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sorghum peptide

Jiandong Wu, Xiaolei Jin, Yang Zhao, Qing Dong, Haiyang Jiang, Qing Ma
Plant defensins are small, diverse, cysteine-rich peptides, belonging to a group of pathogenesis-related defense mechanism proteins, which can provide a barrier against a broad range of pathogens. In this study, 51 defensin-like (DEFL) genes in Gramineae, including brachypodium, rice, maize and sorghum were identified based on bioinformatics methods. Using the synteny analysis method, we found that 21 DEFL genes formed 30 pairs of duplicated blocks that have undergone large-scale duplication events, mostly occurring between species...
March 2016: Journal of Genetics
Anita Stefoska-Needham, Eleanor J Beck, Stuart K Johnson, Jiayue Chu, Linda C Tapsell
SCOPE: Sorghum grain components may play a role in mechanisms that protect against development of obesity-related chronic diseases. We conducted a randomized, cross-over trial (40 healthy subjects) using whole grain sorghum flaked biscuits to investigate mechanisms related to satiety. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects were tested on four occasions after a 12-h fast. At baseline, they consumed 50 grams of one of four treatment meals: white, red, or brown sorghum biscuits or a wheat control...
May 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Qiongying Wu, Jinjuan Du, Junqiang Jia, Cong Kuang
In this study, sweet sorghum grain protein (SSGP) was hydrolyzed using alcalase yielding ACE inhibitory peptides. A kinetic model was proposed to describe the enzymolysis process of SSGP. The kinetic parameters, a and b, were determined according to experimental data. It was found that the model was reliable to describe the kinetic behaviour for SSGP hydrolysis by alcalase. After hydrolysis, the SSGP hydrolysate with DH of 19% exhibited the strongest ACE inhibitory activity and the hydrolysate was then used to isolate ACE inhibitory peptides...
May 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Raquel A Ortíz Cruz, José L Cárdenas López, Gustavo A González Aguilar, Humberto Astiazarán García, Shela Gorinstein, Rafael Canett Romero, Maribel Robles Sánchez
The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the antioxidant potential of sorghum kafirin and sorghum flour and their influence on lipids and antioxidant capacity in rats. The antioxidant activity in sorghum kafirin extract measured by the DPPH and TEAC methods was increased 30 and 65 times, respectively, compared to that of its counterpart, sorghum flour. According to electrophoresis assay, the kafirins tert-butanol extract showed a high proportion of α-kafirin monomers, and its amino acid composition revealed higher hydrophobic amino acid content such as alanine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine than sorghum flour extract...
2015: BioMed Research International
Rakhi Panda, Katherine L Fiedler, Chung Y Cho, Raymond Cheng, Whitney L Stutts, Lauren S Jackson, Eric A E Garber
The effectiveness of a proline endopeptidase (PEP) in hydrolyzing gluten and its putative immunopathogenic sequences was examined using antibody-based methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Based on the results of the antibody-based methods, fermentation of wheat gluten containing sorghum beer resulted in a reduction in the detectable gluten concentration. The addition of PEP further reduced the gluten concentration. Only one sandwich ELISA was able to detect the apparent low levels of gluten present in the beers...
December 9, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Michelle L Colgrave, Hareshwar Goswami, Keren Byrne, Malcolm Blundell, Crispin A Howitt, Gregory J Tanner
Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification...
June 5, 2015: Journal of Proteome Research
Bradley C Campbell, Edward K Gilding, Victoria Timbrell, Preethi Guru, Dorothy Loo, Danila Zennaro, Adriano Mari, Graham Solley, Michelle M Hill, Ian D Godwin, Janet M Davies
BACKGROUND: Genomic data are lacking for many allergen sources. To circumvent this limitation, we implemented a strategy to reveal the repertoire of pollen allergens of a grass with clinical importance in subtropical regions, where an increasing proportion of the world's population resides. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify and immunologically characterize the allergenic components of the Panicoideae Johnson grass pollen (JGP; Sorghum halepense). METHODS: The total pollen transcriptome, proteome, and allergome of JGP were documented...
January 2015: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
V Pacquit, N Giglioli, C Crétin, J N Pierre, J Vidal, C Echevarria
A peptide containing the N-terminal phosphorylation site (Ser-8) of Sorghum C4-phospho enolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) was synthesized, purified and used to raise an antiserum in rabbits. Affinity-purified IgGs prevented PEPC phosphorylation in a reconstituted in vitro assay and reacted with both the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms of either native or denatured PEPC in immunoblotting experiments. Saturation of dephospho-PEPC with these specific IgGs resulted in a marked alteration of its functional and regulatory properties that mimicked phosphorylation of Ser-8...
March 1995: Photosynthesis Research
R T Derose, D P Ma, I S Kwon, S E Hasnain, R C Klassy, T C Hall
Electrophoretic analysis of translation products of polyadenylated RNA isolated from mid-maturation sorghum seed in the presence of [(35)S]met, [(3)H]leu, or [(3)H]val revealed two major proteins of kDa and 21 kDa. These products were not detected when [(3)H]lys was supplied as the radioactive substrate. Under similar electrophoretic conditions, kafirin (a major seed storage prolamin of sorghum), migrated as two bands of 22 kDa and 19 kDa. Sequence analysis of two cDNA clones (pSK8 and pSKR2) from sorghum seed mRNA revealed them to be highly homologous with each other and to the 22 kDa zeins from maize, suggesting that they represented kafirin cDNAs...
March 1989: Plant Molecular Biology
Michael G Gänzle
Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids...
February 2014: Food Microbiology
Haibao Tang, Hugo E Cuevas, Sayan Das, Uzay U Sezen, Chengbo Zhou, Hui Guo, Valorie H Goff, Zhengxiang Ge, Thomas E Clemente, Andrew H Paterson
Suppression of seed shattering was a key step during crop domestication that we have previously suggested to be convergent among independent cereal lineages. Positional, association, expression, and mutant complementation data all implicate a WRKY transcription factor, SpWRKY, in conferring shattering to a wild sorghum relative, Sorghum propinquum. We hypothesize that SpWRKY functions in a manner analogous to Medicago and Arabidopsis homologs that regulate cell wall biosynthesis genes, with low expression toward the end of floral development derepressing downstream cell wall biosynthesis genes to allow deposition of lignin that initiates the abscission zone in the seed-pedicel junction...
September 24, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yongrui Wu, Lingling Yuan, Xiaomei Guo, David R Holding, Joachim Messing
Sustainable food production for the earth's fast-growing population is a major challenge for breeding new high-yielding crops, but enhancing the nutritional quality of staple crops can potentially offset limitations associated with yield increases. Sorghum has immense value as a staple food item for humans in Africa, but it is poorly digested. Although a mutant exhibiting high-protein digestibility and lysine content has market potential, the molecular nature of the mutation is previously unknown. Here, building on knowledge from maize mutants, we take a direct approach and find that the high-digestible sorghum phenotype is tightly linked to a single-point mutation, rendering the signal peptide of a seed storage protein kafirin resistant to processing, indirectly reducing lysine-poor kafirins and thereby increasing lysine-rich proteins in the seeds...
2013: Nature Communications
Tsung-Meng Wu, Wan-Rong Lin, Yun-Ting Kao, Yi-Ting Hsu, Ching-Hui Yeh, Chwan-Yang Hong, Ching Huei Kao
Glutathione reductases (GRs) are important components of the antioxidant machinery that plants use to respond against abiotic stresses. In rice, one cytosolic and two chloroplastic GR isoforms have been identified. In this work, we describe the cloning and characterization of the full-length cDNA encoding OsGR3, a chloroplast-localized GR that up to now was considered as a non-functional enzyme because of assumed lack of N-terminal conserved domains. The expression of OsGR3 in E. coli validated that it can be translated as a protein with GR activity...
November 2013: Plant Molecular Biology
M R Barekatain, C Antipatis, N Rodgers, S W Walkden-Brown, P A Iji, M Choct
A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a high level of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20%), with or without a combination of protease and xylanase in broiler chickens, under a necrotic enteritis disease challenge. A total of 576 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 experimental treatments, each replicated 6 times, with 12 birds per replicate for 35 d. Oral inoculation of the challenged group with Eimeria spp. occurred on d 9, followed by 3 consecutive inoculations of Clostridium perfringens from d 14 through 16...
June 2013: Poultry Science
C Ganesh Kumar, Avijeet Kamle, Ahmed Kamal
Aspergillus terreus MTCC 11096 isolated from the soils of agricultural fields cultivating sweet sorghum was previously identified to produce feruloyl esterases (FAEs). The enzymes responsible for feruloyl esterase activity were purified to homogeneity and named as AtFAE-1, AtFAE-2, and AtFAE-3. The enzymes were monomeric having molecular masses of 74, 23 and 36 kDa, respectively. Active protein bands were identified by a developed pH-dependent zymogram on native PAGE. The three enzymes exhibited variation in pH tolerance ranging between pH 5-8 and thermostability of up to 55°C...
July 2013: Biotechnology Progress
C Ganesh Kumar, Avijeet Kamle, Ahmed Kamal
Aspergillus terreus MTCC 11096 isolated from the soils of agricultural fields cultivating sweet sorghum was previously identified to produce feruloyl esterases (FAE). The enzymes responsible for feruloyl esterase activity were purified to homogeneity and named as AtFAE-1, AtFAE-2 and AtFAE-3. The enzymes were monomeric having molecular masses of 74, 23 and 36 kDa, respectively. Active protein bands were identified by a developed pH-dependent zymogram on native PAGE. The three enzymes exhibited variation in pH tolerance ranging between pH 5-8 and thermostability of up to 55 °C...
March 19, 2013: Biotechnology Progress
Paola Pontieri, Gianfranco Mamone, Salvatore De Caro, Mitch R Tuinstra, Earl Roemer, Josephine Okot, Pasquale De Vita, Donatella B M Ficco, Pietro Alifano, Domenico Pignone, Domenica R Massardo, Luigi Del Giudice
Wheat (Triticum spp. L.), rye (Secale cereal L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds contain peptides toxic to celiac patients. Maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) are distant relatives of wheat as well as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and are known to be safe for celiacs. Both immunochemical studies and in vitro and in vivo challenge of wheat-free sorghum food products support this conclusion, although molecular evidence is missing. The goal of the present study was to provide biochemical and genetic evidence that sorghum is safe for celiac patients...
March 13, 2013: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Edward K Gilding, Celine H Frère, Alan Cruickshank, Anna K Rada, Peter J Prentis, Agnieszka M Mudge, Emma S Mace, David R Jordan, Ian D Godwin
The production of adequate agricultural outputs to support the growing human population places great demands on agriculture, especially in light of ever-greater restrictions on input resources. Sorghum is a drought-adapted cereal capable of reliable production where other cereals fail, and thus represents a good candidate to address food security as agricultural inputs of water and arable land grow scarce. A long-standing issue with sorghum grain is that it has an inherently lower digestibility. Here we show that a low-frequency allele type in the starch metabolic gene, pullulanase, is associated with increased digestibility, regardless of genotypic background...
2013: Nature Communications
Luis Carlos Belarmino, Roberta Lane de Oliveira Silva, Nina da Mota Soares Cavalcanti, Nicolas Krezdorn, Ederson Akio Kido, Ralf Horres, Peter Winter, Günter Kahl, Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon
BACKGROUND: The rationale for gathering information from plants procuring nitrogen through symbiotic interactions controlled by a common genetic program for a sustainable biofuel production is the high energy demanding application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. We curated sequence information publicly available for the biofuel plant sugarcane, performed an analysis of the common SYM pathway known to control symbiosis in other plants, and provide results, sequences and literature links as an online database...
2013: BMC Bioinformatics
Federico Rosconi, Danilo Davyt, Verónica Martínez, Marcela Martínez, Juan Andrés Abin-Carriquiry, Hannah Zane, Alison Butler, Emanuel M de Souza, Elena Fabiano
Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 is a diazotrophic endophyte able to colonize the interior of many economically relevant crops such as rice, wheat, corn and sorghum. Structures of siderophores produced by bacterial endophytes have not yet been elucidated. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the siderophores produced by this bacterium. In a screening for mutants unable to produce siderophores we found a mutant that had a transposon insertion in a non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) gene coding for a putative siderophore biosynthetic enzyme...
March 2013: Environmental Microbiology
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