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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338217/unprecedented-synergistic-effects-of-nanoscale-nutrients-on-growth-productivity-of-sweet-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench-and-nutrient-biofortification
#1
Naseeruddin Ramapuram, Sumathi V, Nvkv Prasad Tollamadugu, P Sudhakar, Chandrika V, Balam Ravindra Reddy
Evidence based synergistic effects of nanoscale materials (size <100 nm in at least one dimension) were scantly documented in agriculture at field scale. Herein, we report for the first time on effects of nanoscale zinc oxide (n-ZnO), calcium oxide (n-CaO) and magnesium oxide (n-MgO) on growth and productivity of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Modified sol-gel method was used to prepare nanoscale materials under study. Characterization was done using Electron microscopy (TEM & SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330722/location-of-low-copy-genes-in-chromosomes-of-brachiaria-spp
#2
Thaís Furtado Nani, James C Schnable, Jacob D Washburn, Patrice Albert, Welison Andrade Pereira, Fausto Souza Sobrinho, James A Birchler, Vânia Helena Techio
Repetitive DNA sequences have been widely used in cytogenetic analyses. The use of gene sequences with a low-copy-number, however, is little explored especially in plants. To date, the karyotype details in Brachiaria spp. are limited to the location of rDNA sites. The challenge lies in developing new probes based on incomplete sequencing data for the genus or complete sequencing of related species, since there are no model species with a sequenced genome in Brachiaria spp. The present study aimed at the physical location of conserved genes in chromosomes of Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha, and Brachiaria decumbens using RNAseq data, as well as sequences of Setaria italica and Sorghum bicolor through the fluorescent in situ hybridization technique...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330694/volatile-compounds-from-beneficial-or-pathogenic-bacteria-differentially-regulate-root-exudation-transcription-of-iron-transporters-and-defense-signaling-pathways-in-sorghum-bicolor
#3
Erasto Hernández-Calderón, Maria Elizabeth Aviles-Garcia, Diana Yazmín Castulo-Rubio, Lourdes Macías-Rodríguez, Vicente Montejano Ramírez, Gustavo Santoyo, José López-Bucio, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero
Our results show that Sorghum bicolor is able to recognize bacteria through its volatile compounds and differentially respond to beneficial or pathogens via eliciting nutritional or defense adaptive traits. Plants establish beneficial, harmful, or neutral relationships with bacteria. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) emit volatile compounds (VCs), which may act as molecular cues influencing plant development, nutrition, and/or defense. In this study, we compared the effects of VCs produced by bacteria with different lifestyles, including Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2, Bacillus methylotrophicus M4-96, Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, the plant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and the commensal rhizobacterium Bacillus sp...
January 12, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328628/analysis-of-gluten-in-a-wheat-gluten-incurred-sorghum-beer-brewed-in-the-presence-of-proline-endopeptidase-by-lc-ms-ms
#4
Katherine L Fiedler, Rakhi Panda, Timothy R Croley
Most gluten-reduced beers are produced using an enzyme called proline endopeptidase (PEP), which proteolyzes the gluten by cleaving at proline residues. However, the gluten content of beers brewed in the presence of PEP cannot be verified since current analytical methods are not able to accurately quantitate gluten in fermented foods. In this work, mass spectrometry was used to qualitatively characterize the gluten in a wheat gluten incurred sorghum model beer brewed with and without the addition of PEP. Hydrolyzed gluten peptides and chymotryptic gluten peptides produced from intact gluten proteins were detected in beer brewed in the presence of up to six times the manufacturer's recommended dosage of PEP...
January 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327444/developing-a-flexible-high-efficiency-agrobacterium-mediated-sorghum-transformation-system-with-broad-application
#5
Ping Che, Ajith Anand, Emily Wu, Jeffry D Sander, Marissa K Simon, Weiwei Zhu, Amy L Sigmund, Gina Zastrow-Hayes, Michael Miller, Donglong Liu, Shai J Lawit, Zuo-Yu Zhao, Marc C Albertsen, Todd J Jones
Sorghum is the fifth most widely planted cereal crop in the world and is commonly cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions such as Africa. Despite its importance as a food source, sorghum genetic improvement through transgenic approaches has been limited because of an inefficient transformation system. Here we report a ternary vector (also known as co-habitating vector) system using a recently described pVIR accessory plasmid that facilitates efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sorghum. We report regeneration frequencies ranging from 6-29% in Tx430 using different selectable markers and single copy, backbone free "quality events" ranging from 45-66% of the total events produced...
January 11, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324275/effective-usage-of-sorghum-bagasse-optimization-of-organosolv-pretreatment-using-25-1-butanol-and-subsequent-nanofiltration-membrane-separation
#6
Hiroshi Teramura, Kengo Sasaki, Tomoko Oshima, Hideo Kawaguchi, Chiaki Ogino, Takashi Sazuka, Akihiko Kondo
We investigated the use of low concentrations of butanol (<40%, all v/v) as an organosolv pretreatment to fractionate lignocellulosic biomass into cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The pretreatment conditions were optimized for sorghum bagasse by focusing on four parameters: butanol concentration, sulfuric acid concentration, pretreatment temperature, and pretreatment time. A butanol concentration of 25% or higher together with 0.5% or higher acid was effective for removing lignin while retaining most of the cellulose in the solid fraction...
December 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321632/genome-wide-association-study-in-asia-adapted-tropical-maize-reveals-novel-and-explored-genomic-regions-for-sorghum-downy-mildew-resistance
#7
Zerka Rashid, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Hindu Vemuri, Pervez Haider Zaidi, Boddupalli Maruthi Prasanna, Sudha Krishnan Nair
Globally, downy mildews are among the important foliar diseases of maize that cause significant yield losses. We conducted a genome-wide association study for sorghum downy mildew (SDM; Peronosclerospora sorghi) resistance in a panel of 368 inbred lines adapted to the Asian tropics. High density SNPs from Genotyping-by-sequencing were used in GWAS after controlling for population structure and kinship in the panel using a single locus mixed model. The study identified a set of 26 SNPs that were significantly associated with SDM resistance, with Bonferroni corrected P values ≤ 0...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315920/percutaneous-prick-test-irritant-threshold-concentrations-for-eight-allergens-in-healthy-nonsedated-dogs-in-the-usa
#8
Matthew J H Carnett, Jon D Plant
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous testing (PT) is preferred to intradermal testing in humans for the in vivo identification of allergen hypersensitivity, but the methodology has not been well described for use in dogs with atopic dermatitis. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To identify the irritant threshold concentrations (ITC) of eight aeroallergens using a commercial prick test device in normal dogs. ANIMALS: Twenty healthy, privately owned dogs. METHODS: Percutaneous testing was performed using the GREER® Pick® System (Stallergenes Greer; Lenoir, NC, USA)...
January 8, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306348/effect-of-different-dietary-energy-and-protein-sources-on-antioxidant-status-fresh-yolk-fatty-acid-profile-and-microstructure-of-salted-yolks-in-laying-ducks
#9
D Ruan, Y J Hu, A M Fouad, C X Lin, Z P Xu, W Chen, Q L Fan, W G Xia, S Wang, Y Wang, L Yang, C T Zheng
The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304414/effects-of-fluorine-on-crops-soil-exoenzyme-activities-and-earthworms-in-terrestrial-ecosystems
#10
Yooeun Chae, Dokyung Kim, Youn-Joo An
Fluorine can flow into the environment after leakage or spill accidents and these excessive amounts can cause adverse effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Using three media (filter paper, soil, and filter-paper-on-soil), we investigated the toxic effects of fluorine on the germination and growth of crops (barley, mung bean, sorghum, and wheat), on the activities of soil exoenzymes (acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolase, and urease) and on the survival, abnormality, and cytotoxicity of Eisenia andrei earthworms...
January 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298675/root-lodging-is-a-physical-stress-that-changes-gene-expression-from-sucrose-accumulation-to-degradation-in-sorghum
#11
Hiroshi Mizuno, Shigemitsu Kasuga, Hiroyuki Kawahigashi
BACKGROUND: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is used as a raw material for biofuels because it accumulates sugars at high levels in the stem. Lodging of sorghum occurs when the soil is wet and very high winds blow across the field. In root lodging, the roots are pulled loose from the soil, causing the plant to fall over. Lodging reduces the yield of nonstructural carbohydrates. It is not yet clear which genes show changes in expression when sorghum falls over. We compared whole-gene expression in the mature stems of intact and lodged sorghum plants, with a focus on comparisons from the perspective of differences in sugar accumulation or degradation...
January 3, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297107/dairy-cows-fed-on-tropical-legume-forages-effects-on-milk-yield-nutrients-use-efficiency-and-profitability
#12
J M Castro-Montoya, R A García, R A Ramos, J M Flores, E A Alas, E E Corea
Two trials with multiparous dairy cows were conducted. Experiment 1 tested the effects of increasing forage proportion in the diet (500, 600, and 700 g/kg DM) when a mixed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and jackbean (Cannavalia ensiformis) silage was used as forage. Experiment 2 studied the substitution of sorghum silage and soybean meal by jackbean silage or fresh cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forage in the diet. All diets were iso-energetic and iso-proteic. In each experiment, 30 cows were used and separated into three groups...
January 2, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288974/jobelyn%C3%A2-attenuates-inflammatory-responses-and-neurobehavioural-deficits-associated-with-complete-freund-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-mice
#13
Osarume Omorogbe, Abayomi M Ajayi, Benneth Ben-Azu, Ejiroghene E Oghwere, Adaeze Adebesin, Adegbuyi O Aderibigbe, Olajuwon Okubena, Solomon Umukoro
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of the patients and a major cause of work disability. Current drugs for its treatment only provide palliative effect, as cure for the disease still remains elusive. Jobelyn® (JB), a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory dietary supplement obtained from Sorghum bicolor, has been claimed to relieve arthritic pain. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate its effect on inflammatory and biochemical changes as well as neurobehavioural deficits associated with complete Freund-adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in mice...
December 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278826/transitioning-from-phosphate-mining-to-agriculture-responses-to-urea-and-slow-release-fertilizers-for-sorghum-bicolor
#14
Katinka X Ruthrof, Emma Steel, Sunil Misra, Jen McComb, Graham O'Hara, Giles E St J Hardy, John Howieson
Globally, land-use transition from mining to agriculture is becoming increasingly attractive and necessary for many reasons. However, low levels of necessary plant nutrients, and high levels of heavy metals, can hamper plant growth, affecting yield, and potentially, food safety. In post-phosphate mining substrates, for example, nitrogen (N) is a key limiting nutrient, and, although legumes are planted prior to cereals, N supplementation is still necessary. We undertook two field trials on Christmas Island, Australia, to determine whether Sorghum bicolor could be grown successfully in a post-phosphate mining substrate...
December 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274974/nutritional-composition-and-in-vitro-digestibility-of-grass-and-legume-winter-cover-crops
#15
A N Brown, G Ferreira, C L Teets, W E Thomason, C D Teutsch
In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273003/an-integrated-and-comparative-approach-towards-identification-characterization-and-functional-annotation-of-candidate-genes-for-drought-tolerance-in-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench
#16
Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat, Peter Van Heusden, Bongani K Ndimba, Alan Christoffels
BACKGROUND: Drought is the most disastrous abiotic stress that severely affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Understanding the biological basis of drought-regulated traits, requires identification and an in-depth characterization of genetic determinants using model organisms and high-throughput technologies. However, studies on drought tolerance have generally been limited to traditional candidate gene approach that targets only a single gene in a pathway that is related to a trait...
December 22, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248707/optimizing-accuracy-of-protocols-for-measuring-dry-matter-and-nutrient-yield-of-forage-crops
#17
Christine M F Miller, James G Fadel, Jennifer M Heguy, Betsy M Karle, Patricia L Price, Deanne Meyer
Farmers around the world must precisely manage nutrients applied to and removed from crop fields to maintain production and without causing nutrient pollution. This study is the first to quantify the baseline accuracy of current industry measurement protocols and achievable accuracy from intensifying protocols for measuring dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P) yields from forage crops harvested for silage. The 'true' DM and nutrient yields of three fields each of corn, sorghum, and small grain were intensively measured by weighing and sampling every truckload of harvested forage...
December 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247055/the-14-3-3-homolog-arta-regulates-development-and-secondary-metabolism-in-the-opportunistic-plant-pathogen-aspergillus-flavus
#18
Beatriz A Ibarra, Jessica M Lohmar, Timothy Satterlee, Taylor McDonald, Jeffrey W Cary, Ana M Calvo
The opportunistic plant pathogenic fungus Aspergillus flavus produces carcinogenic mycotoxins termed aflatoxins (AFs). Aflatoxin contamination of agriculturally important crops such as maize, peanut, sorghum and tree nuts is responsible for serious adverse health and economic impacts worldwide. In order to identify possible genetic targets to reduce AF contamination, we have characterized the artA gene, encoding a putative 14-3-3 homolog in A. flavus The artA deletion mutant presents a slight decrease in vegetative growth and alterations in morphological development and secondary metabolism...
December 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243204/genome-wide-assessment-of-polygalacturonases-like-pgl-genes-of-medicago-truncatula-sorghum-bicolor-vitis-vinifera-and-oryza-sativa-using-comparative-genomics-approach
#19
Gautam Anand, Sangeeta Yadav, Aiman Tanveer, Jeya Nasim, Nitish K Singh, Amit K Dubey, Dinesh Yadav
The polygalacturonases (PG) is one of the important members of pectin-degrading glycoside hydrolases of the family GH28. In plants, PG represents multigene families associated with diverse processes. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the diversity of PG genes among monocots and dicots with respect to phylogeny, gene duplication and subcellular localization to get an insight into the evolutionary and functional attributes. The genome-wide assessment of Medicago truncatula, Vitis vinifera Sorghum bicolor, and Oryza sativa L...
December 14, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241570/zmnst3-and-zmnst4-are-master-switches-for-secondary-wall-deposition-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#20
Wenhan Xiao, Yue Yang, Jingjuan Yu
Secondary walls are the most abundant biomass produced by plants, and they consist mainly of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Understanding how secondary wall biosynthesis is regulated could potentially provide genetic tools for engineering biomass components, especially in maize and Sorghum bicolor. Although many works have focused on secondary wall biosynthesis in dicotyledons, little has been reported for these monocotyledons. In this study, we cloned two NAC transcriptional factor genes, ZmNST3 and ZmNST4, and analyzed their functions in maize secondary wall formation process...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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