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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898823/genome-wide-association-studies-of-grain-yield-components-in-diverse-sorghum-germplasm
#1
Richard E Boyles, Elizabeth A Cooper, Matthew T Myers, Zachary Brenton, Bradley L Rauh, Geoffrey P Morris, Stephen Kresovich
Grain yield and its primary determinants, grain number and weight, are important traits in cereal crops that have been well studied; however, the genetic basis of and interactions between these traits remain poorly understood. Characterization of grain yield per primary panicle (YPP), grain number per primary panicle (GNP), and 1000-grain weight (TGW) in sorghum [ (L.) Moench], a hardy C cereal with a genome size of ∼730 Mb, was implemented in a diversity panel containing 390 accessions. These accessions were genotyped to obtain 268,830 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898806/genome-wide-association-study-for-nine-plant-architecture-traits-in-sorghum
#2
Jing Zhao, Maria B Mantilla Perez, Jieyun Hu, Maria G Salas Fernandez
Sorghum [ (L) Moench], an important grain and forage crop, is receiving significant attention as a lignocellulosic feedstock because of its water-use efficiency and high biomass yield potential. Because of the advancement of genotyping and sequencing technologies, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become a routinely used method to investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed a GWAS for nine grain and biomass-related plant architecture traits to determine their overall genetic architecture and the specific association of allelic variants in gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and signaling genes with these phenotypes...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898783/production-of-biomass-crops-using-biowastes-on-low-fertility-soil-2-effect-of-biowastes-on-nitrogen-transformation-processes
#3
J Esperschuetz, S Bulman, C Anderson, O Lense, J Horswell, N Dickinson, B H Robinson
Increasing production of biowastes, particularly biosolids (sewage sludge), requires sustainable management strategies for their disposal. Biosolids can contain high concentrations of nutrients; hence, land application can have positive effects on plant growth and soil fertility, especially when applied to degraded soils. However, high rates of biosolids application may result in excessive nitrogen (N) leaching, which can be mitigated by blending biosolids with other biowastes, such as sawdust. We aimed to determine the effects of biosolids and sawdust on growth and N uptake by sorghum, rapeseed, and ryegrass as well as N losses via leaching...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898779/production-of-biomass-crops-using-biowastes-on-low-fertility-soil-1-influence-of-biowastes-on-plant-and-soil-quality
#4
J Esperschuetz, C Anderson, S Bulman, O Lense, J Horswell, N Dickinson, R Hofmann, B H Robinson
Land application of biosolids to low-fertility soil can improve soil quality by increasing concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements. Mixing biosolids with sawdust could reduce the risks of contaminant accumulation posed by rebuilding soils using biosolids alone. We aimed to determine the effects of biosolids and biosolids-sawdust on the plant quality and chemical composition of sorghum, rapeseed, and ryegrass. Plants were grown in a greenhouse over a 5-mo period in a low-fertility soil amended with biosolids (1250 kg N ha), biosolids-sawdust (0...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898766/genomic-regions-influencing-seminal-root-traits-in-barley
#5
Hannah Robinson, Lee Hickey, Cecile Richard, Emma Mace, Alison Kelly, Andrew Borrell, Jerome Franckowiak, Glen Fox
Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.). Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH) population (ND24260 × 'Flagship') comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT) markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical) and root number under controlled environmental conditions...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895705/improved-sugar-yields-from-biomass-sorghum-feedstocks-comparing-low-lignin-mutants-and-pretreatment-chemistries
#6
Bruno Godin, Nick Nagle, Scott Sattler, Richard Agneessens, Jérôme Delcarte, Edward Wolfrum
BACKGROUND: For biofuel production processes to be economically efficient, it is essential to maximize the production of monomeric carbohydrates from the structural carbohydrates of feedstocks. One strategy for maximizing carbohydrate production is to identify less recalcitrant feedstock cultivars by performing some type of experimental screening on a large and diverse set of candidate materials, or by identifying genetic modifications (random or directed mutations or transgenic plants) that provide decreased recalcitrance...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894970/genome-wide-characterization-of-the-sidof-gene-family-in-foxtail-millet-setaria-italica
#7
Li Zhang, Baoling Liu, Gewen Zheng, Aiying Zhang, Runzhi Li
Dof (DNA binding with one finger) proteins, which constitute a class of transcription factors found exclusively in plants, are involved in numerous physiological and biochemical reactions affecting growth and development. A genome-wide analysis of SiDof genes was performed in this study. Thirty five SiDof genes were identified and those genes were unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes in the Seteria italica genome. Protein lengths, molecular weights, and theoretical isoelectric points of SiDofs all vary greatly...
November 25, 2016: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883966/influence-of-temperature-water-activity-and-incubation-time-on-fungal-growth-and-production-of-ochratoxin-a-and-zearalenone-by-toxigenic-aspergillus-tubingensis-and-fusarium-incarnatum-isolates-in-sorghum-seeds
#8
Amani Lahouar, Sonia Marin, Ana Crespo-Sempere, Salem Saïd, Vicente Sanchis
The major objective of this study was to describe the effect of water activity and temperature on radial growth and production of ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) on sorghum grains of three Aspergillus tubingensis and three Fusarium incarnatum isolates. The water activity range was 0.91-0.99 aw for F. incarnatum isolates and 0.88-0.99 aw for A. tubingensis isolates. Temperatures of incubation were 15, 25 and 37°C for both species. Mycotoxin production was determined after 7, 14, 21 and 28days depending on the growth rate of the six isolates...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880920/peroxidases-from-root-exudates-of-medicago-sativa-and-sorghum-bicolor-catalytic-properties-and-involvement-in-pah-degradation
#9
Ekaterina Dubrovskaya, Natalia Pozdnyakova, Sergey Golubev, Anna Muratova, Vyacheslav Grinev, Anastasiya Bondarenkova, Olga Turkovskaya
Peroxidases from root exudates of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were purified and characterized, and their ability to oxidize native PAHs and PAH-derivatives was evaluated. The obtained data confirm that peroxidases are involved in the rhizosphere degradation of PAHs. Nondenaturing PAGE showed that the peroxidases of both plants were represented by a range of isoforms/isoenzymes (five to eight). Minor forms were lost during further purification, and as a result, the major anionic form from alfalfa root exudates and the major cationic form from those of sorghum were obtained...
November 20, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877203/past-and-present-dynamics-of-sorghum-and-pearl-millet-diversity-in-mount-kenya-region
#10
Vanesse Labeyrie, Monique Deu, Yann Dussert, Bernard Rono, Françoise Lamy, Charles Marangu, Dan Kiambi, Caroline Calatayud, Geo Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Thierry Robert, Christian Leclerc
Crop populations in smallholder farming systems are shaped by the interaction of biological, ecological, and social processes, occurring on different spatiotemporal scales. Understanding these dynamics is fundamental for the conservation of crop genetic resources. In this study, we investigated the processes involved in sorghum and pearl millet diversity dynamics on Mount Kenya. Surveys were conducted in ten sites distributed along two elevation transects and occupied by six ethnolinguistic groups. Varieties of both species grown in each site were inventoried and characterized using SSR markers...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876099/broad-scale-suppression-of-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera-lepidoptera-noctuidae-associated-with-bt-cotton-crops-in-northern-new-south-wales-australia
#11
G H Baker, C R Tann
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major pest of many agricultural crops in several countries, including Australia. Transgenic cotton, expressing a single Bt toxin, was first used in the 1990s to control H. armigera and other lepidopteran pests. Landscape scale or greater pest suppression has been reported in some countries using this technology. However, a long-term, broad-scale pheromone trapping program for H. armigera in a mixed cropping region in eastern Australia caught more moths during the deployment of single Bt toxin cotton (Ingard®) (1996-2004) than in previous years...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869703/occurrence-of-fusarium-mycotoxins-in-cereal-crops-and-processed-products-ogi-from-nigeria
#12
Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Marthe De Boevre, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Sarah De Saeger
In Nigeria, maize, sorghum, and millet are very important cash crops. They are consumed on a daily basis in different processed forms in diverse cultural backgrounds. These crops are prone to fungi infestation, and subsequently may be contaminated with mycotoxins. A total of 363 samples comprising of maize (136), sorghum (110), millet (87), and ogi (30) were collected from randomly selected markets in four agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Samples were assessed for Fusarium mycotoxins contamination using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method...
November 18, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868305/growth-nutrient-digestibility-ileal-digesta-viscosity-and-energy-metabolizability-of-growing-turkeys-fed-diets-containing-malted-sorghum-sprouts-supplemented-with-enzyme-or-yeast
#13
F O Oke, A O Oso, O O Oduguwa, A V Jegede, K-H Südekum, A O Fafiolu, V Pirgozliev
Growth, apparent nutrient digestibility, ileal digesta viscosity, and energy metabolizability of growing turkeys fed diets containing malted sorghum sprouts (MSP) supplemented with enzyme or yeast were investigated using 120, 28-day-old male turkeys. Six treatments were laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with three dietary inclusion levels of MSP (0, 50, and 100 g/kg) and supplemented with 200 mg/kg yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or 200 mg/kg of a commercial enzyme. The experiment lasted for the starter (day 28-56) and grower phases (day 57-84) of the birds...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866480/consumption-of-nutritional-pellets-with-duddingtonia-flagrans-fungal-chlamydospores-reduces-infective-nematode-larvae-of-haemonchus-contortus-in-faeces-of-saint-croix-lambs
#14
L Aguilar-Marcelino, P Mendoza-de-Gives, G Torres-Hernández, M E López-Arellano, C M Becerril-Pérez, A Orihuela-Trujillo, J F J Torres-Acosta, A Olmedo-Juárez
Two groups of six Haemonchus contortus infected Saint Croix lambs each received different diets for 11 weeks: control group, commercial food, molasses and lucerne hay; and treated group, nutritional pellets (NPs) containing Duddingtonia flagrans at 2 × 106 chlamydospores/kg body weight (BW), sorghum and lucerne hay. Mean BW gain (BWG), body condition score (BCS) and packed cell volume (PCV) and also eggs/g of faeces (EPG) and recovered L3 were compared using a repeated measures across time model. Groups had similar BWG (control 139...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862949/a-weight-of-evidence-approach-for-deriving-a-level-of-concern-for-atrazine-that-is-protective-of-aquatic-plant-communities
#15
Dwayne Rj Moore, Colleen D Greer, Gillian Manning, Katie Wooding, Kerrie J Beckett, Richard A Brain, Gary Marshall
Atrazine is a selective triazine herbicide widely used in the United States primarily for control of broadleaf weeds in corn and sorghum. In 2003, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) concluded that atrazine poses potential risks to sensitive aquatic species. Consequently, a surface water monitoring program was developed to assess whether measured levels of atrazine could impact aquatic plants in vulnerable watersheds. To facilitate evaluation of the monitoring data, the Agency needed to determine a level of concern (LOC) below which atrazine would not cause unacceptable adverse effects to aquatic plant communities...
November 11, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856908/characterization-of-a-dynamic-metabolon-producing-the-defense-compound-dhurrin-in-sorghum
#16
Tomas Laursen, Jonas Borch, Camilla Knudsen, Krutika Bavishi, Federico Torta, Helle Juel Martens, Daniele Silvestro, Nikos S Hatzakis, Markus R Wenk, Timothy R Dafforn, Carl Erik Olsen, Mohammed Saddik Motawia, Björn Hamberger, Birger Lindberg Møller, Jean-Etienne Bassard
Metabolic highways may be orchestrated by the assembly of sequential enzymes into protein complexes, or metabolons, to facilitate efficient channeling of intermediates and to prevent undesired metabolic cross-talk while maintaining metabolic flexibility. Here we report the isolation of the dynamic metabolon that catalyzes the formation of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin, a defense compound produced in sorghum plants. The metabolon was reconstituted in liposomes, which demonstrated the importance of membrane surface charge and the presence of the glucosyltransferase for metabolic channeling...
November 18, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854155/photoperiod-response-and-floral-transition-in-sorghum
#17
Tezera W Wolabu, Million Tadege
Sorghum is a short day plant with strong photoperiod response and its cultivation for grain in temperate regions necessitated the development of photoperiod insensitive mutants that can flower rapidly in the long days of summer. Wild type genotypes grow vegetatively in summer accumulating significant biomass before floral transition ensues during the shorter days of fall. Thus, photoperiod insensitive mutants are grown for grain production while photoperiod sensitive wild type genotypes are grown for forage and biomass feedstock production in the United States...
November 17, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848267/the-impacts-of-hammer-mill-screen-size-and-grain-particle-size-on-the-performance-of-broiler-chickens-offered-diets-based-on-two-red-sorghum-varieties
#18
P H Selle, H H Truong, A Khoddami, A F Moss, T H Roberts, S Y Liu
1. The two red grain sorghums were extensively characterised. Kafirin, polyphenolic compounds, free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids, phytate concentrations and starch pasting profiles were determined. 2. The experiment consisted of a 2 x 4 factorial array of dietary treatments comprising two red sorghum varieties (Tiger and Block I) ground through 4 hammer-mill screen sizes (2.0, 3.2, 4.8, 6.0 mm) prior to incorporation into nutritionally-equivalent diets. Eight steam-pelleted dietary treatments were each offered to 7 replicates (6 male Ross 308 birds per cage) from 7 to 28 d post-hatch...
November 16, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846302/multi-isotopic-%C3%AE-2h-%C3%AE-13c-%C3%AE-15n-tracing-of-molt-origin-for-red-winged-blackbirds-associated-with-agro-ecosystems
#19
Scott J Werner, Keith A Hobson, Steven L Van Wilgenburg, Justin W Fischer
We analyzed stable-hydrogen (δ2H), carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) isotope ratios in feathers to better understand the molt origin and food habits of Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) near sunflower production in the Upper Midwest and rice production in the Mid-South of the United States. Outer primary feathers were used from 661 after-second-year (ASY) male blackbirds collected in Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota (spring collection), and Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri and Texas (winter collection)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833841/plant-growth-promotion-and-biofortification-of-chickpea-and-pigeonpea-through-inoculation-of-biocontrol-potential-bacteria-isolated-from-organic-soils
#20
Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, Srinivas Vadlamudi, Srinivasan Samineni, C V Sameer Kumar
Seven strains of bacteria [Pseudomonas plecoglossicida SRI-156, Brevibacterium antiquum SRI-158, Bacillus altitudinis SRI-178, Enterobacter ludwigii SRI-211, E. ludwigii SRI-229, Acinetobacter tandoii SRI-305 and Pseudomonas monteilii SRI-360; demonstrated previously for control of charcoal rot disease in sorghum and plant growth-promotion (PGP) in rice] were evaluated for their PGP and biofortification traits in chickpea and pigeonpea under field conditions. When treated on seed, the seven selected bacteria significantly enhanced the shoot height and root length of both chickpea and pigeonpea over the un-inoculated control...
2016: SpringerPlus
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