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Nuno Basílio, Sheiraz Al Bittar, Nathalie Mora, Olivier Dangles, Fernando Pina
3-Deoxyanthocyanidins and their O-β-d-glucosides are natural pigments abundant in black sorghum. O-glycosidation can perturb the acid-base properties of the chromophore and lower its electron density with a large impact on the distribution of colored and colorless forms in aqueous solution. In this work, the influence of O-glycosidation on color is systematically studied from a series of 3-deoxyanthocyanin analogs. The pH- and light-dependent reversible reactions of 7-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-hydroxyflavylium (P3) and 4'-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-7-hydroxyflavylium (P5) were completely characterized in mildly acidic solution and compared with the parent aglycone 4',7-dihydroxyflavylium ion and the O-methylethers of P3 and P5...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jingzhong Xie, Naxin Huo, Shenghui Zhou, Yi Wang, Guanghao Guo, Karin R Deal, Shuhong Ouyang, Yong Liang, Zhenzhong Wang, Lichan Xiao, Tingting Zhu, Tiezhu Hu, Vijay Tiwari, Jianwei Zhang, Hongxia Li, Zhongfu Ni, Yingyin Yao, Huiru Peng, Shengli Zhang, Olin D Anderson, Patrick E McGuire, Jan Dvorak, Ming-Cheng Luo, Zhiyong Liu, Yong Q Gu, Qixin Sun
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is an allohexaploid species derived from two rounds of interspecific hybridizations. A high-quality genome sequence assembly of diploid Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the wheat D genome, will provide a useful platform to study polyploid wheat evolution. A combined approach of BAC pooling and next-generation sequencing technology was employed to sequence the minimum tiling path (MTP) of 3176 BAC clones from the short arm of Ae. tauschii chromosome 3 (At3DS). The final assembly of 135 super-scaffolds with an N50 of 4...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Chiung-Mei Chen, I-Cheng Chen, Ying-Lin Chen, Te-Hsien Lin, Wan-Ling Chen, Chih-Ying Chao, Yih-Ru Wu, Yeah-Ting Lu, Cheng-Yu Lee, Hong-Chi Chien, Ting-Shou Chen, Guey-Jen Lee-Chen, Chi-Mei Lee
BACKGROUND: The F-box protein 7 (FBXO7) mutations have been identified in families with early-onset parkinsonism and pyramidal tract signs, and designated as PARK15. In addition, FBXO7 mutations were found in typical and young onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Evidence has also shown that FBXO7 plays an important role in the development of dopaminergic neurons and increased stability and overexpression of FBXO7 may be beneficial to PD. PURPOSE: We screened extracts of medicinal herbs to enhance FBXO7 expression for neuroprotection in MPP(+)-treated cells...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
J A Shimshoni, O Cuneah, M Sulyok, R Krska, E Sionov, S Barel, Y Meller Harel
Sorghum ergot is a disease caused commonly by C. africana. In 2015, ergot was identified for the first time in sorghum fields in Israel, leading to measures of eradication and quarantine. The aims of the study were to identify the ergot species by molecular and ergot alkaloid profile analysis, to determine the ergot alkaloid profile in pure honeydew and in infected sorghum silages and to estimate the safety of sorghum silages as a feed source. C. africana was rapidly and reliably identified by microscopical and molecular analysis...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Shengfu Zhong, Lixia Ma, Syeda Akash Fatima, Jiezhi Yang, Wanquan Chen, Taiguo Liu, Yuting Hu, Qing Li, Jingwei Guo, Min Zhang, Li Lei, Xin Li, Shengwen Tang, Peigao Luo
The wheat powdery mildew resistance gene Pm40, which is located on chromosomal arm 7BS, is effective against nearly all prevalent races of Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici (Bgt) in China and is carried by the common wheat germplasm PI 672538. A set of the F1, F2 and F2:3 populations from the cross of the resistant PI 672538 with the susceptible line L1034 were used to conduct genetic analysis of powdery mildew resistance and construct a high-density linkage map of the Pm40 gene. We constructed a high-density linkage genetic map with a total length of 6...
2016: PloS One
U Uzay Sezen, Jacob N Barney, Daniel Z Atwater, Gary A Pederson, Jeffrey F Pederson, J Mike Chandler, T Stan Cox, Sheila Cox, Peter Dotray, David Kopec, Steven E Smith, Jill Schroeder, Steven D Wright, Yuannian Jiao, Wenqian Kong, Valorie Goff, Susan Auckland, Lisa K Rainville, Gary J Pierce, Cornelia Lemke, Rosana Compton, Christine Phillips, Alexandra Kerr, Matthew Mettler, Andrew H Paterson
Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) is a striking example of a post-Columbian founder event. This natural experiment within ecological time-scales provides a unique opportunity for understanding patterns of continent-wide genetic diversity following range expansion. Microsatellite markers were used for population genetic analyses including leaf-optimized Neighbor-Joining tree, pairwise FST, mismatch analysis, principle coordinate analysis, Tajima's D, Fu's F and Bayesian clusterings of population structure. Evidence indicates two geographically distant introductions of divergent genotypes, which spread across much of the US in <200 years...
2016: PloS One
Thazin Thin, Lin Myat, Gi-Hyung Ryu
The effects of CO2 injection and barrel temperatures on the physiochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded cereals (sorghum, barley, oats, and millet) were studied. Extrusion was carried out using a twin-screw extruder at different barrel temperatures (80, 110, and 140°C), CO2 injection (0 and 500 mL/min), screw speed of 200 rpm, and moisture content of 25%. Extrusion significantly increased the total flavonoid content (TFC) of extruded oats, and β-glucan and protein digestibility (PD) of extruded barley and oats...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Xu Wang, Can Chen, Jianlong Wang
Cs accumulation characteristics by S. bicolor were investigated in hydroponic system (Cs level at 50∼1000 μmol/L) and in soil (Cs-spiked concentration was 100 and 400 mg/kg soil). Two varieties of S. bicolor Cowly and Nengsi 2# grown on pot soil during the entire growth period (100 days) did not show significant differences on the height, dry weight (DW) and Cs accumulation. S. bicolor showed the potential phytoextraction ability for Cs-contaminated soil with the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF) values usually higher than 1 in soil system and in hydroponic system...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Norma Julieta Salazar Lopez, Guadalupe Loarca-Piña, Rocío Campos-Vega, Marcela Gaytán Martínez, Eduardo Morales Sánchez, J Marina Esquerra-Brauer, Gustavo A Gonzalez-Aguilar, Maribel Robles Sánchez
Approximately 80% of sorghum phenolic compounds are linked to arabinoxylans by ester bonds, which are capable of resisting the digestion process in the upper gastrointestinal tract, compromising their bioaccessibility and biological potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the extrusion process on the content of phenolic compounds in sorghum bran and its impact on phenolic compounds and antiradical and anti-inflammatory capacity. Results revealed that the extrusion process increased total phenol content in sorghum bran compared to nonextruded sorghum, particularly for extrusion at 180°C with 20% moisture content (2...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Leandro de Morais Cardoso, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Cicero Beserra de Menezes, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de Carvalho, Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
PURPOSE: Glycaemic control is essential to prevent the manifestation of diabetes in predisposed individuals and the development of associated comorbidities. It is believed that sorghum may modulate the glucose response. In this study, we investigated the effect of extruded sorghum consumption, and the profile of bioactive compounds, on postprandial glycaemia of a subsequent meal in normal weight and normoglycaemic subjects. METHODS: This was a randomized, single-blind, crossover designed study...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Qingnan Chu, Zhimin Sha, Takuji Nakamura, Norikuni Oka, Mitsuru Osaki, Toshihiro Watanabe
In this study, we determined the capacity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Hoyoharuka) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) to utilize different forms of nitrogen (N) in a rhizobox experiment. We assessed the distribution of different forms of N and microbial metabolism in the rhizosphere. Seedlings were grown for 35 days without N or with 130 mg N kg-1 soil as ammonium sulfate or farmyard cattle manure. We detected no treatment-dependent changes in biomass production in the roots and shoots of the soybeans...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
O K Koech, R N Kinuthia, G N Karuku, S M Mureithi, R Wanjogu
BACKGROUND: Production of range grasses under irrigation has been widely adopted in the arid environments of Kenya as a strategy for seasonal forage supply gap. However, their productivity has only been done under conventional methods without an evaluation of their performance at varied soil moisture conditions. This information is needed for making sustainable management of irrigation water and also increased pasture productivity at the current intensification of the production systems...
2016: SpringerPlus
Dorcus C Gemenet, Willmar L Leiser, Francesca Beggi, Ludger H Herrmann, Vincent Vadez, Henry F W Rattunde, Eva Weltzien, Charles T Hash, Andreas Buerkert, Bettina I G Haussmann
West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
S B Im, S-J Kwon, J Ryu, S W Jeong, J B Kim, J-W Ahn, S H Kim, Y D Jo, H-I Choi, S-Y Kang
Under certain circumstances, transposable elements (TE) can create or reverse mutations and alter the genome size of a cell. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is promising for plant transposon tagging due to its small genome size and its low content of repetitive DNA. We developed a marker system based on targeted region amplification polymorphisms (TE-TRAP) that uses the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of transposons. A total of 3816 class 2 transposons belonging to the PIF/Harbinger family were identified from the whole sorghum genome that produced five primers, including eight types of TIRs...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
J Ryu, S B Im, S J Kwon, J W Ahn, S W Jeong, S Y Kang
This study evaluated the chemical and genetic diversity of high-seed-yield sorghum germplasms from Korea, the United States, and South Africa. We identified significant differences in the chemical contents of whole plants at the heading stage in all cultivars, including differences in crude protein, fat, fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral, and fatty acid contents. Our results suggest that Banwoldang is the most appropriate cultivar for roughage because of its high protein yield...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Zenebe Girmay, Weldesemayat Gorems, Getachew Birhanu, Solomon Zewdie
Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production...
December 2016: AMB Express
Agustina Del Palacio, Ana Mionetto, Lina Bettucci, Dinorah Pan
Silage, one of the most important feed sources for cattle, is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage moulds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of this study was to identify the mycobiota of sorghum silages, to determine the presence of aflatoxins and fumonisins, and to correlate these results with physical parameters of the silage. A total of 275 samples of sorghum were collected from dairy farms in the south-west region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed...
October 4, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Xiaoqing Yu, Xianran Li, Tingting Guo, Chengsong Zhu, Yuye Wu, Sharon E Mitchell, Kraig L Roozeboom, Donghai Wang, Ming Li Wang, Gary A Pederson, Tesfaye T Tesso, Patrick S Schnable, Rex Bernardo, Jianming Yu
The 7.4 million plant accessions in gene banks are largely underutilized due to various resource constraints, but current genomic and analytic technologies are enabling us to mine this natural heritage. Here we report a proof-of-concept study to integrate genomic prediction into a broad germplasm evaluation process. First, a set of 962 biomass sorghum accessions were chosen as a reference set by germplasm curators. With high throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), we genetically characterized this reference set with 340,496 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
October 3, 2016: Nature Plants
Thomas G Simnadis, Linda C Tapsell, Eleanor J Beck
CONTEXT: Sorghum, an ancient grain originating in Africa, may have health-protective properties that could encourage its consumption among those who do not traditionally consume it. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the health effects associated with the consumption of sorghum among humans. DATA SOURCES: Academic databases were searched for relevant studies published between 1985 and November 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Nineteen studies -13 interventional and 6 observational - were identified for inclusion...
September 30, 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Ping Li, Di Cai, Changwei Zhang, Shufeng Li, Peiyong Qin, Changjing Chen, Yong Wang, Zheng Wang
Two-stage acid/alkali pretreatment was used to enhance the saccharification efficiency of sweet sorghum fiber. The physicochemical characterizations of the pretreated fibers were evaluated by SEM, FTIR and XRD. The acid and alkali sequence in the two-stage pretreatment process was compared, and their dosage was optimized. The results indicated that the two-stage pretreatment showed better saccharification performance when compared with conventional single stage pretreatment. And compared with the acid-alkali sequence, the alkali-acid sequence achieved higher glucose yield (0...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
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