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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817696/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-sweet-sorghum-accessions-for-bioenergy-production
#1
Michele Jorge da Silva, Maria Marta Pastina, Vander Fillipe de Souza, Robert Eugene Schaffert, Pedro Crescêncio Souza Carneiro, Roberto Willians Noda, José Eustáquio de Souza Carneiro, Cynthia Maria Borges Damasceno, Rafael Augusto da Costa Parrella
Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a type of cultivated sorghum characterized by the accumulation of high levels of sugar in the stems and high biomass accumulation, making this crop an important feedstock for bioenergy production. Sweet sorghum breeding programs that focus on bioenergy have two main goals: to improve quantity and quality of sugars in the juicy stem and to increase fresh biomass productivity. Genetic diversity studies are very important for the success of a breeding program, especially in the early stages, where understanding the genetic relationship between accessions is essential to identify superior parents for the development of improved breeding lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814393/soya-maize-and-sorghum-based-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food-with-amino-acid-is-as-efficacious-as-the-standard-milk-and-peanut-paste-based-formulation-for-the-treatment-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-children-a-noninferiority-individually-randomized-controlled
#2
Paluku Bahwere, Peter Akomo, Mwawi Mwale, Hitoshi Murakami, Chrissy Banda, Sylvester Kathumba, Chimwemwe Banda, Solomon Jere, Kate Sadler, Steve Collins
Background: Development of more cost-effective ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is a global public health priority. To date, previous lower-cost recipes have been less effective than the standard peanut and milk (PM)-based RUTF, particularly in children aged <24 mo.Objective: We aimed to compare the efficacy of the PM-RUTF to a milk-free soya, maize, and sorghum (FSMS)-RUTF enriched with crystalline amino acids without cow milk powder and a milk, soya, maize, and sorghum (MSMS)-RUTF containing 9.3% skim cow milk powder...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811113/acrylamide-forming-potential-of-cereals-legumes-and-roots-and-tubers-analyzed-by-uplc-uv
#3
Y J H Galani, N J Patel, J G Talati
For directing scientists, consumers, industry and stakeholders on mitigation strategies, there is a need to understand the acrylamide-forming potential of important Indian foods. Flour obtained from total 16 varieties of 9 Indian cereals, legumes and roots and tubers was heated at 160 °C for 20 min, acrylamide was extracted and quantified by UPLC-UV. Acrylamide level was above the European Commission indicative value in potato- and cereal-based food products, it ranged from 3436.13 to 5562.56 μg/kg in roots and tubers (potato and sweet potato)...
August 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810832/genome-wide-analysis-of-basic-helix-loop-helix-bhlh-transcription-factors-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#4
Xin Niu, Yuxiang Guan, Shoukun Chen, Haifeng Li
BACKGROUND: As a superfamily of transcription factors (TFs), the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins have been characterized functionally in many plants with a vital role in the regulation of diverse biological processes including growth, development, response to various stresses, and so on. However, no systemic analysis of the bHLH TFs has been reported in Brachypodium distachyon, an emerging model plant in Poaceae. RESULTS: A total of 146 bHLH TFs were identified in the Brachypodium distachyon genome and classified into 24 subfamilies...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810219/industrial-hemp-as-a-potential-bioenergy-crop-in-comparison-with-kenaf-switchgrass-and-biomass-sorghum
#5
Lalitendu Das, Enshi Liu, Areej Saeed, David W Williams, Hongqiang Hu, Chenlin Li, Allison E Ray, Jian Shi
This study takes combined field trial, lab experiment, and economic analysis approaches to evaluate the potential of industrial hemp in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass and biomass sorghum. Agronomy data suggest that the per hectare yield (5437kg) of industrial hemp stem alone was at a similar level with switchgrass and sorghum; while the hemp plants require reduced inputs. Field trial also showed that ∼1230kg/ha hemp grain can be harvested in addition to stems. Results show a predicted ethanol yield of ∼82gallons/dry ton hemp stems, which is comparable to the other three tested feedstocks...
August 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808013/disaggregating-sorghum-yield-reductions-under-warming-scenarios-exposes-narrow-genetic-diversity-in-us-breeding-programs
#6
Jesse Tack, Jane Lingenfelser, S V Krishna Jagadish
Historical adaptation of sorghum production to arid and semiarid conditions has provided promise regarding its sustained productivity under future warming scenarios. Using Kansas field-trial sorghum data collected from 1985 to 2014 and spanning 408 hybrid cultivars, we show that sorghum productivity under increasing warming scenarios breaks down. Through extensive regression modeling, we identify a temperature threshold of 33 °C, beyond which yields start to decline. We show that this decline is robust across both field-trial and on-farm data...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807090/mass-spectral-characterization-and-uplc-quantitation-of-3-deoxyanthocyanidins-in-sorghum-bicolor-varietals
#7
Nathan P Stern, Jatinder Rana, Amitabh Chandra, John Balles
A quantitative ultra-performance LC (UPLC) method was developed and validated to successfully separate, identify, and quantitate the major polyphenolic compounds present in different varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) feedstock. The method was linear from 3.2 to 320 ppm, with an r² of 0.99999 when using luteolinidin chloride as the external standard. Method accuracy was determined to be 99.5%, and precision of replicate preparations was less than 1% RSD. Characterization by UPLC-MS determined that the predominant polyphenolic components of the sorghum varietals were 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (3-DXAs)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806914/expansion-and-evolutionary-patterns-of-cysteine-rich-peptides-in-plants
#8
Xing Liu, Huping Zhang, Huijun Jiao, Leiting Li, Xin Qiao, Musana Rwalinda Fabrice, Juyou Wu, Shaoling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) are gaining recognition as regulators of cell-cell communication in plants. RESULTS: We identified 9556 CRPs in 12 plant species and analysed their evolutionary patterns. In most angiosperm plants, whole genome duplication and segmental duplication are the major factors driving the expansion of CRP family member genes, especially signal peptides. About 30% of the CRP genes were found clustered on the chromosomes, except in maize (Zea mays)...
August 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805920/ground-juniperus-pinchotii-and-urea-in-supplements-fed-to-rambouillet-ewe-lambs-i-feedlot-growth-traits-blood-serum-parameters-and-fecal-characteristics
#9
T R Whitney
Ground woody products and urea are low-cost roughage and N sources. Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48, 6 lambs/treatment; initial BW = 42 kg ± 3.8) were used to evaluate effects of using ground (juniper) and urea in supplements on feedlot lamb growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics. In a randomized complete block design (40 d), lambs were individually fed an ad libitum basal sorghum-Sudangrass hay diet, which was fed separate from 1 of 8 supplemental diets (6 lambs/diet; 533 g of supplement/d, as-fed basis)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805497/putative-role-of-glutamine-in-the-activation-of-cbl-cipk-signalling-pathways-during-salt-stress-in-sorghum
#10
Rafael de Souza Miranda, Juan Carlos Alvarez-Pizarro, José Hélio Costa, Stelamaris de Oliveira Paula, José Tarquinio Prisco, Enéas Gomes-Filho
The salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathway is the only mechanism known for Na(+) extrusion in plant cells. SOS pathway activation involves Ca(2+)-sensing proteins, such as calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins, and CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). In this signalling mechanism, a transit increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration triggered by Na(+) accumulation is perceived by CBL (also known as SOS3). Afterward, SOS3 physically interacts with a CIPK (also known as SOS2), forming the SOS2/SOS3 complex, which can regulate the number downstream targets, controlling ionic homeostasis...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801748/molecular-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-transgenic-wheat-and-sorghum-events-expressing-the-barley-alanine-aminotransferase
#11
Pamela A Peña, Truyen Quach, Shirley Sato, Zhengxiang Ge, Natalya Nersesian, Ismail M Dweikat, Madhavan Soundararajan, Tom Clemente
The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements...
August 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796286/effect-of-ingredients-on-the-quality-of-gluten-free-sorghum-pasta
#12
Pablo Martín Palavecino, Mariela Cecilia Bustos, María Belén Heinzmann Alabí, Melani Solange Nicolazzi, María Cecilia Penci, Pablo Daniel Ribotta
Sorghum is an underutilized cereal in human food production, despite its flour being a potential gluten-free (GF) source in the development of several foods. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects and interactions of different ingredients on cooking quality and texture of GF pasta. Egg albumen (A), egg powder (E), xanthan gum (X), and pregelatinized corn starch (P) were used as ingredients, and Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the effects of these ingredients on pasta cooking behavior, color, and texture attributes...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780417/purification-characterization-and-antioxidant-properties-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-extracted-from-sorghum-bicolor-l-seeds-in-sausage
#13
Sirine Ben Slima, Naourez Ktari, Imen Trabelsi, Hafedh Moussa, Iskandar Makni, Riadh Ben Salah
A novel polysaccharide named Sorghum Water-Soluble Polysaccharide (SWSP) was purified from Sorghum bicolor (L.) seeds. It was structurally characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mass spectroscopy (MS). HPLC and TLC showed that SWSP is a glucose polymer. The FT-IR spectrum proved the polysaccharide characteristic band of SWSP. XRD and microscopy analyses revealed that SWSP is a semi-crystalline polymer...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776446/vegetable-relishes-high-in-%C3%AE-carotene-increase-the-iron-zinc-and-%C3%AE-carotene-nutritive-values-from-cereal-porridges
#14
Johanita Kruger, Annelies Breynaert, Luc Pieters, Nina Hermans
Iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies are serious public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, which can be alleviated by dietary diversification. The effects of adding cowpea leaf (CL) and orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) relishes to sorghum and maize porridges on iron, zinc and β-carotene contents and bioaccessibilities were determined. Despite the high iron content of the CL relish (14.59 mg/100 g), the vegetable relishes had little effect on the iron bioaccessibility from the cereal porridges. Importantly, the addition of the CL relish increased the percentage and amount of bioaccessible zinc 2- and 3-fold, respectively...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775391/drought-tolerant-desmodium-species-effectively-suppress-parasitic-striga-weed-and-improve-cereal-grain-yields-in-western-kenya
#15
Charles A O Midega, Charles J Wasonga, Antony M Hooper, John A Pickett, Zeyaur R Khan
The parasitic weed Striga hermonthica Benth. (Orobanchaceae), commonly known as striga, is an increasingly important constraint to cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), often resulting in total yield losses in maize (Zea mays L.) and substantial losses in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). This is further aggravated by soil degradation and drought conditions that are gradually becoming widespread in SSA. Forage legumes in the genus Desmodium (Fabaceae), mainly D. uncinatum and D. intortum, effectively control striga and improve crop productivity in SSA...
August 2017: Crop Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771348/chemical-analysis-of-fermentable-sugars-and-secondary-products-in-23-sweet-sorghum-cultivars
#16
Minori Uchimiya, Joseph Edward Knoll, William Frank Anderson, Karen R Harris-Shultz
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a heat- and drought-tolerant crop that has promise to supplement corn (Zea mays L.) for biofuel production from fermentable sugars (for sweet cultivars) and lignocellulosic biomass. Quantitative relationships are lacking to predict the accumulation of primary (stem sugars) and secondary (organic acids, phenolics, and inorganic species) products that could either expand (as the value-added product) or limit (as the fermentation inhibitor) the market value of a cultivar...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769949/whole-genome-analysis-of-candidate-genes-associated-with-seed-size-and-weight-in-sorghum-bicolor-reveals-signatures-of-artificial-selection-and-insights-into-parallel-domestication-in-cereal-crops
#17
Yongfu Tao, Emma S Mace, Shuaishuai Tai, Alan Cruickshank, Bradley C Campbell, Xianrong Zhao, Erik J Van Oosterom, Ian D Godwin, Jose R Botella, David R Jordan
Seed size and seed weight are major quality attributes and important determinants of yield that have been strongly selected for during crop domestication. Limited information is available about the genetic control and genes associated with seed size and weight in sorghum. This study identified sorghum orthologs of genes with proven effects on seed size and weight in other plant species and searched for evidence of selection during domestication by utilizing resequencing data from a diversity panel. In total, 114 seed size candidate genes were identified in sorghum, 63 of which exhibited signals of purifying selection during domestication...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767243/occurrence-of-different-resistance-mechanisms-to-als-inhibitors-in-european-sorghum-halepense
#18
Silvia Panozzo, Andrea Milani, Laura Scarabel, Ákos Balogh, Istvan Dancza, Maurizio Sattin
Four Hungarian and two Italian Sorghum halepense populations harvested in maize fields were investigated to elucidate the levels and mechanisms underlying ALS inhibitors resistance. The two Italian populations were highly cross-resistant to all ALS inhibitors tested and the variant ALS allele Leu574 was identified in most of the plants, no differences were observed when the plants were treated with herbicide plus malathion. This suggests that the main resistance mechanism is target-site mediated. The Hungarian populations proved to be controlled by imazamox, while they were resistant to sulfonylureas and bispyribac-Na...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759768/identification-for-the-capability-of-cd-tolerance-accumulation-and-translocation-of-96-sorghum-genotypes
#19
Weitao Jia, Fangfang Miao, Sulian Lv, Juanjuan Feng, Shufeng Zhou, Xuan Zhang, Duoliya Wang, Shizhong Li, Yinxin Li
Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a worldwide environmental problem which heavily threatens human health and food security. Sorghum, as one of the most promising energy crop, has been considered to be the source of high-quality feedstock for ethanol fuel. Ninety-six sorghum genotypes were investigated under hydroponic conditions to compare their capabilities of Cd-tolerance, accumulation and translocation for their potential in remediation of Cd contamination. Different genotypes varied largely in the tolerance to Cd stress with tolerance indexes ranked from 0...
July 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758977/seed-coating-with-hydro-absorbers-as-potential-mitigation-of-early-season-drought-in-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench
#20
Linda Gorim, Folkard Asch
Climate change poses a threat to sorghum production systems by shifting the onset of the rainy season to a later date, increasing the risk of crop failure during crop establishment. The effects of drought on sorghum during seedling establishment have not been determined. Coating seeds with a water absorbing substance offers a way to buffer the seed against insufficient moisture in the surrounding soil. Seeds of two different sorghum varieties were coated with one of two commercially available hydro-absorbers: Stokosorb(®) and Geohumus(®)...
July 31, 2017: Biology
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