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Glial tumors

Karan Lal, Travis J Morrell, Michael Cunningham, Patrick OʼDonnell, Nikki A Levin, Kristine M Cornejo
Cutaneous mixed tumor (chondroid syringoma) is the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands, comprised of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. Malignant transformation is exceptionally rare, with only a few cases reported. We report a case of a malignant cutaneous mixed tumor in an 86-year-old white man who presented with a pink indurated plaque on his left scapula. He had a history of nonmelanoma skin cancers, a stage IB malignant melanoma of a lower extremity and Gleason 4 + 3 prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy, external beam irradiation, and bicalutamide...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Maria Wostrack, Florian Ringel, Sven O Eicker, Max Jägersberg, Karl Schaller, Johannes Kerschbaumer, Claudius Thomé, Ehab Shiban, Michael Stoffel, Benjamin Friedrich, Victoria Kehl, Peter Vajkoczy, Bernhard Meyer, Julia Onken
OBJECTIVE Spinal ependymomas are rare glial neoplasms. Because their incidence is low, only a few larger studies have investigated this condition. There are no clear data concerning prognosis and therapy. The aim of the study was to describe the natural history, perioperative clinical course, and local tumor control of adult patients with spinal ependymomas who were surgically treated under modern treatment standards. METHODS The authors performed a multicenter retrospective study. They identified 158 adult patients with spinal ependymomas who had received surgical treatment between January 2006 and June 2013...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
François-Xavier Ferracci, Hugues Duffau
Radical glioma resection improves overall survival, both in low-grade and high-grade glial tumors. However, preservation of the quality of life is also crucial. Areas covered: Due to the diffuse feature of gliomas, which invade the central nervous system, and due to considerable variations of brain organization among patients, an individual cerebral mapping is mandatory to solve the classical dilemma between the oncological and functional issues. Because functional neuroimaging is not reliable enough, intraoperative electrical stimulation, especially in awake patients benefiting from a real-time cognitive monitoring, is the best way to increase the extent of resection while sparing eloquent neural networks...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Saurabh Dhanda, Smriti Gupta, Avishek Halder, Aditya Sunkaria, Rajat Sandhir
Chronic liver disease per se induces neuroinflammation that contributes to cognitive deficits in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, the processes by which pro-inflammatory molecules result in cognitive impairment still remain unclear. In the present study, a significant increase in the activity of liver function enzymes viz. alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was observed along with increase in plasma ammonia levels after four weeks of bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats suggesting hepatocellular damage...
March 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Mohammad-Reza Khajevand-Khazaei, Pouria Ziaee, Seyyed-Alireza Motevalizadeh, Mahdi Rohani, Siamak Afshin-Majd, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
Systemic inflammation following infection is usually associated with long-term complications including cognitive deficit and dementia. Neuroinflammation and cognitive decline are also main hallmarks of several neurological conditions. Naringenin is a citrus flavanone with anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antioxidant potential. In this study, the protective effect of naringenin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive decline was evaluated in the rat. LPS was daily injected at a dose of 167μg/kg for 1 week and naringenin was administered p...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
François Cossais, Sebastian Leuschner, Martina Barrenschee, Christina Lange, Michael Ebsen, Ilka Vogel, Martina Böttner, Thilo Wedel
BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal inflammatory disorder associated with an enteric neuropathy. Although enteric glial cells (EGCs) are essential regulators of intestinal inflammation and motility functions, their contribution to the pathophysiology of DD remains unclear. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of specific EGC markers in patients with DD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of the glial markers S100β, GFAP, Sox10, and Connexin 43 was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR in colonic specimens of patients with DD and in that of controls...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Ahmed S Kamel, Noha F Abdelkader, Sahar S Abd El-Rahman, Marwan Emara, Hala F Zaki, Mahmoud M Khattab
Overactivation of angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin 2/angiotensin receptor-1 (ACE/Ang2/AT1) axis provokes amyloid-β-induced apoptosis and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, activation of AT1 impairs the survival pathway phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt). Interestingly, the coupling between ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas receptor (MasR) axis and PI3K/Akt activation opposes AT1-induced apoptosis. However, the effect of in vivo stimulation of MasR against AD and its correlation to PI3K/Akt is not yet elucidated...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Katarzyna Pogoda, Paul A Janmey
Understanding the mechanical behavior of human brain is critical to interpret the role of physical stimuli in both normal and pathological processes that occur in CNS tissue, such as development, inflammation, neurodegeneration, aging, and most common brain tumors. Despite clear evidence that mechanical cues influence both normal and transformed brain tissue activity as well as normal and transformed brain cell behavior, little is known about the links between mechanical signals and their biochemical and medical consequences...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hiroshi Nakashima, Tran Nguyen, Kazue Kasai, Carmela Passaro, Hirotaka Ito, William F Goins, Imran Shaikh, Ronald Erdelyi, Reiko Nishihara, Ichiro Nakano, David A Reardon, Ana C Anderson, Vijay Kuchroo, E Antonio Chiocca
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary central nervous system cancer in adults. Oncolytic HSV-1 (oHSV) is the first FDA-approved gene therapy approach for the treatment of malignant melanoma. For GBM, oHSVs need to be engineered to replicate within and be toxic to the glial tumor but not to normal brain parenchymal cells. We have thus engineered a novel oHSV to achieve these objectives. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: NG34 is an attenuated HSV-1 with deletions in the genes encoding viral ICP6 and ICP34...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Václav Holecek, Richard Rokyta
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most dangerous and least understood diseases with a pathophysiology that is still largely unknown. In this article we try to provide a pathophysiological explanation of the etiological, pathogenetic, and clinical aspects of ALS. After a description of the rather complicated classification of the disease, we continue with an evaluation of its clinical presentation. The bibliography reveals several suspect etiological factors including atherosclerosis, inflammation, tumors, cataracts, diabetes mellitus type 2, aging, and degeneration of the nervous system...
February 6, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Yuka Yoshida, Munenori Ide, Hiroya Fujimaki, Nozomi Matsumura, Sumihito Nobusawa, Hayato Ikota, Hideaki Yokoo
A 51-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of malaise. MRI revealed a large solid and cystic lesion with ring enhancement measuring 6.5 cm in diameter in the right frontal lobe. Histologically, the tumor consisted of various components: diffuse growth of atypical astrocytic cells consistent with glioblastoma, fascicular proliferation of atypical spindle cells such as fibrosarcoma, clusters of primitive neuronal cells, and foci of ependymal cells. The sarcomatous component also focally exhibited chondroid and osteoid differentiation...
March 5, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Mahboobeh Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar, Bahareh Amin, Soghra Mehri, Seyed Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the potential prophylactic and curative effects of rosmarinic acid, one of the main constituents of rosemary, on the neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCI was used to induce peripheral neuropathic pain. In prophylactic groups, rosmarinic acid (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered from the day of surgery (day 0) for 14 days. In treatment group, rosmarinic acid (40 mg/kg) was given from day 5 (after the pain was established), for 7 days...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Liang Li, Fengjuan Zhou, Fanzhong Lin, Cuihong Han
Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (TL-LGNPPA) is an extremely rare neoplasm. It morphologically resembles papillary thyroid carcinoma and is immunochemically positive for thyroid transcription factor 1. Herein, we reported a case of TL-LGNPPA in a female patient of 35 years old. She felt pharyngeal foreign body sensation of unknown cause and subsequently developed dyspnea after activities. Nasopharyngeal plain computerized tomography showed no abnormalities, but laryngoscopy showed a peanut-sized smooth neoplasm with a pedicel at the posterior edge of the nasal septum...
February 28, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Astrid Truschnegg, Stephan Acham, Lumnije Kqiku, Norbert Jakse, Alfred Beham
Prompted by a unique case of an ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECT) of the palate in a 54-year-old female, we reviewed the English and German literature on this entity until the end of 2016 using PubMed. The search produced 74 lingual cases with a nearly equal sex distribution and a mean age of 39.3 years, and two extra-lingual cases sharing histological and immunohistological features including nodular growth, round, fusiform or spindle-shaped cellular architecture, and chondromyxoid stroma. Immunophenotyping showed the majority of cases to be positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100 protein, glycoprotein CD57, pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3), and smooth muscle actin (SMA); in isolated cases there was molecular-genetic rearrangement or gain of Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) but no rearrangement of pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1)...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Hea Nam Hong, Ju Hee Shim, You Jin Won, Jong Yoon Yoo, Chang Ho Hwang
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and the therapeutic time window for preventing astrogliosis with erythropoietin (EPO) treatment after in vitro modeled spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Cultured rat spinal cord astrocytes were treated with kainate and scratching to generate an in vitro model of SCI. EPO (100U/mL or 300U/mL) was added immediately or 2, 4, or 8 hours after injury. Some cultures were also treated with AG490, an inhibitor of the EPO-EPO receptor (EpoR) pathway mediator Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Benjamin Goode, Gourish Mondal, Michael Hyun, Diego Garrido Ruiz, Yu-Hsiu Lin, Jessica Van Ziffle, Nancy M Joseph, Courtney Onodera, Eric Talevich, James P Grenert, Iman H Hewedi, Matija Snuderl, Daniel J Brat, Bette K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Fausto J Rodriguez, David N Louis, William H Yong, M Beatriz Lopes, Marc K Rosenblum, Nicholas Butowski, Tarik Tihan, Andrew W Bollen, Joanna J Phillips, Arun P Wiita, Iwei Yeh, Matthew P Jacobson, Boris C Bastian, Arie Perry, David A Solomon
Chordoid glioma is a rare brain tumor thought to arise from specialized glial cells of the lamina terminalis along the anterior wall of the third ventricle. Despite being histologically low-grade, chordoid gliomas are often associated with poor outcome, as their stereotypic location in the third ventricle makes resection challenging and efficacious adjuvant therapies have not been developed. Here we performed genomic profiling on 13 chordoid gliomas and identified a recurrent D463H missense mutation in PRKCA in all tumors, which localizes in the kinase domain of the encoded protein kinase C alpha (PKCα)...
February 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Selçuk Ozdogan, Cumhur Kaan Yaltirik, Seda Gulec Yilmaz, Mustafa Kaya, Ali Haluk Duzkalir, Nail Demirel, Ali Kafadar, Turgay Isbir
BACKGROUND/AIM: High-grade gliomas (HGG) consist of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme. The present study aimed to evaluate TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism in a Turkish population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study that included 45 patients with HGG and 49 healthy individuals. All patients were operated for intracranial tumors and the pathology results consist of high grade (Grade3 and 4) glial tumors...
March 2018: In Vivo
D Menon, P G Chelakkot
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is a major treatment option in the management of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, though recurrences after primary treatment, especially in high-grade glial tumors, is a challenge for treating physician. Advances in the field of radiation have made reirradiation a feasible option in recurrent CNS tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Details of patients with primary CNS lesions who presented between 2009 and 2016, with recurrent CNS lesions, and who were treated with reirradiation were retrieved from electronic medical records, as a departmental audit, and the outcome was analyzed...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Valéria Pereira Ferrer, Vivaldo Moura Neto, Rolf Mentlein
An outstanding characteristic of gliomas is their infiltration into brain parenchyma, a property that impairs complete surgical resection; consequently, these tumors might recur, resulting in a high mortality rate. Gliomas invade along preferential routes, such as those along white matter tracts and in the perineuronal and perivascular spaces. Brain extracellular components and their partners and modulators play a crucial role in glioma cell invasion. This review presents an extensive survey of the literature, showing how the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is modulated during the glioma infiltration process...
February 21, 2018: Glia
Mari Inohana, Ayumi Eguchi, Misato Nakamura, Rei Nagahara, Yosuke Watanabe, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
We describe a case of choroid plexus carcinoma arising in the cerebrum of a 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rat. The tumor mass occupied the right lateral ventricle of the cerebrum. Histological analyses revealed that the epithelial tumor cells had proliferated in tubular, cribriform, papillary and solid growth patterns in the vicinity of the choroid plexus, with slight invasion into the cerebrum parenchyma. We divided the tumor cells into cuboidal, elongated and intermediate cells. Immunohistochemical studies showed that these tumor cells expressed relatively high levels of cytokeratin AE1/AE3, vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic proteins, and low levels of nestin, oligodendrocyte transcription factor and doublecortin proteins...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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