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sorghum peptide

Hongwei Xie, Xiaojue Peng, Mingjuan Qian, Yicong Cai, Xia Ding, Qiusheng Chen, Qiying Cai, Youlin Zhu, Longan Yan, Yaohui Cai
D1-cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) rice is a sporophytic cytoplasmic male-sterile rice developed from Dongxiang wild rice that exhibits a no-pollen-grain phenotype. A mitochondrial chimeric gene (orf182) was detected by mitochondrial genome sequencing and a comparative analysis. Orf182 is composed of three recombinant fragments, the largest of which is homologous to Sorghum bicolor mitochondrial sequences. In addition, orf182 was found only in wild rice species collected from China. Northern blot analysis showed that orf182 transcripts were affected by Rf genes in the isocytoplasmic restorer line DR7...
June 7, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Regina Adão, Letícia M Zanphorlin, Tatiani B Lima, Dev Sriranganadane, Käthe M Dahlström, Glaucia M S Pinheiro, Fabio C Gozzo, Leandro R S Barbosa, Carlos H I Ramos
Proteostasis is dependent on the Hsp70/Hsp90 system (the two chaperones and their co-chaperones). Of these, Hop (Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein), also known as Sti1, forms an important scaffold to simultaneously binding to both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop/Sti1 has been implicated in several disease states, for instance cancer and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Therefore, human and yeast homologous have been better studied and information on plant homologous is still limited, even though plants are continuously exposed to environmental stress...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Katherine L Fiedler, Rakhi Panda, Timothy R Croley
Most gluten-reduced beers are produced using an enzyme called proline endopeptidase (PEP), which proteolyzes the gluten by cleaving at proline residues. However, the gluten content of beers brewed in the presence of PEP cannot be verified since current analytical methods are not able to accurately quantitate gluten in fermented foods. In this work, mass spectrometry was used to qualitatively characterize the gluten in a wheat-gluten-incurred sorghum model beer brewed with and without the addition of PEP. Hydrolyzed gluten peptides and chymotryptic gluten peptides produced from intact gluten proteins were detected in beer brewed in the presence of up to 6 times the manufacturer's recommended dosage of PEP...
February 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Xing Liu, Huping Zhang, Huijun Jiao, Leiting Li, Xin Qiao, Musana Rwalinda Fabrice, Juyou Wu, Shaoling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) are gaining recognition as regulators of cell-cell communication in plants. RESULTS: We identified 9556 CRPs in 12 plant species and analysed their evolutionary patterns. In most angiosperm plants, whole genome duplication and segmental duplication are the major factors driving the expansion of CRP family member genes, especially signal peptides. About 30% of the CRP genes were found clustered on the chromosomes, except in maize (Zea mays)...
August 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
Manju Sharma, Chhavi Mahajan, Manpreet S Bhatti, Bhupinder Singh Chadha
This study reports thermophilic fungus Malbranchea flava as a potent source of xylanase and xylan-debranching accessory enzymes. M. flava produced high levels of xylanase on sorghum straw containing solidified culture medium. The optimization of culture conditions for production of hemicellulases was carried out using one factor at a time approach and Box-Behnken design of experiments with casein (%), inoculum age (h) and inoculum level (ml) as process variables and xylanase, β-xylosidase, acetyl esterases and arabinofuranosidase as response variables...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
Anton F Evans, Sarah R O'Brien, Rong Ma, Aaron G Hager, Chance W Riggins, Kris N Lambert, Dean E Riechers
Rapid detoxification of atrazine in naturally tolerant crops such as maize (Zea mays) and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) results from glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. In previous research, two atrazine-resistant waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) populations from Illinois, U.S.A. (designated ACR and MCR), displayed rapid formation of atrazine-glutathione (GSH) conjugates, implicating elevated rates of metabolism as the resistance mechanism. Our main objective was to utilize protein purification combined with qualitative proteomics to investigate the hypothesis that enhanced atrazine detoxification, catalysed by distinct GSTs, confers resistance in ACR and MCR...
October 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Karen Massel, Bradley C Campbell, Emma S Mace, Shuaishuai Tai, Yongfu Tao, Belinda G Worland, David R Jordan, Jose R Botella, Ian D Godwin
Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a major agricultural input where more than 100 million tons are supplied annually. Cereals are particularly inefficient at soil N uptake, where the unrecovered nitrogen causes serious environmental damage. Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) is an important cereal crop, particularly in resource-poor semi-arid regions, and is known to have a high NUE in comparison to other major cereals under limited N conditions. This study provides the first assessment of genetic diversity and signatures of selection across 230 fully sequenced genes putatively involved in the uptake and utilization of N from a diverse panel of sorghum lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jiandong Wu, Xiaolei Jin, Yang Zhao, Qing Dong, Haiyang Jiang, Qing Ma
Plant defensins are small, diverse, cysteine-rich peptides, belonging to a group of pathogenesis-related defense mechanism proteins, which can provide a barrier against a broad range of pathogens. In this study, 51 defensin-like (DEFL) genes in Gramineae, including brachypodium, rice, maize and sorghum were identified based on bioinformatics methods. Using the synteny analysis method, we found that 21 DEFL genes formed 30 pairs of duplicated blocks that have undergone large-scale duplication events, mostly occurring between species...
March 2016: Journal of Genetics
Anita Stefoska-Needham, Eleanor J Beck, Stuart K Johnson, Jiayue Chu, Linda C Tapsell
SCOPE: Sorghum grain components may play a role in mechanisms that protect against development of obesity-related chronic diseases. We conducted a randomized, cross-over trial (40 healthy subjects) using whole grain sorghum flaked biscuits to investigate mechanisms related to satiety. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects were tested on four occasions after a 12-h fast. At baseline, they consumed 50 grams of one of four treatment meals: white, red, or brown sorghum biscuits or a wheat control...
May 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Qiongying Wu, Jinjuan Du, Junqiang Jia, Cong Kuang
In this study, sweet sorghum grain protein (SSGP) was hydrolyzed using alcalase yielding ACE inhibitory peptides. A kinetic model was proposed to describe the enzymolysis process of SSGP. The kinetic parameters, a and b, were determined according to experimental data. It was found that the model was reliable to describe the kinetic behaviour for SSGP hydrolysis by alcalase. After hydrolysis, the SSGP hydrolysate with DH of 19% exhibited the strongest ACE inhibitory activity and the hydrolysate was then used to isolate ACE inhibitory peptides...
May 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Raquel A Ortíz Cruz, José L Cárdenas López, Gustavo A González Aguilar, Humberto Astiazarán García, Shela Gorinstein, Rafael Canett Romero, Maribel Robles Sánchez
The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the antioxidant potential of sorghum kafirin and sorghum flour and their influence on lipids and antioxidant capacity in rats. The antioxidant activity in sorghum kafirin extract measured by the DPPH and TEAC methods was increased 30 and 65 times, respectively, compared to that of its counterpart, sorghum flour. According to electrophoresis assay, the kafirins tert-butanol extract showed a high proportion of α-kafirin monomers, and its amino acid composition revealed higher hydrophobic amino acid content such as alanine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine than sorghum flour extract...
2015: BioMed Research International
Rakhi Panda, Katherine L Fiedler, Chung Y Cho, Raymond Cheng, Whitney L Stutts, Lauren S Jackson, Eric A E Garber
The effectiveness of a proline endopeptidase (PEP) in hydrolyzing gluten and its putative immunopathogenic sequences was examined using antibody-based methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Based on the results of the antibody-based methods, fermentation of wheat gluten containing sorghum beer resulted in a reduction in the detectable gluten concentration. The addition of PEP further reduced the gluten concentration. Only one sandwich ELISA was able to detect the apparent low levels of gluten present in the beers...
December 9, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Michelle L Colgrave, Hareshwar Goswami, Keren Byrne, Malcolm Blundell, Crispin A Howitt, Gregory J Tanner
Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification...
June 5, 2015: Journal of Proteome Research
Bradley C Campbell, Edward K Gilding, Victoria Timbrell, Preethi Guru, Dorothy Loo, Danila Zennaro, Adriano Mari, Graham Solley, Michelle M Hill, Ian D Godwin, Janet M Davies
BACKGROUND: Genomic data are lacking for many allergen sources. To circumvent this limitation, we implemented a strategy to reveal the repertoire of pollen allergens of a grass with clinical importance in subtropical regions, where an increasing proportion of the world's population resides. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify and immunologically characterize the allergenic components of the Panicoideae Johnson grass pollen (JGP; Sorghum halepense). METHODS: The total pollen transcriptome, proteome, and allergome of JGP were documented...
January 2015: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
V Pacquit, N Giglioli, C Crétin, J N Pierre, J Vidal, C Echevarria
A peptide containing the N-terminal phosphorylation site (Ser-8) of Sorghum C4-phospho enolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) was synthesized, purified and used to raise an antiserum in rabbits. Affinity-purified IgGs prevented PEPC phosphorylation in a reconstituted in vitro assay and reacted with both the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms of either native or denatured PEPC in immunoblotting experiments. Saturation of dephospho-PEPC with these specific IgGs resulted in a marked alteration of its functional and regulatory properties that mimicked phosphorylation of Ser-8...
March 1995: Photosynthesis Research
R T Derose, D P Ma, I S Kwon, S E Hasnain, R C Klassy, T C Hall
Electrophoretic analysis of translation products of polyadenylated RNA isolated from mid-maturation sorghum seed in the presence of [(35)S]met, [(3)H]leu, or [(3)H]val revealed two major proteins of kDa and 21 kDa. These products were not detected when [(3)H]lys was supplied as the radioactive substrate. Under similar electrophoretic conditions, kafirin (a major seed storage prolamin of sorghum), migrated as two bands of 22 kDa and 19 kDa. Sequence analysis of two cDNA clones (pSK8 and pSKR2) from sorghum seed mRNA revealed them to be highly homologous with each other and to the 22 kDa zeins from maize, suggesting that they represented kafirin cDNAs...
March 1989: Plant Molecular Biology
Michael G Gänzle
Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids...
February 2014: Food Microbiology
Haibao Tang, Hugo E Cuevas, Sayan Das, Uzay U Sezen, Chengbo Zhou, Hui Guo, Valorie H Goff, Zhengxiang Ge, Thomas E Clemente, Andrew H Paterson
Suppression of seed shattering was a key step during crop domestication that we have previously suggested to be convergent among independent cereal lineages. Positional, association, expression, and mutant complementation data all implicate a WRKY transcription factor, SpWRKY, in conferring shattering to a wild sorghum relative, Sorghum propinquum. We hypothesize that SpWRKY functions in a manner analogous to Medicago and Arabidopsis homologs that regulate cell wall biosynthesis genes, with low expression toward the end of floral development derepressing downstream cell wall biosynthesis genes to allow deposition of lignin that initiates the abscission zone in the seed-pedicel junction...
September 24, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yongrui Wu, Lingling Yuan, Xiaomei Guo, David R Holding, Joachim Messing
Sustainable food production for the earth's fast-growing population is a major challenge for breeding new high-yielding crops, but enhancing the nutritional quality of staple crops can potentially offset limitations associated with yield increases. Sorghum has immense value as a staple food item for humans in Africa, but it is poorly digested. Although a mutant exhibiting high-protein digestibility and lysine content has market potential, the molecular nature of the mutation is previously unknown. Here, building on knowledge from maize mutants, we take a direct approach and find that the high-digestible sorghum phenotype is tightly linked to a single-point mutation, rendering the signal peptide of a seed storage protein kafirin resistant to processing, indirectly reducing lysine-poor kafirins and thereby increasing lysine-rich proteins in the seeds...
2013: Nature Communications
Tsung-Meng Wu, Wan-Rong Lin, Yun-Ting Kao, Yi-Ting Hsu, Ching-Hui Yeh, Chwan-Yang Hong, Ching Huei Kao
Glutathione reductases (GRs) are important components of the antioxidant machinery that plants use to respond against abiotic stresses. In rice, one cytosolic and two chloroplastic GR isoforms have been identified. In this work, we describe the cloning and characterization of the full-length cDNA encoding OsGR3, a chloroplast-localized GR that up to now was considered as a non-functional enzyme because of assumed lack of N-terminal conserved domains. The expression of OsGR3 in E. coli validated that it can be translated as a protein with GR activity...
November 2013: Plant Molecular Biology
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