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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932293/switching-to-abacavir-versus-use-of-a-nucleoside-sparing-dual-regimen-for-hiv-infected-patients-with-tenofovir-associated-renal-toxicity
#1
J L Casado, C Santiuste, M J Vivancos, M Monsalvo, A Moreno, M J Perez-Elías, J M Del Rey, S Moreno
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the reversibility of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-associated renal decline and tubular dysfunction using different antiretroviral strategies. METHODS: A successive evaluation of renal [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)] and tubular (phosphataemia, proteinuria, albuminuria, phosphaturia, uricosuria, glycosuria and tubular proteinuria) parameters was performed in 231 patients, before and after switching from TDF to abacavir (n = 60), using dual therapy (n = 49), or continuing the same regimen including TDF (n = 122)...
June 22, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898853/the-design-and-rationale-for-the-dapagliflozin-effect-on-cardiovascular-events-declare-timi-58-trial
#2
Stephen D Wiviott, Itamar Raz, Marc P Bonaca, Ofri Mosenzon, Eri T Kato, Avivit Cahn, Michael G Silverman, Sameer Bansilal, Deepak L Bhatt, Lawrence A Leiter, Darren K McGuire, John Ph Wilding, Ingrid Am Gause-Nilsson, Anna Maria Langkilde, Peter A Johansson, Marc S Sabatine
BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin is a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor that reduces blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by promoting glycosuria via inhibiting urinary glucose reabsorption. In addition to improving blood glucose control, treatment with dapagliflozin results in glucose-induced osmotic diuresis, weight loss, and blood pressure lowering. Previous trials of SGLT-2 inhibitors showed reductions in cardiovascular (CV) events, including CV death and hospitalization for heart failure, and ischemic events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
June 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877286/legionella-pneumonia-complicated-with-acquired-fanconi-syndrome-a-case-report
#3
Ryo Koda, Ryo Itoh, Masafumi Tsuchida, Kazumasa Ohashi, Noriaki Iino, Toshinori Takada, Ichiei Narita
Legionella pneumonia is occasionally accompanied by renal complications; however, the cause of this remains unknown. We herein report a 70-year-old Japanese man with Legionella pneumonia who presented with hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia, and hypouricemia. The levels of urinary β2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase were remarkably high, indicating severe renal tubular damage. The presence of glycosuria and aminoaciduria as well as increased fractional excretion of uric acid and decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate indicated that the patient's condition was complicated with Fanconi syndrome...
June 6, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843124/fluid-intake-habits-in-type-1-diabetes-individuals-during-typical-training-bouts
#4
Alex Buoite Stella, Jane Yardley, Maria Pia Francescato, Shawnda A Morrison
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyperglycemia may influence the hydration status in diabetic individuals. During exercise, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) individuals may be challenged by a higher risk of dehydration due to a combination of fluid losses from sweat and increased urine output via glycosuria. So far, no study has characterised spontaneous fluid intake in T1DM individuals during active trainings. METHODS: A validated questionnaire was used to assess T1DM participants' diabetes therapy, sports characteristics and fluid intake during training; results were then compared to an age- and sport-matched sample of non-diabetic individuals...
May 29, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802538/effects-of-the-sglt-2-inhibitor-empagliflozin-on-renal-tissue-oxygenation-in-non-diabetic-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-protocol
#5
Marie-Eve Muller, Menno Pruijm, Olivier Bonny, Michel Burnier, Anne Zanchi
INTRODUCTION: Empagliflozin is an SGLT-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i) which belongs to a new class of hypoglycemic drugs with the unique property of decreasing blood glucose independently from insulin, through an increase in glycosuria. In addition to decreasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, empagliflozin has nephroprotective properties in high cardiovascular risk patients with type 2 diabetes. Decreased hyperfiltration and shifting towards more favorable renal fuel energetics with improved renal oxygenation may explain some of these properties...
May 25, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785400/previous-exercise-training-reduces-markers-of-renal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-female-rats
#6
Liliany Souza de Brito Amaral, Cláudia Silva Souza, Rildo Aparecido Volpini, Maria Heloisa Massola Shimizu, Ana Carolina de Bragança, Daniele Canale, Antonio Carlos Seguro, Terezila Machado Coimbra, Amélia Cristina Mendes de Magalhães, Telma de Jesus Soares
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of regular moderate exercise training initiated previously or after induction of diabetes mellitus on renal oxidative stress and inflammation in STZ-induced diabetic female rats. For this purpose, Wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD), trained diabetic (TD), and previously trained diabetic (PTD). Only the PTD group was submitted to treadmill running for 4 weeks previously to DM induction with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, i...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770221/risperidone-induced-type-2-diabetes-presenting-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#7
Clarissa Ern Hui Fang, Mohammed Faraz Rafey, Aine Cunningham, Sean F Dinneen, Francis M Finucane
A 28-year-old male presented with 2 days of vomiting and abdominal pain, preceded by 2 weeks of thirst, polyuria and polydipsia. He had recently started risperidone for obsessive-compulsive disorder. He reported a high dietary sugar intake and had a strong family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). On admission, he was tachycardic, tachypnoeic and drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 10/15. We noted axillary acanthosis nigricans and obesity (BMI 33.2 kg/m2 ). Dipstick urinalysis showed ketonuria and glycosuria...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751356/exploring-novel-pharmacotherapeutic-applications-and-repurposing-potential-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors
#8
REVIEW
Tushar Madaan, Ibraheem Husain, Mohamad Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a relatively new class of anti-hyperglycemic drugs with a distinctive mechanism of action focusing on renal absorption ofglucose. Apart from its anti-hyperglycemic effects, a multitude of research studies on this classhave revealed that these drugs have far more versatile and comprehensive pharmacologicaleffects than previously believed. Approximately 30% of FDA approved drugs are repurposedand used for indications other than those they were initially intended for...
May 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738274/renal-injury-in-seipin-deficient-lipodystrophic-mice-and-its-reversal-by-adipose-tissue-transplantation-or-leptin-administration-alone-adipose-tissue-kidney-crosstalk
#9
Xue-Jing Liu, Xiao-Yue Wu, Huan Wang, Su-Xia Wang, Wei Kong, Ling Zhang, George Liu, Wei Huang
Seipin deficiency is responsible for type 2 congenital generalized lipodystrophy with severe loss of adipose tissue (AT) and could lead to renal failure in humans. However, the effect of Seipin on renal function is poorly understood. Here we report that Seipin knockout (SKO) mice exhibited impaired renal function, enlarged glomerular and mesangial surface areas, renal depositions of lipid, and advanced glycation end products. Elevated glycosuria and increased electrolyte excretion were also detected. Relative renal gene expression in fatty acid oxidation and reabsorption pathways were impaired in SKO mice...
May 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719294/preterm-glycosuria-new-data-from-a-continuous-glucose-monitoring-system
#10
Mateusz Jagła, Izabela Szymońska, Katarzyna Starzec, Przemko Kwinta
BACKGROUND: Careful control of glucose homeostasis is essential for infants with very low birth weight (VLBW). In clinical practice, blood and urine glucose levels are monitored; however, their correlation has not been fully investigated in VLBW infants. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the correlation between interstitial fluid glucose concentration (ISFG), glycosuria, and urine output among VLBW infants through continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). METHODS: A prospective, single-center, open cohort study enrolled 74 VLBW infants with a mean birth weight of 1,066 g...
2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689314/sodium-glucose-cotransporters-inhibitors-in-type-1-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Sergio Dellepiane, Moufida Ben Nasr, Emma Assi, Vera Usuelli, Teresa Letizia, Francesca D'Addio, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Paolo Fiorina
Sodium glucose cotransporter inhibitors (SGLTi) are oral hypoglycemic drugs that reduce renal glucose re-uptake and induce glycosuria. SGLTi have been successfully tested in large randomized clinical trials for type 2 diabetes, and several molecules have been approved in this setting by the international pharmaceutical agencies. Additionally, recent evidence has shown that SGLTi may be useful also in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Indeed, these drugs can be used as an ancillary to insulin to improve glycemic control and reduce insulin dosage, and such regimens have been associated with a lower rate of hypoglycemic episodes...
April 22, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548851/sulforaphane-prevents-maleic-acid-induced-nephropathy-by-modulating-renal-hemodynamics-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-oxidative-stress
#12
Alfredo Briones-Herrera, Sabino Hazael Avila-Rojas, Omar Emiliano Aparicio-Trejo, Magdalena Cristóbal, Juan Carlos León-Contreras, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Enrique Pinzón, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Edilia Tapia
Maleic acid (MA)-induced nephropathy that is characterized by proteinuria, glycosuria, phosphaturia and a deficient urinary acidification and concentration. Sulforaphane (SF) is an indirect antioxidant that shows nephroprotective effects. The aim of the present work was to test the pre-treatment with SF against the MA-induced nephropathy. Wistar rats (230-260 g) were separated in the following groups: control, MA (which received 400 mg/kg of MA), SF + MA (which received MA and 1 mg/kg of SF each day for four days) and SF (which only received SF)...
May 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514047/deletion-of-nlrx1-increases-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-prevents-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Lotte Kors, Elena Rampanelli, Geurt Stokman, Loes M Butter, Ntsiki M Held, Nike Claessen, Per W B Larsen, Joanne Verheij, Coert J Zuurbier, Gerhard Liebisch, Gerd Schmitz, Stephen E Girardin, Sandrine Florquin, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Jaklien C Leemans
NOD-like receptor (NLR)X1 (NLRX1) is an ubiquitously expressed inflammasome-independent NLR that is uniquely localized in mitochondria with as yet unknown effects on metabolic diseases. Here, we report that NLRX1 is essential in regulating cellular metabolism in non-immune parenchymal hepatocytes by decreasing mitochondrial fatty acid-dependent oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and promoting glycolysis. NLRX1 loss in mice has a profound impact on the prevention of diet-induced metabolic syndrome parameters, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression, and renal dysfunction...
May 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507272/protection-against-doxorubicin-induced-nephropathy-by-plantago-major-in-rat
#14
Zohreh Naji Ebrahimi Yazd, Sara Hosseinian, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Nazanin Entezari Heravi, Soghra Parhizgar, Samira Shahraki, Zahra Samadi Noshahr, Somayeh Mahzari, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad
INTRODUCTION: Nephropathy is an important side effect of doxorubicin. The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of Plantago major extract against doxorubicin-induced functional and histological damage in rat's kidney. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty Albino rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. Doxorubicin, 5 mg/kg, was injected intravenously on the 7th day of the study. Animals were treated with dexamethasone, 0.9 mg/kg, vitamin E, 100 mg/kg, and P major extract, 600 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg, for 7 days before and 4 weeks after doxorubicin administration...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494520/iodine-status-during-pregnancy-in-a-region-of-mild-to-moderate-iodine-deficiency-is-not-associated-with-adverse-obstetric-outcomes-results-from-the-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children-alspac
#15
Barbara Torlinska, Sarah C Bath, Aisha Janjua, Kristien Boelaert, Shiao-Yng Chan
Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with pregnancy/neonatal loss, and adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, the impact of mild-to-moderate iodine insufficiency, though prevalent in pregnancy, is not well-documented. We assessed whether mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy was associated with pregnancy/infant loss, or with other adverse pregnancy outcomes. We used samples and data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), from 3140 singleton pregnancies and from a further 42 women with pregnancy/infant loss...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484379/early-intervention-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-prevents-nephropathy-in-diabetic-rats-by-ameliorating-the-inflammatory-microenvironment
#16
Yuanmin Li, Jingping Liu, Guangneng Liao, Jie Zhang, Younan Chen, Lan Li, Li Li, Fang Liu, Bo Chen, Gang Guo, Chengshi Wang, Lichuan Yang, Jingqiu Cheng, Yangrong Lu
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes and represents the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in DN models by reducing albuminuria and attenuating glomerular injury; however, limited in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanism and a lack of clinical trials hinders its clinical use. Additionally, most of these experimental studies were conducted on the advanced stage of nephropathy, which is difficult to reverse and consequently showed limited therapeutic efficacy...
May 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440005/interaction-between-the-sodium-glucose-linked-transporter-2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-and-the-loop-diuretic-bumetanide-in-normal-human-subjects
#17
Christopher S Wilcox, Wen Shen, David W Boulton, Bruce R Leslie, Steven C Griffen
BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin inhibits the sodium-glucose-linked transporter 2 in the renal proximal tubule, thereby promoting glycosuria to reduce hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because these patients may require loop diuretics, and sodium-glucose-linked transporter 2 inhibition causes an osmotic diuresis, we evaluated the diuretic interaction between dapagliflozin and bumetanide. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy subjects (n=42) receiving a fixed diet with ≈110 mmol·d-1 of Na+ were randomized to bumetanide (1 mg·d-1 ), dapagliflozin (10 mg·d-1 ), or both for 7 days, followed by 7 days of both...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412123/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-the-pleiotropic-mechanisms-of-actions
#18
Panteleimon Pantelidis, Andreas Kalliakmanis, Christos Mitas, Michail Sideris, Charalampos Grassos, Andreas Pittaras, Athanasios Manolis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs. So far, there are three agents approved for use in Europe and in the USA, two in Japan and another four agents under testing. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the mechanism of action and the favorable and adverse effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors. METHOD: A thorough review of literature indexed in PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases was conducted...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402120/nicolae-constantin-paulescu-the-first-explicit-description-of-the-internal-secretion-of-the-pancreas
#19
REVIEW
Constantin Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Octavian Buda
The purpose of this article is to describe the research of Nicolae Constantin Paulescu and to emphasize his role in the discovery of insulin. METHODS: We made a thorough review of the literature and research in the Romanian Academy Archive in order to find adequate references. RESULTS: In 1912 N.C. Paulescu analysed the clinical and biochemical alterations in diabetic patients and in dogs after performing a pancreatectomy, that apart hyperglycemia and glycosuria (carbohydrate metabolism), had noted also changes in lipid and protein metabolism...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306791/empagliflozin-rescues-diabetic-myocardial-microvascular-injury-via-ampk-mediated-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-fission
#20
Hao Zhou, Shuyi Wang, Pingjun Zhu, Shunying Hu, Yundai Chen, Jun Ren
Impaired cardiac microvascular function contributes to diabetic cardiovascular complications although effective therapy remains elusive. Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes, promotes glycosuria excretion and offers cardioprotective actions beyond its glucose-lowering effects. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of empagliflozin on cardiac microvascular injury in diabetes and the underlying mechanism involved with a focus on mitochondria...
May 2018: Redox Biology
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