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Pankajkumar R Waghmare, Anuprita D Watharkar, Byong-Hun Jeon, Sanjay P Govindwar
In this study, we have described three steps to produce ethanol from Pogonatherum crinitum , which was derived after the treatment of textile wastewater. (a) Production of biomass: biomass samples collected from a hydroponic P. crinitum phytoreactor treating dye textile effluents and augmented with Ca-alginate immobilized growth-promoting bacterium, Bacillus pumilus strain PgJ (consortium phytoreactor), and waste sorghum husks were collected and dried. Compositional analysis of biomass (consortium phytoreactor) showed that the concentration of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 42, 30 and 17%, respectively, whereas the biomass samples without the growth-promoting bacterium (normal phytoreactor) was slightly lower, 40, 29 and 16%, respectively...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Muhammad Farooq, Ahmad Nawaz
Salt stress impedes the productivity of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) in many parts of the world. This study evaluated the potential role of benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and sorghum water extract (SWE) in improving the wheat performance under saline conditions. Seeds were primed with BAP (5 mg L-1 ), SWE (5% v/v), BAP + SWE, and distilled water (hydropriming). Soil filled pots maintained at the soil salinity levels of 4 and 10 dS m-1 were used for the sowing of primed and non-primed seeds. Salt stress suppressed the wheat growth; seed priming treatments significantly improved the wheat growth under optimal and suboptimal conditions...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Jennifer M C Van Os, Erin M Mintline, Trevor J DeVries, Cassandra B Tucker
Domestic cattle (Bos taurus taurus) are adapted to digest high-roughage diets, but in confinement they are commonly fed low-roughage, high-energy diets. This practice may leave cattle with an unfulfilled need to consume forage. A way to quantify motivation is to require animals to work to access a resource. Using this method, we evaluated cattle motivation to obtain forage when fed high- or low-roughage diets during and 30 d before the study. Individual heifers were fed Sudan grass (Sorghum × drummondii) hay (high roughage, n = 6) or a diet with 12% forage (as fed, low roughage, n = 6) in an open feed trough...
2018: PloS One
Elena A Salina, Mikhail A Nesterov, Zeev Frenkel, Antonina A Kiseleva, Ekaterina M Timonova, Federica Magni, Jan Vrána, Jan Šafář, Hana Šimková, Jaroslav Doležel, Abraham Korol, Ekaterina M Sergeeva
BACKGROUND: The IWGSC strategy for construction of the reference sequence of the bread wheat genome is based on first obtaining physical maps of the individual chromosomes. Our aim is to develop and use the physical map for analysis of the organization of the short arm of wheat chromosome 5B (5BS) which bears a number of agronomically important genes, including genes conferring resistance to fungal diseases. RESULTS: A physical map of the 5BS arm (290 Mbp) was constructed using restriction fingerprinting and LTC software for contig assembly of 43,776 BAC clones...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
P W Crous, M J Wingfield, T I Burgess, A J Carnegie, G E St J Hardy, D Smith, B A Summerell, J F Cano-Lira, J Guarro, J Houbraken, L Lombard, M P Martín, M Sandoval-Denis, A V Alexandrova, C W Barnes, I G Baseia, J D P Bezerra, V Guarnaccia, T W May, M Hernández-Restrepo, A M Stchigel, A N Miller, M E Ordoñez, V P Abreu, T Accioly, C Agnello, A Agustin Colmán, C C Albuquerque, D S Alfredo, P Alvarado, G R Araújo-Magalhães, S Arauzo, T Atkinson, A Barili, R W Barreto, J L Bezerra, T S Cabral, F Camello Rodríguez, R H S F Cruz, P P Daniëls, B D B da Silva, D A C de Almeida, A A de Carvalho Júnior, C A Decock, L Delgat, S Denman, R A Dimitrov, J Edwards, A G Fedosova, R J Ferreira, A L Firmino, J A Flores, D García, J Gené, A Giraldo, J S Góis, A A M Gomes, C M Gonçalves, D E Gouliamova, M Groenewald, B V Guéorguiev, M Guevara-Suarez, L F P Gusmão, K Hosaka, V Hubka, S M Huhndorf, M Jadan, Ž Jurjević, B Kraak, V Kučera, T K A Kumar, I Kušan, S R Lacerda, S Lamlertthon, W S Lisboa, M Loizides, J J Luangsa-Ard, P Lysková, W P Mac Cormack, D M Macedo, A R Machado, E F Malysheva, P Marinho, N Matočec, M Meijer, A Mešić, S Mongkolsamrit, K A Moreira, O V Morozova, K U Nair, N Nakamura, W Noisripoom, I Olariaga, R J V Oliveira, L M Paiva, P Pawar, O L Pereira, S W Peterson, M Prieto, E Rodríguez-Andrade, C Rojo De Blas, M Roy, E S Santos, R Sharma, G A Silva, C M Souza-Motta, Y Takeuchi-Kaneko, C Tanaka, A Thakur, M Th Smith, Z Tkalčec, N Valenzuela-Lopez, P van der Kleij, A Verbeken, M G Viana, X W Wang, J Z Groenewald
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica : Cadophora antarctica from soil. Australia : Alfaria dandenongensis on Cyperaceae , Amphosoma persooniae on Persoonia sp., Anungitea nullicana on Eucalyptus sp . , Bagadiella eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus , Castanediella eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus sp., Cercospora dianellicola on Dianella sp., Cladoriella kinglakensis on Eucalyptus regnans , Cladoriella xanthorrhoeae (incl. Cladoriellaceae fam. nov...
December 2017: Persoonia
Peipei Wu, Jingzhong Xie, Jinghuang Hu, Dan Qiu, Zhiyong Liu, Jingting Li, Miaomiao Li, Hongjun Zhang, Li Yang, Hongwei Liu, Yang Zhou, Zhongjun Zhang, Hongjie Li
Powdery mildew resistance gene Pm4b , originating from Triticum persicum , is effective against the prevalent Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici ( Bgt ) isolates from certain regions of wheat production in China. The lack of tightly linked molecular markers with the target gene prevents the precise identification of Pm4b during the application of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). The strategy that combines the RNA-Seq technique and the bulked segregant analysis (BSR-Seq) was applied in an F2:3 mapping population (237 families) derived from a pair of isogenic lines VPM1/7∗ Bainong 3217 F4 (carrying Pm4b ) and Bainong 3217 to develop more closely linked molecular markers...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marek Tarnawski, Agnieszka Baran
This study is was designed to assess the ecological risk associated with chemical pollution caused by heavy metals and PAHs on the basis of their ecotoxicological properties in sediments collected from the Rzeszów dam reservoir (Poland). The sediment samples were collected from three sampling stations: S1-inlet, backwater station, S2-middle of reservoir, S3 outlet, near the dam. The sediments' toxicity was evaluated using a battery of bioassays (Phytotoxkit, Phytotestkit, Ostracodtoxkit F, and Microtox). The highest content of metals (120...
February 27, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Hongrui Jiang, Navam S Hettiararchchy, Ronny Horax
Sorghum is a gluten-free grain and more attention has been given to the nutritional properties and recently its usage as a wheat replacement in food products. In the present work, protein-enriched sorghum based snack chips, prepared from sorghum meal with soy protein isolates and soy flour to meet the final protein content of 35.7%, were produced. The effect of varying baking powder (1.5-2.5%), dough sheet thickness (0.7-1.7 mm), and baking time (6-12 min) on the physical properties of the snack chips was investigated using a central composite design of response surface methodology...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yinping Jiao, Young Koung Lee, Nicholas Gladman, Ratan Chopra, Shawn A Christensen, Michael Regulski, Gloria Burow, Chad Hayes, John Burke, Doreen Ware, Zhanguo Xin
Grain number per panicle (GNP) is a major determinant of grain yield in cereals. However, the mechanisms that regulate GNP remain unclear. To address this issue, we isolate a series of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] multiseeded (msd) mutants that can double GNP by increasing panicle size and altering floral development so that all spikelets are fertile and set grain. Through bulk segregant analysis by next-generation sequencing, we identify MSD1 as a TCP (Teosinte branched/Cycloidea/PCF) transcription factor...
February 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Bangqiang Mao, Min Gao, Changshui Chen, Zhijun Li, Hong-Yu Zhang, Qingye Zhang
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC: is a target for the development of novel herbicides. Two series of N-nitrophenyl derivatives, type-A and type-B, were designed and synthesized based on the active site of the AHAS structure. All the structures of newly prepared compounds were thorough characterized by IR, and1 H NMR spectrums. The IC50 values of all synthesized target compounds against AHAS enzyme and EC50 values for herbicidal activity against Brassica campestris L., Amaranthus mangostanus L. and Sorghum sudanense were determined...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Melinda Smale, Amidou Assima, Alpha Kergna, Véronique Thériault, Eva Weltzien
Uptake of improved sorghum varieties in the Sudan Savanna of West Africa has been limited, despite the economic importance of the crop and long-term investments in sorghum improvement. One reason why is that attaining substantial yield advantages has been difficult in this harsh, heterogeneous growing environment. Release in Mali of the first sorghum hybrids in Sub-Saharan Africa that have been developed primarily from local germplasm has the potential to change this situation. Utilizing plot data collected in Mali, we explain the adoption of improved seed with an ordered logit model and apply a multivalued treatment effects model to measure impacts on farm families, differentiating between improved varieties and hybrids...
January 2018: Food Policy
Muhammad Umair Hassan, Muhammad Umer Chattha, Athar Mahmood, Shahbaz Talib Sahi
Biomass is a promising renewable energy source and its significance is escalating in the context of climate change and depletion of fossil foils. This study was conducted for two consecutive years 2016 and 2017, using five sorghum cultivars, i.e., JS-263, Jawar-2011, Hagari, JS-2002, and YS-2016, in order to determine the best cultivars in terms of dry matter yield, chemical composition, and biomethane yield grown under semi-arid conditions in Pakistan. The results revealed that sorghum cultivars responded differently in terms of growth, biomass yield, chemical composition, and methane yield...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lai Wei, Xuan Zhang, Zhihai Zhang, Huanhuan Liu, Zhongwei Lin
The applications of semi-dwarf genes such as sd1 and Rht1 in rice and wheat resulted in the first "green revolution" in the 1960s. However, such semi-dwarf genes that can efficiently reduce plant stature and have few negative yield traits have not yet been identified in maize. In this study, a new allele of Brachytic2 gene (qpa1) encoding P-glycoprotein was rapidly fine-mapped using a modified method. The qpa1, containing a 241-bp deletion in the last exon, had no negative effect on yield, but greatly modified the plant architecture including significantly reduced plant height and ear height, increased stalk diameter and erected leaf...
February 23, 2018: Heredity
Meetpal S Kukal, Suat Irmak
Climate variability and trends affect global crop yields and are characterized as highly dependent on location, crop type, and irrigation. U.S. Great Plains, due to its significance in national food production, evident climate variability, and extensive irrigation is an ideal region of investigation for climate impacts on food production. This paper evaluates climate impacts on maize, sorghum, and soybean yields and effect of irrigation for individual counties in this region by employing extensive crop yield and climate datasets from 1968-2013...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Y M Ananda Y Bandara, Dilooshi K Weerasooriya, Sanzhen Liu, Christopher R Little
The cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) secreted by necrotrophs are important virulence factors. Although not unequivocally demonstrated, it has been suggested that necrotrophs induce hosts to cooperate in disease development through manipulation of host CWDEs. The necrotrophic fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. (MP), causes charcoal rot disease in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. An RNA-seq experiment was conducted to investigate the behavior of sorghum CWDEs encoding genes after MP inoculation. Results revealed MP's ability to significantly up-regulate pectin methylesterase-, polygalacturonase-, cellulase-, endoglucanase-, and glycosyl hydrolase-encoding genes in a charcoal rot susceptible sorghum genotype (Tx7000), but not in a resistant genotype (SC599)...
February 21, 2018: Phytopathology
Zhiqiang Pan, Scott R Baerson, Mei Wang, Joanna Bajsa-Hirschel, Agnes M Rimando, Xiaoqiang Wang, N P Dhammika Nanayakkara, Brice P Noonan, Michael E Fromm, Franck E Dayan, Ikhlas A Khan, Stephen O Duke
Sorgoleone, a major component of the hydrophobic root exudates of Sorghum spp., is probably responsible for many of the allelopathic properties attributed to members of this genus. Much of the biosynthetic pathway for this compound has been elucidated, with the exception of the enzyme responsible for the catalysis of the addition of two hydroxyl groups to the resorcinol ring. A library prepared from isolated Sorghum bicolor root hair cells was first mined for P450-like sequences, which were then analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to identify those preferentially expressed in root hairs...
February 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Behzad Nozari, Safoora Mirmohamadsadeghi, Keikhosro Karimi
Besides free sugars, sweet sorghum stalks contain cellulose and hemicellulose that can be used for biofuel production. The pretreatment of stalks without the extraction of free sugars is more complicated than typical lignocelluloses, because of the degradation of free sugars during most pretreatment processes. In this study, the bioconversion of sweet sorghum stalks into biogas and bioethanol was studied using an improved organosolv pretreatment within a biorefinery framework. The organosolv pretreatment was developed using an aqueous solution of ethanol (EtOH) and isopropanol (IPOH)...
February 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Rhavena Graziela Liotti, Maria Isabela da Silva Figueiredo, Gilvan Ferreira da Silva, Elisabeth Aparecida Furtado de Mendonça, Marcos Antônio Soares
Endophytic bacteria occupy the same niche of phytopathogens and may produce metabolites that induce the host plant systemic resistance and growth. Host and environmental variables often determine the endophytic community's structure and composition. In this study, we addressed whether the plant genotype, organ, and geographic location influence the structure, composition, and functionality of endophytic bacterial communities in Paullinia cupana. To characterize the communities and identify strains with potential application in agriculture, we analyzed two P...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Lei Chen, Xianjun Yuan, Junfeng Li, Zhihao Dong, Tao Shao
BACKGROUND: A laboratory-silo study was conducted to evaluate the fermentation quality, feed-nutritive value and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage with or without oil-extracted microalgae supplementation. Sweet sorghum was mixed with four microalgae levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3% on a dry matter basis; Control, M1, M2 and M3, respectively) and ensiled for 45 d. Further, the four experimental silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 7 d. RESULTS: All the silages except M3 silage had good fermentative characteristics with low pH and ammonia nitrogen concentrations, and high lactic acid concentrations and favorable microbial parameters...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Warayutt Pilap, Sudarat Thanonkeo, Preekamol Klanrit, Pornthap Thanonkeo
In this work, the newly isolated thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus DBKKUY-103 exhibited a high ethanol fermentation efficiency at high temperatures using sweet sorghum juice (SSJ). The highest ethanol concentrations and productivities achieved under the optimum conditions using thermotolerant K. marxianus DBKKUY-103 were 85.16 g/l and 1.42 g/l.h at 37 °C and 83.46 g/l and 1.39 g/l.h at 40 °C, respectively. The expression levels of genes during ethanol fermentation at 40 °C were evaluated and the results found that the transcriptional levels of the RAD10 , RAD14 , RAD33 , RAD50 , ATPH , ATP4 , ATP16 , and ATP20 genes were up-regulated compared with those at 30 °C, suggesting that the high growth and high ethanol production efficiencies of K...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
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