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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100038/trim8-regulates-stemness-in-glioblastoma-through-pias3-stat3
#1
Changming Zhang, Subhas Mukherjee, Carol Tucker-Burden, James L Ross, Monica J Chau, Jun Kong, Daniel J Brat
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant form of primary brain tumor and GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) contribute to the rapid growth, therapeutic resistance and clinical recurrence of these fatal tumors. STAT3 signaling supports the maintenance and proliferation of GSCs, yet regulatory mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we report that tri-partite motif containing protein 8 (TRIM8) activates STAT3 signaling to maintain stemness and self-renewing capabilities of GSCs. TRIM8 (also known as "glioblastoma expressed ring finger protein") is expressed equally in GBM and normal brain tissues, despite its hemizygous deletion in the large majority of GBMs, and its expression is highly correlated with stem cell markers...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095731/n-palmitoylethanolamine-oxazoline-pea-oxa-as-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-to-control-neuroinflammation-neuroprotective-effects-in-experimental-models-of-spinal-cord-and-brain-injury
#2
Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Modulation of N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) represents a potential alternative strategy in the treatment of neuroinflammation. Recent studies showed that pharmacological modulation of NAAA could be achieved with the oxazoline of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) (PEA-OXA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PEA-OXA in the secondary neuro-inflammatory events induced by spinal and brain trauma in mice. Animals were subjected to spinal cord and brain injury models and PEA-OXA (10 mg/kg) administered both intraperitoneally and orally 1 h and 6 h after trauma...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091411/protective-effects-of-calpain-inhibition-on-neurovascular-unit-injury-through-downregulating-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-related-inflammation-during-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#3
Xiao-Gang Tao, Jing-Hua Shi, Shu-Yu Hao, Xue-Tao Chen, Bai-Yun Liu
BACKGROUND: In addition to neurons, all components of the neurovascular unit (NVU), such as glial, endothelial, and basal membranes, are destroyed during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous studies have shown that excessive stimulation of calpain is crucial for cerebral injury after traumatic insult. The objective of this study was to investigate whether calpain activation participated in NVU disruption and edema formation in a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI). METHODS: One hundred and eight mice were divided into three groups: the sham group, the control group, and the MDL28170 group...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#4
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076568/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-retinoblastoma-cell-phenotype-using-neuronal-and-glial-cell-markers
#5
María Eugenia Orellana, Rubens Belfort, Emilia Antecka, Miguel Noel Burnier
Purpose: The cellular origin of retinoblastoma is uncertain as constituent tumor cells heterogeneously express markers of both immature and mature retinal cells. An immunohistochemical analysis of cellular origin may yield valuable insights into disease progression and treatment options. This study aimed to determine the cellular origin of retinoblastoma in a large case series and correlate these findings with histopathological prognostic factors. Methods: Thirty-nine retinoblastoma cases were histopathologically diagnosed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the immature neural cell marker SRY-box containing gene 2 (SOX-2), the mature neuronal cell marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and the mature glial cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074710/canine-spinal-cord-glioma
#6
Daniel R Rissi, Renee Barber, Annabelle Burnum, Andrew D Miller
Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073370/expression-site-of-p2ry12-in-residential-microglial-cells-in-astrocytomas-correlates-with-m1-and-m2-marker-expression-and-tumor-grade
#7
Changbin Zhu, Johan M Kros, Marcel van der Weiden, PingPin Zheng, Caroline Cheng, Dana A M Mustafa
The role of resident microglial cells in the pathogenesis and progression of glial tumors is still obscure mainly due to a lack of specific markers. Recently P2RY12, a P2 purinergic receptor, was introduced as a specific marker for microglial cells under normal and pathologic conditions. Here we analyzed the expression of P2RY12 in astrocytomas of various malignancy grades in relation to markers for M1 and M2 macrophage activation profiles by using two web-based glioma datasets and confocal immunohistochemistry to 28 astrocytoma samples grades II-IV...
January 10, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070104/comparative-photodynamic-therapy-cytotoxicity-of-mannose-conjugated-chlorin-and-talaporfin-sodium-in-cultured-human-and-rat-cells
#8
Yo Shinoda, Tsutomu Takahashi, Jiro Akimoto, Megumi Ichikawa, Hiromi Yamazaki, Atsushi Narumi, Shigenobu Yano, Yasuyuki Fujiwara
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a Food and Drug Administration authorized method for cancer treatment, which uses photosensitizer and laser photo-irradiation to generate reactive oxygen species to induce cell death in tumors. Photosensitizers have been progressively developed, from first to third generation, with improvements in cell specificity, reduced side effects and toxicity, increased sensitivity for irradiation and reduced persistence of photosensitizer in healthy cells. These improvements have been achieved by basic comparative experiments between current and novel photosensitizers using cell lines; however, photosensitizers should be carefully evaluated because they may have cell type specificity...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067771/ck2-an-emerging-target-for-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Julia Castello, Andre Ragnauth, Eitan Friedman, Heike Rebholz
Protein kinase CK2 has received a surge of attention in recent years due to the evidence of its overexpression in a variety of solid tumors and multiple myelomas as well as its participation in cell survival pathways. CK2 is also upregulated in the most prevalent and aggressive cancer of brain tissue, glioblastoma multiforme, and in preclinical models, pharmacological inhibition of the kinase has proven successful in reducing tumor size and animal mortality. CK2 is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has many bona fide substrates that are crucial in neuronal or glial homeostasis and signaling processes across synapses...
January 5, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062186/protective-effects-of-atorvastatin-against-morphine-induced-tolerance-and-dependence-in-mice
#10
Nasim Sadat Pajohanfar, Ehsan Mohebbi, Abolfazl Rad, Akbar Pejhan, Samad Nazemi, Bahareh Amin
[Background] In this study, we evaluated the effects of atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering medication on morphine-induced tolerance and dependence in mice. [Methods] Tolerance was induced by subcutaneous administration of morphine (20 mg/kg) to animals, twice a day for 9 days. Atorvastatin was given at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, 30 min before each morphine administration, once daily for 9 days. Hot plate test was employed to assess antinociceptive effect of morphine on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. Dependence was evaluated by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome...
January 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061403/berberine-ameliorates-intrahippocampal-kainate-induced-status-epilepticus-and-consequent-epileptogenic-process-in-the-rat-underlying-mechanisms
#11
Reza Sedaghat, Yosra Taab, Zahra Kiasalari, Siamak Afshin-Majd, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurologic condition, instigating epileptogenesis to transform normal brain to an epileptic condition. SE is followed by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and final development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) that is resistant to treatment. Neuroprotective strategies are increasingly put forward as a promising therapy to prevent and/or manage epileptic conditions. In this study, we investigated whether berberis alkaloid, i.e. berberine (BBR), could ameliorate intrahippocampal kainate-induced SE and its consequent epileptogenic process and to explore some underlying mechanisms...
January 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059863/spatiotemporal-expression-of-ski-after-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Kaisheng Zhou, Wei Nan, Dongliang Feng, Zhigang Yi, Yandong Zhu, Zaiyun Long, Sen Li, Haihong Zhang, Yamin Wu
Ski is an evolutionarily conserved protein and widely participates in the regulation of various pathological and physiological processes such as wound healing, liver regeneration, development of the embryonic nervous system, muscle differentiation, and progression of many kinds of tumors. However, the distribution and function of Ski in central nervous system lesion and disease remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of Ski in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats...
January 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059650/surgical-benefits-of-combined-awake-craniotomy-and-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-gliomas-associated-with-eloquent-areas
#13
Kazuya Motomura, Atsushi Natsume, Kentaro Iijima, Shunichiro Kuramitsu, Masazumi Fujii, Takashi Yamamoto, Satoshi Maesawa, Junko Sugiura, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
OBJECTIVE Maximum extent of resection (EOR) for lower-grade and high-grade gliomas can increase survival rates of patients. However, these infiltrative gliomas are often observed near or within eloquent regions of the brain. Awake surgery is of known benefit for the treatment of gliomas associated with eloquent regions in that brain function can be preserved. On the other hand, intraoperative MRI (iMRI) has been successfully used to maximize the resection of tumors, which can detect small amounts of residual tumors...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053137/activation-of-cecr1-in-m2-like-tams-promotes-paracrine-stimulation-mediated-glial-tumor-progression
#14
Changbin Zhu, Dana Mustafa, Ping-Pin Zheng, Marcel van der Weiden, Andrea Sacchetti, Maarten Brandt, Ihsan Chrifi, Dennie Tempel, Pieter J M Leenen, Dirk Jan Duncker, Caroline Cheng, Johan M Kros
BACKGROUND: The majority of glioma-associated microglia/macrophages have been identified as M2-type macrophages with immune suppressive and tumor supportive action. Recently, the extracellular adenosine deaminase protein Cat Eye Syndrome Critical Region Protein 1 (CECR1) was shown to regulate macrophage maturation. In this study, we investigate the role of CECR1 in the regulation of the glioma-associated macrophage response. METHODS: Expression of CECR1 was assessed in human glioma samples...
January 3, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049399/gliomas-new-perspectives-in-diagnosis-treatment-and-prognosis
#15
Kemel A Ghotme, George E Barreto, Valentina Echeverria, Janneth Gonzalez, Rosa H Bustos, Magdy Sanchez, Jerzy Leszek, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Rosa Margarita Gómez, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Gjumrakch Aliev
Gliomas are central nervous system tumors originated from glial cells, whose incidence and mortality is expected to rise in coming years, especially in developing countries. Diagnosis and classification of gliomas have largely relied on tumor histopathologic features that provide limited information regarding response to therapy or prognosis. Current treatment of gliomas is surgery combined with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. However, many tumors show a high resistance to these interventions, and recurrences are frequent since conventional therapies do not take into account the unique molecular features of different subtypes of glioma...
January 3, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047172/su-c-204-02-behavioral-and-pathologic-differences-in-mice-exposed-to-proton-minibeam-arrays-versus-proton-broad-beams
#16
J Eley, T Wolfe, E Vichaya, C Quini, A Chadha, C Zhang, J Davis, N Sahoo, F Dilmanian, S Krishnan
PURPOSE: Minibeam therapy using protons or light-ions offers a theoretical reduction of biologic damage to tissues upstream of a tumor compared to broad-beam therapy while providing equal tumor control. The purpose of this study was to investigate behavioral and pathologic differences in mice after exposure of healthy brain to proton minibeam arrays versus proton broad beams. METHODS: Twenty-four C57BL/6J juvenile mice were divided into 5 study arms: sham irradiation (NoRT), broad-beam 10 Gy (BB10), minibeam 10Gy (MB10), broad-beam 30 Gy (BB30), and minibeam 30 Gy (MB30), approximate integral entrance doses...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032743/sustained-local-release-of-ngf-from-a-chitosan-sericin-composite-scaffold-for-treating-chronic-nerve-compression
#17
Lei Zhang, Wen Yang, Kaixiong Tao, Yu Song, Hongjian Xie, Jian Wang, Xiaolin Li, Xiaoming Shuai, Jinbo Gao, Panpan Chang, Guobin Wang, Zheng Wang, Lin Wang
Chronic nerve compression (CNC), a common form of peripheral nerve injury, always leads to chronic peripheral nerve pain and dysfunction. Current available treatments for CNC are ineffective as they usually aim to alleviate symptoms at the acute phase with limited capability toward restoring injured nerve function. New approaches for effective recovery of CNC injury are highly desired. Here we report for the first time a tissue-engineered approach for the repair of CNC. A genipin cross-linked chitosan-sericin 3D scaffold for delivering nerve growth factor (NGF) was designed and fabricated...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029610/impact-of-local-injection-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expressing-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-mscs-combined-with-intravenous-msc-delivery-in-a-canine-model-of-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Seung Hoon Lee, Yongsun Kim, Daeun Rhew, Ahyoung Kim, Kwang Rae Jo, Yongseok Yoon, Kyeung Uk Choi, Taeseong Jung, Wan Hee Kim, Oh-Kyeong Kweon
BACKGROUND AIMS: The microenvironment of the chronically injured spinal cord does not allow for axonal regeneration due to glial scarring. To ameliorate this, several therapeutic strategies have been used. We investigated whether combined transplantation of chondroitinase ABC (chABC) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) genetically modified to secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with intravenous (IV) administration of MSCs can promote recovery of hindlimb function after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 28, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018176/activated-microglia-induce-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-produce-glial-cell-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-protect-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-injury
#19
Bingke Lv, Feng Li, Jie Fang, Limin Xu, Chengmei Sun, Jianbang Han, Tian Hua, Zhongfei Zhang, Zhiming Feng, Qinghua Wang, Xiaodan Jiang
In this study, we investigated interactions among microglia (MG), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and neurons in cerebral ischemia and the potential mechanisms using an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model. Rat BMSCs were incubated with conditioned medium (CM) from in vitro cultures of OGD-activated rat MG and murine BV2 MG cells. Effects of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on rat neuron viability, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were analyzed in this model...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011263/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-potentiates-chronic-neuropathic-pain-spinal-glial-and-immune-cell-activation-and-alters-sciatic-nerve-and-drg-cytokine-levels
#20
Shahani Noor, Joshua J Sanchez, Arden G Vanderwall, Melody S Sun, Jessie R Maxwell, Suzy Davies, Lauren L Jantzie, Timothy R Petersen, Daniel D Savage, Erin D Milligan
A growing body of evidence indicates that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may predispose individuals to secondary medical disabilities later in life. Animal models of PAE reveal neuroimmune sequelae such as elevated brain astrocyte and microglial activation with corresponding region-specific changes in immune signaling molecules such as cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate PAE on the development and maintenance of allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in adult male rat offspring...
December 20, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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