. Herein, we present a case of cerebellar hemangioblastoma in a 43-year-old woman. Histologically, the tumor was predominantly composed of cellular areas showing eosinophilic or vacuolated stromal cells arranged in nests and sheets. Focally, conventional reticular areas could be seen. Additionally, in some areas, the stromal cells were arranged radially around blood vessels, exhibiting perivascular pseudorosette structures, which were similar mostly to those of ependymomas...
August 24, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214639/congenital-glioblastoma-with-distinct-clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#4
Masahiro Kameda, Yoshihiro Otani, Tomotsugu Ichikawa, Akira Shimada, Koichi Ichimura, Isao Date
BACKGROUND: The molecular diagnosis of brain tumors is important in classifying tumors and determining appropriate treatment. Congenital glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a rare tumor that occurs in infants, and the prognosis is poor. Approximately 60 patients diagnosed as congenital GBM have been reported. However, few reports have conducted molecular analyses of congenital GBM. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe two congenital GBM patients treated in our hospital, and report results of immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), direct sequencing, and methylation analyses...
February 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212546/precursor-n-cadherin-mediates-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-promoted-human-malignant-glioma
#5
Ye Xiong, Liyun Liu, Shuang Zhu, Baole Zhang, Yuxia Qin, Ruiqin Yao, Hao Zhou, Dian Shuai Gao
As the most prevalent primary brain tumor, gliomas are highly metastatic, invasive and are characteristic of high levels of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). GDNF is an important factor for invasive glioma cell growth; however, the underlying mechanism involved is unclear. In this study, we affirm a significantly higher expression of the precursor of N-cadherin (proN-cadherin) in most gliomas compared with normal brain tissues. Our findings reveal that GDNF interacts with the extracellular domain of proN-cadherin, which suggests that proN-cadherin mediates GDNF-induced glioma cell migration and invasion...
February 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210976/regenerative-medicine-for-parkinson-s-disease-using-differentiated-nerve-cells-derived-from-human-buccal-fat-pad-stem-cells
#6
Haruka Takahashi, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Akira Tanaka
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of human adipose stem cells derived from the buccal fat pad (hBFP-ASCs) for nerve regeneration. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons. PD is a candidate disease for cell replacement therapy because it has no fundamental therapeutic methods. We examined the properties of neural-related cells induced from hBFP-ASCs as a cell source for PD treatment. hBFP-ASCs were cultured in neurogenic differentiation medium for about 2 weeks...
February 16, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203609/zeb2-inhibiting-the-inhibitors-in-schwann-cells
#7
Bastian G Brinkmann, Susanne Quintes
Development of Schwann cells is tightly regulated by concerted action of activating and inhibiting factors. Most of the regulatory feedback loops identified to date are transcriptional activators promoting induction of genes coding for integral myelin proteins and lipids. The mechanisms by which inhibitory factors are silenced during Schwann cell maturation are less well understood. We could recently show a pivotal function for the transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2) during Schwann cell development and myelination as a transcriptional repressor of maturation inhibitors...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202361/pre-clinical-evaluation-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-blockers-derived-from-the-spider-p-%C3%A2-nigriventer-in-glioma-progression
#8
Natália Fontana Nicoletti, Thaís Cristina Erig, Rafael Fernandes Zanin, Marcelo Ricardo Roxo, Nelson Pires Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Fernanda Bueno Morrone, Maria Martha Campos
This study investigated the effects of P/Q- and N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blockers derived from P. nigriventer in glioma progression, by means of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Glioma cells M059J, U-138MG and U-251MG were used to evaluate the antiproliferative effects of P/Q- and N-type VGCC inhibitors PhTx3-3 and Phα1β from P. nigriventer (0.3-100 pM), in comparison to MVIIC and MVIIA from C. magus (0.3-100 pM), respectively. The toxins were also analyzed in a glioma model induced by implantation of GL261 mouse cells...
February 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195245/ependymoma-with-diffuse-signet-ring-features-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
L Cima, S Beccari, C Ghimenton, G Pinna, A Beltramello, M Chilosi, M Brunelli, A Eccher
Signet-ring cell ependymoma is a rare variant of ependymoma with only seven cases described in literature. Biological behavior and prognosis of this entity are not well-known until now. We present a case of a 49-year-old female with a history of headache and gait instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an upper cervical tumor with cystic component and mural nodule. The patient underwent surgery. Microscopically some cells displayed an eccentric nucleus compressed to the periphery by vacuolated cytoplasm...
March 2016: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193095/intraocular-ependymoma-with-blood-filled-spaces
#10
Aditi Dewan, Ravindra Kumar Saran, Smriti Nagpal Gupta, Deepanjali Arya, Ruchi Goel
Intraocular glial lesions are rare and include retinal gliosis, hamartomas, and astrocytomas and rarely ependymomas. Ependymomas are slow-growing glial tumors preferentially arising in the central nervous system (CNS), occasionally presenting at sites outside the CNS, with only 2 cases of primary retinal ependymoma reported till date. We report herein the third such case of a 20-year-old male who presented with a painful blind eye. The enucleated specimen showed presence of a glial tumor with cells arranged in sheets as well as few true rosettes and pseudo-rosettes and an immunohistochemical profile similar to a classical ependymoma at usual sites in the CNS...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192065/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-and-leptin-expression-associated-with-ectopic-proliferation-and-retinal-dysplasia-in-zebrafish-optic-pathway-tumors
#11
Laura E Schultz, Staci L Solin, Wesley A Wierson, Janna M Lovan, Judith Syrkin-Nikolau, Deborah E Lincow, Andrew J Severin, Donald S Sakaguchi, Maura McGrail
In the central nervous system injury induces cellular reprogramming and progenitor proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms that limit regeneration and prevent tumorigenesis are not completely understood. We previously described a zebrafish optic pathway tumor model in which transgenic Tg(flk1:RFP)is18/+ adults develop nonmalignant retinal tumors. Key pathways driving injury-induced glial reprogramming and regeneration contributed to tumor formation. In this study, we examine a time course of proliferation and present new analyses of the Tg(flk1:RFP)is18/+ dysplastic retina and tumor transcriptomes...
February 13, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182061/intraoperative-squash-cytology-and-histology-of-giant-cell-ependymoma-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#12
Ebru Cakir, Ulku Kucuk, Ayca Ersen, Emel E Pala, Mehmet Senoglu, Ali O Binatli, Zubeyde Yildirim
Giant cell ependymomas (GCE) are extremely rare tumors, with 24 cases described in the literature. Squash cytology is a rapid, reliable, simple technique for intraoperative consultation in neurosurgical practice. We describe a rare case of GCE arising at level of L4-L5 in a 66-year-old woman and discuss the cytologic/histologic features. Intraoperative smears were highly cellular with a prominent fibrillary background and exhibited papillary structures and sheets composed of highly atypical and bizarre cells...
January 2017: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169952/hippocampal-infusion-of-lipopolysaccharide-induces-immune-responses-and-results-in-seizures-in-rats
#13
Yanxiang Zhang, Xuwen Sun, Yu Nai, Maowen Ba, Qiang Fu, Fei Wu
Recent studies suggest that epileptic seizures might be facilitated by immune reactions in the brain. However, it remains unclear whether inflammatory reactions could result in acute and chronic epileptic seizures in vivo. In the present study, we investigated whether a hippocampal infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce epileptic seizures in rats. We also aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underpin this phenomenon. Male Wistar rats received a 1.5 μl infusion of either LPS (5 µg/μl), normal saline, or kainate (KA) (0...
March 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168074/myoepithelioma-of-the-nasal-septum-a-rare-case-of-extrasalivary-gland-involvement
#14
Gustavo Barreto da Cunha, Tatiane Costa Camurugy, Thiago Cavalcante Ribeiro, Nara Nunes Barbosa Costa, Amanda Canário Andrade Azevedo, Eriko Soares de Azevedo Vinhaes, Nilvano Alves de Andrade
Introduction. The myoepithelioma is a rare benign tumor, most frequently found in the salivary glands. The extrasalivary gland involvement is even rarer and few cases involving the nasal cavity have been reported in the literature. Case Report. MES, a 54-year-old woman, complaining of progressive nasal obstruction and mild epistaxis through the right nostril which had developed 1 year previously. Computed tomography scan showed tumor with heterogeneous contrast enhancement occupying the right nasal cavity, moving contralaterally in the nasal septum...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154795/connectomic-profile-and-clinical-phenotype-in-newly-diagnosed-glioma-patients
#15
Jolanda Derks, Anne R Dirkson, Philip C de Witt Hamer, Quinten van Geest, Hanneke E Hulst, Frederik Barkhof, Petra J W Pouwels, Jeroen J G Geurts, Jaap C Reijneveld, Linda Douw
Gliomas are primary brain tumors, originating from the glial cells in the brain. In contrast to the more traditional view of glioma as a localized disease, it is becoming clear that global brain functioning is impacted, even with respect to functional communication between brain regions remote from the tumor itself. However, a thorough investigation of glioma-related functional connectomic profiles is lacking. Therefore, we constructed functional brain networks using functional MR scans of 71 glioma patients and 19 matched healthy controls using the automated anatomical labelling (AAL) atlas and interregional Pearson correlation coefficients...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143622/effects-of-the-duration-of-hyperlipidemia-on-cerebral-lipids-vessels-and-neurons-in-rats
#16
Weichun Yang, He Shi, Jianfen Zhang, Ziyi Shen, Guangyu Zhou, Minyu Hu
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of hyperlipidemia on the cerebral lipids, vessels and neurons of rats, and to provide experimental evidence for subsequent intervention. METHOD: One hundred adult SD rats, half of which were male and half of which were female, were randomly divided into five groups on the basis of serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. Four groups were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (rat chow supplemented with 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0...
January 31, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126640/the-effect-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-on-gliosis-and-il-1%C3%AE-tnf%C3%AE-ifn%C3%AE-tgf%C3%AE-expression-in-murine-brain
#17
Anna Sznejder-Pachołek, Ilona Joniec-Maciejak, Adriana Wawer, Agnieszka Ciesielska, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel
BACKGROUND: Alpha - synuclein (ASN) is the principal component of Lewy pathology and strongly influences on the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The increased level of ASN protein causes microglial response. The reactive microglial cells may actively participate in the damaging of dopaminergic neurons. The data suggests that ASN accumulation in astrocytes might damage these cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) and promotes degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in SN...
November 9, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126590/neuroprotection-by-freshwater-clam-extract-against-the-neurotoxin-mptp-in-c57bl-6-mice
#18
Cho-Chen Hsieh, Muh-Shi Lin, Kuo-Feng Hua, Wei-Jung Chen, Chai-Ching Lin
Freshwater clams are a popular health food in Asia and are traditionally used to prevent hepatic inflammation. Freshwater clam extract (FCE) inhibits inflammatory responses in activated macrophages by reducing the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. In this study, we used a mouse model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropypridine (MPTP; a neurotoxin)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) to demonstrate the protective effect of FCE on dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc)...
January 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122246/glioblastoma-cell-malignancy-and-drug-sensitivity-are-affected-by-the-cell-of-origin
#19
Yiwen Jiang, Voichita Dana Marinescu, Yuan Xie, Malin Jarvius, Naga Prathyusha Maturi, Caroline Haglund, Sara Olofsson, Nanna Lindberg, Tommie Olofsson, Caroline Leijonmarck, Göran Hesselager, Irina Alafuzoff, Mårten Fryknäs, Rolf Larsson, Sven Nelander, Lene Uhrbom
The identity of the glioblastoma (GBM) cell of origin and its contributions to disease progression and treatment response remain largely unknown. We have analyzed how the phenotypic state of the initially transformed cell affects mouse GBM development and essential GBM cell (GC) properties. We find that GBM induced in neural stem-cell-like glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells in the subventricular zone of adult mice shows accelerated tumor development and produces more malignant GCs (mGC1GFAP) that are less resistant to cancer drugs, compared with those originating from more differentiated nestin- (mGC2NES) or 2,'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (mGC3CNP)-expressing cells...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116540/gdnf-induces-ret-src-her2-dependent-growth-in-trastuzumab-sensitive-but-src-independent-growth-in-resistant-breast-tumor-cells
#20
Mossa Gardaneh, Sahar Shojaei, Ahmad Kaviani, Babak Behnam
We investigated the role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in compensating trastuzumab (TZMB)-induced apoptosis in HER2(+) breast cancer (BC) cells using xenograft tumors. We generated BC xenografts in nude mice using samples from three patients selected based on their HER2 status and response to TZMB therapy. TZMB treatment resulted in shrinkage of the HER2(+) TZMB-sensitive xenograft tumor but not the HER2(-) or HER2(+) TZMB-resistant ones. GDNF neutralized TZMB activity and induced growth in all tumors...
January 23, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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