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Shuyu Shen, Rui Huang, Charlie Li, Wenyan Wu, Honglin Chen, John Shi, Shiguo Chen, Xingqian Ye
Sorghum grains with different applications had different phenolic profiles, which were corresponded to various antioxidant capacities. In this study, total phenolic, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids contents, as well as contents of individual phenolic compounds from sorghum grains with various applications were determined, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated. Total phenolic contents (TPC) and total proanthocyanidins contents (TPAC) showed strong correlation with antioxidant activities ( r > 0...
May 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ying Hu, Michael G Gänzle
The formation of HoPS and oligosaccharides in sourdough fermentation improves bread quality but is dependent on the expression of glycansucrases by lactic acid bacteria. Data on the expression of dextransucrases by Weissella spp., however, are limited. This study therefore aimed to assess dextansucrase expression in W. cibaria 10 M, focusing on the effect of temperature. The effect of temperature on growth, oligosaccharide and dextran synthesis by W. cibaria 10 M was determined and the expression and activity of cell-associated dextransucrase from W...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Edi A Malo, Samuel Cruz-Esteban, Francisco J González, Julio C Rojas
Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), populations are monitored with a variety of commercial sex pheromone-baited traps. However, a number of trap-related variables may affect the number of FAW males captured. In this study, we tested the effect of trap design, trap size, and trap color for monitoring FAW males in corn crops in Mexico. We found that plastic jug trap (a home-made trap), captured significantly more FAW males than a commercial trap (Scentry Heliothis) and water bottle trap (another home-made trap)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jan Dvorak, Le Wang, Tingting Zhu, Chad M Jorgensen, Karin R Deal, Xiongtao Dai, Matthew W Dawson, Hans-Georg Müller, Ming-Cheng Luo, Ramesh K Ramasamy, Hamid Dehghani, Yong Q Gu, Bikram S Gill, Assaf Distelfeld, Katrien M Devos, Peng Qi, Frank M You, Patrick J Gulick, Patrick E McGuire
Homology was searched with genes annotated in the Aegilops tauschii pseudomolecules against genes annotated in the pseudomolecules of tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Brachypodium distachyon, sorghum, and rice. Similar searches were initiated with genes annotated in the rice pseudomolecules. Matrices of colinear genes and rearrangements in their order were constructed. Optical Bionano genome maps were constructed and used to validate rearrangements unique to the wild emmer and Ae. tauschii genomes. Most common rearrangements were short paracentric inversions and short intrachromosomal translocations...
May 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
A C S Dos Santos, S A Santos, G G P Carvalho, L D S Mariz, M S L Tosto, S C Valadares Filho, J A G Azevedo
The main objective of this study was to establish a protocol to validate urine spot samples to estimate N excretion and microbial synthesis in goat and sheep; and to study factors that affect daily creatinine and purine derivatives urinary excretion. Also a performance trial was carried out to compare goat and sheep slaughtered after different feedlot periods. Twelve Boer goats (20.6 kg±3.4 initial BW) and twelve Dorper sheep (18.4 kg±2.3 initial BW), all 4-month-old, males, were used. Eight animals (four goats and four sheep) were randomly allocated to be slaughtered at 28, 56 and 84 days in feedlot...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Hongyu Chen, Shihai Zhang, Inkyung Park, Sung Woo Kim
A total of 144 pigs with 18.4 ± 2.3 kg initial body weight (BW) at 6 wk of age were used in a 40-d trial to evaluate effects of protease (300,000 U/kg feed, BioResource International Inc., Durham, NC, USA) on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients, and gut health of pigs fed diets with sorghum. Pigs were randomly allotted to 4 treatments (12 pens per treatment, 3 pigs per pen) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (corn or sorghum basal diets, and 0 or 0.05% protease as 2 factors) with sex and initial BW as blocks...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
Tiago T Dos Santos, Helen V Masey O'Neill, Gemma González-Ortiz, Daniel Camacho-Fernández, Carlos López-Coello
The interaction of xylanase, protease and superdosing (1,500 FTU/kg) phytase in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was studied in broilers fed sorghum-based diets. A total of 2,800 one-day-old unsexed Ross 308 chicks were housed in 56 pens with 50 birds per pen, with or without inclusion of xylanase, protease and phytase, totaling 8 treatments and 7 replicates per treatment. Body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) were measured at 21 and 42 days of age, and mortality corrected feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated for each period and cumulatively...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
Cheng Peng, Hua Wang, Xiaoli Xu, Xiaofu Wang, Xiaoyun Chen, Wei Wei, Yongmin Lai, Guoquan Liu, Godwin Ian, Jieqin Li, Ling Zhang, Junfeng Xu
Gene editing techniques are becoming powerful tools for modifying target genes in organisms. Although several methods have been developed to detect gene-edited organisms, these techniques are time- and labour-intensive. Meanwhile, few studies have investigated high-throughput detection and screening strategies for plants modified by gene editing. In this study, we developed a simple, sensitive and high-throughput quantitative real-time(qPCR)-based method. The qPCR-based methodexploits two differently labelled probes that are placed within one amplicon at the gene editing target site to simultaneously detect the wild type and a gene-edited mutant...
May 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Hao Wen, Huidong Chen, Di Cai, Peiwen Gong, Tao Zhang, Zhichao Wu, Heting Gao, Zhuangzhuang Li, Peiyong Qin, Tianwei Tan
Background: The production of biobutanol from renewable biomass resources is attractive. The energy-intensive separation process and low-titer solvents production are the key constraints on the economy-feasible acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by fermentation. To decrease energy consumption and increase the solvents concentration, a novel two-stage gas stripping-salting-out system was established for effective ABE separation from the fermentation broth using sweet sorghum bagasse as feedstock...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiaoping Luo, Jiemei Cui, Haihui Zhang, Yuqing Duan
Subcritical water extraction (SWE), an environment-friendly technique, was applied to extract polyphenolics from sorghum bran. Extraction temperatures (°C), time (min), and solid-liquid ratio (mL/g) were investigated and optimized by Box-Behnken design. The optimized conditions for SWE was 144.5 °C of temperature, 21 min of time, and 35 mL/g of solid-liquid ratio, with a polyphenolics yield of 47.253 ± 0.375 mg GAE/g dw, which was in good agree with the predicted value. Comparing with hot water extraction (HWE), SWE resulted in a higher yield of polyphenolics, higher radical scavenging activities, and more efficient antiproliferative activity...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
P Hima Kumari, S Anil Kumar, Katam Ramesh, Palakolanu Sudhakar Reddy, M Nagaraju, A Bhanu Prakash, Trushar Shah, Ashley Henderson, Rakesh K Srivastava, G Rajasheker, A Chitikineni, Rajeev K Varshney, P Rathnagiri, M Lakshmi Narasu, P B Kavi Kishor
Na⁺ transporters play an important role during salt stress and development. The present study is aimed at genome-wide identification, in silico analysis of sodium-proton antiporter (NHX) and sodium-proton exchanger (NHE)-type transporters in Sorghum bicolor and their expression patterns under varied abiotic stress conditions. In Sorghum , seven NHX and nine NHE homologs were identified. Amiloride (a known inhibitor of Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger activity) binding motif was noticed in both types of the transporters...
May 3, 2018: Genes
Pradeep Wagle, Prasanna H Gowda, Jerry E Moorhead, Gary W Marek, David K Brauer
Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and water vapor (H2 O) fluxes from irrigated grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and maize (Zea mays L.) fields in the Texas High Plains were quantified using the eddy covariance (EC) technique during 2014-2016 growing seasons and examined in terms of relevant controlling climatic variables. Eddy covariance measured evapotranspiration (ETEC ) was also compared against lysimeter measured ET (ETLys ). Daily peak (7-day averages) NEE reached approximately -12 g C m-2 for sorghum and -14...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sumitha Banu Jamaldheen, Kedar Sharma, Aruna Rani, Vijayanand S Moholkar, Arun Goyal
This study compares different types of pretreatment methods, such as thermal pretreatment at 120°C, autoclaving, microwaving and ultrasonication in the presence of water, dilute acid (1% H2 SO4 ) or dilute alkali (1% NaOH) on Sorghum stalk with respect to the holocellulose and ADL (Acid Detergent/Insoluble Lignin) content. Among all the methods, pretreatment with 1% NaOH along with autoclaving at 121°C and 15 psi for 30 min was the most effective method for Sorghum stalk. FTIR analysis of this pretreated biomass showed the removal of lignin and FESEM analysis displayed enhanced surface roughness...
May 10, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Alexander N Grechkin, Anna V Ogorodnikova, Alevtina M Egorova, Fakhima K Mukhitova, Tatiana M Ilyina, Bulat I Khairutdinov
Young roots of wheat, barley, and sorghum, as well as methyl jasmonate pretreated rice seedlings, undergo an unprecedented allene oxide synthase pathway targeted to previously unknown oxylipins 1 - 3 . These Favorskii-type products, (4 Z )-2-pentyl-4-tridecene-1,13-dioic acid ( 1 ), (2' Z )-2-(2'-octenyl)-decane-1,10-dioic acid ( 2 ), and (2' Z ,5' Z )-2-(2',5'-octadienyl)-decane-1,10-dioic acid ( 3 ), have a carboxy function at the side chain, as revealed by their MS and NMR spectral data. Compounds 1 - 3 were the major oxylipins detected, along with the related α-ketols...
May 2018: ChemistryOpen
A Estrada-Angulo, F Coronel-Burgos, B I Castro-Pérez, A Barreras, R A Zinn, L Corona-Gochi, A Plascencia
Sorghum panicle residue (SPR), a by-product of Sorghum vulgare, obtained in the manufacture of brooms and wisks, has potential as a partial substitute for grain in growing-finishing diets for feedlot lambs. Accordingly, 48 Pelibuey×Katahdin lambs (initial weight=16.2±4.3 kg) were used in an 84-d growth-performance trial to evaluate its comparative feeding value. Lambs were blocked by weight and assigned within weight groupings to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen). The SPR was finely ground before it was incorporated into the diet...
May 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Jun Chen, Limin Zhang, Mengjiao Zhu, Lijie Han, Ya Lv, Yishan Liu, Pan Li, Haichun Jing, Hongwei Cai
Tillering contributes to grain yield and plant architecture and therefore is an agronomically important trait in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Here, we identified and functionally characterized a mutant of the Non-dormant Axillary Bud 1 (NAB1) gene from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized sorghum population. The nab1 mutants have increased tillering and reduced plant height. Map-based cloning revealed that NAB1 encodes a carotenoid-cleavage dioxygenase 7 (CCD7) orthologous to rice (Oryza sativa) HIGH-TILLERING DWARF1/DWARF17 and Arabidopsis thaliana MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING 3...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Jérémie Damay, Iulian-Zoltan Boboescu, Xavier Duret, Olivier Lalonde, Jean-Michel Lavoie
Sweet sorghum was subjected to an impregnation step, which recovered most of the 1st generation sugars, prior to a steam-treatment extraction of the 2nd generation sugars, at three different severity factors (SF). A medium severity (3.56 SF) treatment proved to be an optimal compromise between the amount of sugars extracted and the fermentation inhibitors generated following the subsequent depolymerization approaches applied on the broth. Next, a series of detoxification approaches (ozonation, overliming and a combination of both) were investigated following a concentration and depolymerization step...
April 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Dmitriy Smolensky, Davina Rhodes, D Scott McVey, Zachary Fawver, Ramasamy Perumal, Thomas Herald, Leela Noronha
As diet is one of the major controllable factors in cancer development, potentially chemopreventive foods are of significant interest to public health. One such food is sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a cereal grain that contains varying concentrations of polyphenols. In a panel of 15 sorghum germplasm, we identified strains with higher polyphenol content than previously reported for this grain. Bran extracts from the germplasm with the highest and lowest polyphenol content were then tested against HepG2 and Caco2 cancer cells to assess effects on cancer cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and protein expression patterns...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Marthe De Boevre, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Sarah De Saeger
The stability of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1 , deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone during processing of Nigerian traditional spices (dawadawa, okpehe, and ogiri) and beer (burukutu) using artificially contaminated raw materials was investigated. Results revealed the reduction of these toxins in all the final products. Boiling played a significant role (p < 0.05) in Fusarium mycotoxin reduction in the traditional spices. The highest percentage reduction of deoxynivalenol (76%) and zearalenone (74%) was observed during okpehe processing (boiled for 12 h)...
May 3, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
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