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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732069/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-supplementation-reduces-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-an-animal-model-of-ibs
#1
Paola Brun, Melania Scarpa, Chiara Marchiori, Gloria Sarasin, Valentina Caputi, Andrea Porzionato, Maria Cecilia Giron, Giorgio Palù, Ignazio Castagliuolo
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on intestinal neuromuscular anomalies in an IBS-type mouse model of gastrointestinal motor dysfunctions elicited by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) exposure. METHODS: Mice were inoculated intranasally with HSV-1 (102 PFU) or vehicle at time 0 and 4 weeks later by the intragastric (IG) route (108 PFU). Six weeks after IG inoculum, mice were randomly allocated to receive oral gavage with either S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730232/implications-of-inflammation-and-remodeling-of-the-enteric-glial-cells-in-colorectal-adenocarcinoma
#2
Elena Anca Târtea, Cristina Florescu, IonuŢ Donoiu, Daniel Pirici, Alexandru Radu Mihailovici, Valeria Carmen Albu, Tudor Adrian Bălşeanu, Maria Iancău, Carmen Daniela Badea, Cristin Constantin Vere, Veronica Sfredel
AIM: The aim of our study was to assess glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) glial cell phenotype in the enteric nervous system (ENS) in colorectal adenocarcinoma of different tumor grading and, also, to establish correlations between these changes and the tumor proliferative activity and the tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. PATIENTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: We ran an observational, prospective study on a group of 52 patients diagnosed with colorectal adenocarcinoma...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718304/the-role-of-surgery-in-low-grade-gliomas-do-timing-and-extent-of-resection-matter
#3
Hugues Duffau
Hugues Duffau is a Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team "plasticity of the central nervous system, human stem cells and glial tumors" at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors, such as low-grade gliomas, a routine which he has developed since 20 years. His fundamental approach is centered on the concepts of the brain connectomics and neuroplasticity, breaking with the traditional localizationist view of cerebral processing...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717884/serum-concentrations-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-gfap-do-not-indicate-tumor-recurrence-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#4
Julia-Mareen Vietheer, Johannes Rieger, Marlies Wagner, Christian Senft, Julia Tichy, Christian Foerch
Recent studies identified serum concentrations of the astroglial protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to be indicative of glioblastoma (GBM) in patients with newly diagnosed space occupying cerebral mass lesions. Until now, no data is available whether GFAP serum concentrations decrease after first therapy and whether GFAP may be used as a predictor of survival and an indicator of tumor recurrence. In this prospective study, we included 44 patients with a single space occupying cerebral mass lesion suspicious for GBM...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715802/nerve-glial-antigen-2-a-novel-target-for-anti-tumor-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer
#5
Cem Cengiz, Safak Bulut, A Sedat Boyacioglu, M Ayhan Kuzu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To identify cell surface markers selectively expressed by tumor cells and tumor vasculature is the current goal for tumor therapy. One such marker is nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2), which is a transmembrane glycoprotein. We aimed to investigate the expression of NG2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its association with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of NG2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and CD34 in 65 patients diagnosed with CRC over a 5-year period was performed...
July 18, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705817/multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumor-of-the-cerebrum-a-new-leave-me-alone-lesion-with-a-characteristic-imaging-pattern
#6
R H Nunes, C C Hsu, A J da Rocha, L L F do Amaral, L F S Godoy, T W Watkins, V H Marussi, M Warmuth-Metz, H C Alves, F G Goncalves, B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, A G Osborn
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum is a recently reported benign, mixed glial neuronal lesion that is included in the 2016 updated World Health Organization classification of brain neoplasms as a unique cytoarchitectural pattern of gangliocytoma. We report 33 cases of presumed multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum that exhibit a remarkably similar pattern of imaging findings consisting of a subcortical cluster of nodular lesions located on the inner surface of an otherwise normal-appearing cortex, principally within the deep cortical ribbon and superficial subcortical white matter, which is hyperintense on FLAIR...
July 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705702/recurrent-pituicytoma-with-pseudoaneurysm-report-of-a-challenging-case
#7
Stefano Peron, Jaime Mandelli, Nicola Galante, Stefano Colombo, Davide Locatelli
BACKGROUND: Pituicytoma is a rare tumor originating from glial cells of the adult neurohypophysis and infundibulum. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice for this neoplasm. In recent years the endoscopic endonasal approach has proven to be a viable and effective alternative to standard craniotomy. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of a patient submitted to surgical treatment for a recurrence of pituicytoma, which was operated on transcranially at another hospital approximately five years previously...
July 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696174/bilateral-lateral-ventricular-subependymoma-with-extensive-multiplicity-presenting-with-hemorrhage
#8
F M Moinuddin, Novita Ikbar Khairunnisa, Hirofumi Hirano, Tomoko Hanada, Tsubasa Hiraki, Mari Kirishima, Kiyohisa Kamimura, Kazunori Arita
This 48-year-old-man who had undergone right thyroid lobectomy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma nine years earlier developed generalized seizures. His cerebrospinal fluid was xanthochromic with elevation of total protein. Computed tomography (CT) showed mixed-density bilateral ventricular masses. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple nodules in both lateral ventricles; they were heterogeneously enhanced by gadolinium. Diffuse hyperintensity in the right medial temporal lobe and bilateral subependymal area was noted on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687443/ganglioglioma-of-brain-stem-and-cervicomedullary-junction-a-50years-review-of-literature
#9
REVIEW
M Burhan Janjua, Iryna Ivasyk, David J Pisapia, Mark M Souweidane
Gangliogliomas are rare low-grade brain tumors composed of both neoplastic glial and neuronal cell elements. The treatment modalities are relatively different in this location and hence factors affecting outcome are poorly understood. We identified 142 brain stem GG patients across 46 studies. The average age was 11.4years with significant difference b/w males and females under the age of 20 (p=0.001). 100% of tumors in the CMJ while, 72% of type I and 86% of type II tumors demonstrated contrast enhancement...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685138/immunophenotypic-signature-of-primary-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-case-of-extended-progression-free-survival
#10
Puneet Gandhi, Richa Khare, Nitin Garg, Sandeep Sorte
Glioblastoma-multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive glial tumor, has a worldwide age-adjusted incidence ranging from 0.59-3.69/100000 persons. Despite current multimodal-treatment approach, median-survival time and progression-free survival (PFS) remains short. Glioblastomas display a variety of molecular alterations, which necessitates determining which of these have a prognostic significance. This is a case of a 45-year-old patient who presented with progressive slurring of speech and features of raised intracranial pressure...
June 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684796/znf179-induces-differentiation-and-growth-arrest-of-human-primary-glioblastoma-multiforme-in-a-p53-dependent-cell-cycle-pathway
#11
Kuen-Haur Lee, Chi-Long Chen, Yi-Chao Lee, Tzu-Jen Kao, Kai-Yun Chen, Chih-Yeu Fang, Wen-Chang Chang, Yung-Hsaio Chiang, Chi-Chen Huang
Malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor with strong local invasive growth and a poor prognosis. One probable way to manipulate GBM cells toward a less invasive status is to reprogram the most malignant GBM cells to a more differentiated and less oncogenic phenotype. Herein, we identified a novel role of a RING finger protein Znf179 in gliomagenesis. Znf179 overexpression induced differentiation of primary GBM cells, which were accompanied with elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression through up-regulating several cell-cycle-related factors, p53, p21, and p27, and allowed the cell-cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684456/optimization-of-dsc-mri-echo-times-for-cbv-measurements-using-error-analysis-in-a-pilot-study-of-high-grade-gliomas
#12
L C Bell, M D Does, A M Stokes, L C Baxter, K M Schmainda, A C Dueck, C C Quarles
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal TE must be calculated to minimize the variance in CBV measurements made with DSC MR imaging. Simulations can be used to determine the influence of the TE on CBV, but they may not adequately recapitulate the in vivo heterogeneity of precontrast T2*, contrast agent kinetics, and the biophysical basis of contrast agent-induced T2* changes. The purpose of this study was to combine quantitative multiecho DSC MRI T2* time curves with error analysis in order to compute the optimal TE for a traditional single-echo acquisition...
July 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681757/management-in-chordoid-glioma-avoiding-the-pitfalls-in-this-rare-and-challenging-entity
#13
Sergio Garcia-Garcia, Iban Aldecoa, Luis Alberto Caral, Enrique Ferrer, Teresa Ribalta, José Juan González-Sánchez
Chordoid glioma (CG) of the third ventricle is an unusual neoplasm of glial nature, which is almost exclusively located in the anterior wall of the third ventricle, in close relation with the hypothalamus. Magnetic resonance images show CG as a suprasellar, hypo- to isointense mass, homogeneously enhancing after the administration of gadolinium. Since its description in 1998 by Brat et al., approximately 85 cases have been reported. Some of its pathological features are under discussion and its histological origin still remains unclear...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680855/p21-activated-kinase-4-signaling-promotes-japanese-encephalitis-virus-mediated-inflammation-in-astrocytes
#14
Wen He, Zikai Zhao, Awais Anees, Yunchuan Li, Usama Ashraf, Zheng Chen, Yunfeng Song, Huanchun Chen, Shengbo Cao, Jing Ye
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) targets central nervous system, resulting in neuroinflammation with typical features of neuronal death along with hyper activation of glial cells. Exploring the mechanisms responsible for the JEV-caused inflammatory response remains a pivotal area of research. In the present study, we have explored the function of p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) in JEV-mediated inflammatory response in human astrocytes. The results showed that JEV infection enhances the phosphorylation of PAK4 in U251 cells and mouse brain...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676785/atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-two-case-reports-and-an-analysis-of-adult-cases-with-implications-for-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#15
Christopher Dardis, Jared Yeo, Kelly Milton, Lynn S Ashby, Kris A Smith, Shwetal Mehta, Emad Youssef, Jenny Eschbacher, Kathy Tucker, Laughlin Dawes, Neil Lambie, Elizabeth Algar, Elizabeth Hovey
We present the first quantitative analysis of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) in adults, including two patients from our own institutions. These are of interest as one occurred during pregnancy and one is a long-term survivor. Our review of pathological findings of 50 reported cases of adult ATRT leads us to propose a solely ectodermal origin for the tumor and that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a defining feature. Thus, the term ATRT may be misleading. Our review of clinical findings shows that ATRT tends to originate in mid-line structures adjacent to the CSF, leading to a high rate of leptomeningeal dissemination...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672958/mir-16-1-expression-heat-shock-protein-70-and-inflammatory-reactions-in-astrocytes-of-mice-with-epilepsy-induced-by-encephalitis-b-virus-infection
#16
Yue Yao, Yujia Yang, Xuehua He, Xia Wang
The upregulation of miR-16-1 expression and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and inflammatory reaction mechanism in astrocytes of mice with epilepsy induced by encephalitis B virus infection were studied. Six-to-eight-week-old healthy male C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (320-340 mg/kg, 40 mg/ml) to induce status epilepsy. After 7 days, mice were inoculated with 100 µl Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) in the neck, including 6.25×23 PFU Japanese encephalitis virus P3 wild strain...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670517/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-tumor-mesenchymal-like-stem-cells-derived-from-high-grade-versus-low-grade-gliomas
#17
Mousa Taghipour, Aydine Omidvar, Mahboobeh Razmkhah, Abbas Ghaderi, Zahra Mojtahedi
OBJECTIVE: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors, and have been ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Tumor mesenchymal-like stem cells (tMSCs) contribute to the aggressive behavior of glial tumors by providing a favorable microenvironment for the malignant cells. The aim of our study was to identify differential proteome of tMSCs derived from low vs. high grade glioma tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed low and high grade gliomas were included in this case control study...
July 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667594/do-race-and-age-vary-in-non-malignant-central-nervous-system-tumor-incidences-in-the-united-states
#18
Haley Gittleman, David J Cote, Quinn T Ostrom, Carol Kruchko, Timothy R Smith, Elizabeth B Claus, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan
Epidemiological analyses of many cancers have demonstrated differences in incidence and outcome for patients from different racial backgrounds. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of non-malignant CNS tumors by race and age to identify incidence variance. Data from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) from 2009 to 2013 were used to calculate age-adjusted incidence rates (IR) per 100,000 population and 95% confidence intervals for selected tumors overall, by race, age group, and race stratified by age group...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666294/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-protects-against-homocysteine-induced-brain-damage-in-rats
#19
Lili Wang, Xuan Tian
High levels of homocysteine are implicated in many neurovascular and neurodegeneration diseases. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), one of green tea polyphenols, has potential anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. However, it has not been explored whether EGCG has an effect on homocysteine-induced neuro-inflammation and neurodegeneration. In this study, we investigated the effects of EGCG on memory deficit, oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation, and neurodegeneration in hyper-homocysteinemic rats after a 2 wk homocysteine injection by vena caudalis...
June 30, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662669/glial-contributions-to-neurodegeneration-in-tauopathies
#20
REVIEW
Cheryl E G Leyns, David M Holtzman
Tauopathies are a broad set of neurodegenerative dementias characterized by aggregation of the tau protein into filamentous inclusions that can be found in neurons and glial cells. Activated microglia, astrocytes and elevated levels of proinflammatory molecules are also pathological hallmarks that are found in brain regions affected by tau pathology. There has been abundant research in recent years to understand the role of gliosis and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is the most common form of dementia...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
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