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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444474/compost-and-sulfur-affect-the-mobilization-and-phyto-availability-of-cd-and-ni-to-sorghum-and-barnyard-grass-in-a-spiked-fluvial-soil
#1
Sabry M Shaheen, Ali A Balbaa, Alaa M Khatab, Jörg Rinklebe
Soil reclamation via additives can cause contradictory effects on the mobilization of toxic elements in soils under dry and wet conditions. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the impact of compost and sulfur in two rates (1.25 and 2.5%) on fractionation, mobilization, and phyto-availability of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) to sorghum (dry soil) and barnyard grass (wet soil) in a fluvial soil spiked with 25 mg Cd or 200 mg Ni/kg soil. Compost decreased the solubility and mobilization of Cd (especially in dry soil) and Ni (in both soils)...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441624/various-soil-amendments-and-environmental-wastes-affect-the-im-mobilization-and-phytoavailability-of-potentially-toxic-elements-in-a-sewage-effluent-irrigated-sandy-soil
#2
Sabry M Shaheen, Mohamed S Shams, Mohamed R Khalifa, Mohamed A El-Dali, Jörg Rinklebe
Contamination of long-term sewage effluent irrigated soils by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a serious concern due to its high environmental and health risk. Our scientific hypothesis is that soil amendments can cause contradictory effects on the element mobilization and phytoavailability depending on the type of element and amendment. Therefore, we aimed to assess the impact of the application (1%) of several low cost amendments and environmental wastes on the (im)mobilization, availability, and uptake of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn by sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in a long term sewage effluent irrigated sandy soils collected from Egypt...
April 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439286/snp-discovery-and-genetic-variation-of-candidate-genes-relevant-to-heat-tolerance-and-agronomic-traits-in-natural-populations-of-sand-rice-agriophyllum-squarrosum
#3
Pengshan Zhao, Jiwei Zhang, Chaoju Qian, Qin Zhou, Xin Zhao, Guoxiong Chen, Xiao-Fei Ma
The extreme stress tolerance and high nutritional value of sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum) make it attractive for use as an alternative crop in response to concerns about ongoing climate change and future food security. However, a lack of genetic information hinders understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the morphological and physiological adaptations of sand rice. In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the transcriptomes of two individuals representing semi-arid [Naiman (NM)] and arid [Shapotou (SPT)] sand rice genotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435350/effects-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-soil-conditions-on-crop-plant-growth
#4
Sang Joon Kim, Ju-Kyeong Eo, Eun-Hwa Lee, Hyeok Park, Ahn-Heum Eom
We investigated the effects on various crops of inoculation with species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soils from different sources and selected AMF species suitable for domestic environment-friendly farming. Effects on plants varied with the AMF species used. In carrot, Scutellospora heterogama, Acaulospora longula, and Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on growth of the host, whereas AMF had only weak effects on the growth of red pepper and leek. AMF inoculation had positive effects on the growth of carrot and sorghum...
March 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435189/in-vitro-evaluation-of-total-mixed-ration-supplemented-with-exogenous-fibrolytic-enzymes-for-crossbred-cows
#5
Pravin Mohan Lunagariya, Ram Sharan Gupta, Subhash Parnerkar
AIM: The study was conducted to evaluate the levels of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on in vitro digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), total gas production (TGP), metabolizable energy (ME) content, and microbial biomass production (MBP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The total mixed ration (TMR) was prepared using 30% each of sorghum hay and groundnut straw and 40% compound concentrate mixture to meet nutritional requirement of cow (500 kg) producing 12 kg fat corrected milk...
March 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433145/influence-of-the-radial-stem-composition-on-the-thermal-behaviour-of-miscanthus-and-sorghum-genotypes
#6
Lucie Chupin, Dieter de Ridder, Anne Clément-Vidal, Armelle Soutiras, Emilie Gineau, Grégory Mouille, Stéphanie Arnoult, Maryse Brancourt-Hulmel, Catherine Lapierre, David Pot, Luc Vincent, Alice Mija, Patrick Navard
The hypothesis made is that thermal resistance of sorghum and miscanthus stem pieces taken at well-defined positions of the stem is simply related to their biochemical composition. For miscanthus, two different genotypes and two internode levels were selected. For each region, the stem was divided into three radial layers. For sorghum, two different genotypes were selected and the stem was divided into the same three radial layers. The results show that the thermal analysis is only sensitive to very large variations of compositions...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431276/enzymatic-activity-gene-expression-and-posttranslational-modifications-of-photosynthetic-and-non-photosynthetic-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-in-ammonium-stressed-sorghum-plants
#7
Cirenia Arias-Baldrich, Clara de la Osa, Nadja Bosch, Isabel Ruiz-Ballesta, José A Monreal, Sofía García-Mauriño
Sorghum plants grown with 5mM (NH4)2SO4 showed symptoms of stress, such as reduced growth and photosynthesis, leaf chlorosis, and reddish roots. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity, by supplying carbon skeletons for ammonium assimilation, plays a pivotal role in tolerance to ammonium stress. This work investigated the effect of ammonium nutrition on PPC and PPCK gene expression, on PEPC activity, and on post-translational modifications (PTMs) of PEPC in leaves and roots of sorghum plants. Ammonium increased PEPC kinase (PEPCk) activity and the phosphorylation state of PEPC in leaves, both in light and in the dark, due to increased PPCK1 expression in leaves...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428820/regional-water-footprints-of-potential-biofuel-production-in-china
#8
Xiaomin Xie, Tingting Zhang, Liming Wang, Zhen Huang
BACKGROUND: Development of biofuels is considered as one of the important ways to replace conventional fossil energy and mitigate climate change. However, rapid increase of biofuel production could cause other environmental concerns in China such as water stress. This study is intended to evaluate the life-cycle water footprints (WF) of biofuels derived from several potential non-edible feedstocks including cassava, sweet sorghum, and Jatropha curcas in China. Different water footprint types including blue water, green water, and grey water are considered in this study...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426383/contribution-of-sucrose-transporters-to-phloem-unloading-within-sorghum-bicolor-stem-internodes
#9
Ricky J Milne, Anke Reinders, John M Ward, Christina E Offler, John W Patrick, Christopher P L Grof
Sucrose produced in source leaves is loaded into collection phloem, transported to sinks and unloaded for utilisation or storage. In the context of long distance transport, sucrose transporters (SUTs) can function to load sucrose into collection phloem, retrieve leaked sucrose during long distance transport, and load sucrose into sink cells. SUTs have also been proposed to efflux sucrose under conditions of low proton motive force and low extracellular sucrose. The involvement of sucrose transporters in phloem unloading in a representative monocot stem, Sorghum bicolor, was evaluated during different stages of internode development...
April 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424717/expression-of-the-maize-dof1-transcription-factor-in-wheat-and-sorghum
#10
Pamela A Peña, Truyen Quach, Shirley Sato, Zhengxiang Ge, Natalya Nersesian, Taity Changa, Ismail Dweikat, Madhavan Soundararajan, Tom E Clemente
Nitrogen is essential for plant growth and development. Improving the ability of plants to acquire and assimilate nitrogen more efficiently is a key agronomic parameter that will augment sustainability in agriculture. A transcription factor approach was pursued to address improvement of nitrogen use efficiency in two major commodity crops. To this end, the Zea mays Dof1 (ZmDof1) transcription factor was expressed in both wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) either constitutively, UBI4 promoter from sugarcane, or in a tissue specific fashion via the maize rbcS1 promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407940/natural-occurrence-of-tenuazonic-acid-and-phoma-sorghina-in-brazilian-sorghum-grains-at-different-maturity-stages
#11
Rodrigo C Oliveira, Sarah S Goncalves, Mauricio S Oliveira, Paulo Dilkin, Carlos A Mallmann, Rogerio S Freitas, Priscilla Bianchi, Benedito Correa
A survey of 100 samples of sorghum grains was carried out to determine Phoma spp. and tenuazonic acid (TA) contamination using molecular tools and LC-MS/MS. Sorghum samples were obtained at the following four grain maturity stages: milk (S1), soft dough (S2), hard dough (S3), and physiological maturity (S4). The results revealed a good correlation between Phoma and TA occurrence during grain development. The samples showed Phoma contamination with frequencies ranging from 2.4% (S1) to 87.4% (S4), and the molecular identification revealed P...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407904/characterization-and-functionalities-study-of-hemicellulose-and-cellulose-components-isolated-from-sorghum-bran-bagasse-and-biomass
#12
Shuang Qiu, Madhav P Yadav, Lijun Yin
This study was undertaken to isolate and characterize three carbohydrate-rich fractions: Hemicellulose A (Hemi. A), Hemicellulose B (Hemi. B) and cellulose-rich residue (CRF) from sorghum bran (SBR), sorghum bagasse (SBA) and sorghum biomass (SBI). The monosaccharide composition of the Hemi. A and Hemi. B fractions was determined, indicating that SBR has a highly branched structure. The analysis of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) showed that TDF and IDF contents in original sorghum materials were in the following order: SBA˃SBI˃SBR...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400784/high-throughput-phenotyping-of-sorghum-plant-height-using-an-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-and-its-application-to-genomic-prediction-modeling
#13
Kakeru Watanabe, Wei Guo, Keigo Arai, Hideki Takanashi, Hiromi Kajiya-Kanegae, Masaaki Kobayashi, Kentaro Yano, Tsuyoshi Tokunaga, Toru Fujiwara, Nobuhiro Tsutsumi, Hiroyoshi Iwata
Genomics-assisted breeding methods have been rapidly developed with novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing, genomic selection and genome-wide association study. However, phenotyping is still time consuming and is a serious bottleneck in genomics-assisted breeding. In this study, we established a high-throughput phenotyping system for sorghum plant height and its response to nitrogen availability; this system relies on the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with either an RGB or near-infrared, green and blue (NIR-GB) camera...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396420/mutation-in-sorghum-low-germination-stimulant-1-alters-strigolactones-and-causes-striga-resistance
#14
Daniel Gobena, Mahdere Shimels, Patrick J Rich, Carolien Ruyter-Spira, Harro Bouwmeester, Satish Kanuganti, Tesfaye Mengiste, Gebisa Ejeta
Striga is a major biotic constraint to sorghum production in semiarid tropical Africa and Asia. Genetic resistance to this parasitic weed is the most economically feasible control measure. Mutant alleles at the LGS1 (LOW GERMINATION STIMULANT 1) locus drastically reduce Striga germination stimulant activity. We provide evidence that the responsible gene at LGS1 codes for an enzyme annotated as a sulfotransferase and show that functional loss of this gene results in a change of the dominant strigolactone (SL) in root exudates from 5-deoxystrigol, a highly active Striga germination stimulant, to orobanchol, an SL with opposite stereochemistry...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393269/overexpression-of-sbap37-in-rice-alleviates-concurrent-imposition-of-combination-stresses-and-modulates-different-sets-of-leaf-protein-profiles
#15
Maheshwari Parveda, B Kiran, D L Punita, P B Kavi Kishor
SbAP37 transcription factor contributes to a combination of abiotic stresses when applied simultaneously in rice. It modulates a plethora of proteins that might regulate the downstream pathways to impart salt stress tolerance. APETALA type of transcription factor was isolated from Sorghum bicolor (SbAP37), overexpressed in rice using a salt inducible abscisic acid 2 (ABA2) promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens following in planta method. Transgenics were confirmed by PCR amplification of SbAP37, hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) marker and ABA2 promoter and DNA blot analysis...
April 9, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391471/population-and-function-analysis-of-cultivable-bacteria-associated-with-spores-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-gigaspora-margarita
#16
Liangkun Long, Qunying Lin, Qing Yao, Honghui Zhu
This study was aimed to investigate the diversity and function of bacterial population associated with Gigaspora margarita spores. The fungus was propagated in sterilized sand/soil pots using alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), or maize (Zea mays) as host plants, or in sterilized vermiculite pots using alfalfa as host plants, respectively. Bacteria were isolated from the new-formed spores using diluted plate method, and typical bacterial isolates were identified according to 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390277/enhancement-in-multiple-lignolytic-enzymes-production-for-optimized-lignin-degradation-and-selectivity-in-fungal-pretreatment-of-sweet-sorghum-bagasse
#17
Vartika Mishra, Asim K Jana, Mithu Maiti Jana, Antriksh Gupta
The objective of this work was to study the increase in multiple lignolytic enzyme productions through the use of supplements in combination in pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) by Coriolus versicolor such that enzymes act synergistically to maximize the lignin degradation and selectivity. Enzyme activities were enhanced by metallic salts and phenolic compound supplements in SSF. Supplement of syringic acid increased the activities of LiP, AAO and laccase; gallic acid increased MnP; CuSO4 increased laccase and PPO to improve the lignin degradations and selectivity individually, higher than control...
March 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389982/the-assessment-and-the-farmers-perceived-ranking-of-feed-resources-and-coping-strategies-with-feed-scarcity-in-smallholder-dairy-farming-in-selected-district-towns-of-jimma-zone-ethiopia
#18
Belay Duguma, Veronique Dermauw, Geert Janssens
Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major constraints limiting milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cattle feed resources, feeding practices, the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources, causes of feed shortage, and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy system in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Data were obtained by interviewing 52 randomly selected smallholder dairy farmers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations...
April 8, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388674/variation-in-the-mineral-element-concentration-of-moringa-oleifera-lam-and-m-stenopetala-bak-f-cuf-role-in-human-nutrition
#19
Diriba B Kumssa, Edward Jm Joy, Scott D Young, David W Odee, E Louise Ander, Martin R Broadley
BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Edible parts of MO (n = 146) and MS (n = 50), co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95) underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387235/streptomyces-pactum-assisted-phytoremediation-in-zn-pb-smelter-contaminated-soil-of-feng-county-and-its-impact-on-enzymatic-activities
#20
Amjad Ali, Di Guo, Amanullah Mahar, Fang Ma, Ronghua Li, Feng Shen, Ping Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
Anthropogenic activities, such as industrial expansion, smelting, mining and agricultural practices, have intensified the discharge of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) into the environment, threatening human health and other organisms. To assist phytoremediation by sorghum in soil contaminated by smelters/mines in Feng County (FC), a pot experiment was performed to examine the phytoremediation potential of Streptomyces pactum (Act12) + biochar. The results showed that root uptake of Zn and Cd was reduced by 45 and 22%, respectively, while the uptake of Pb and Cu increased by 17 and 47%, respectively...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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