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Hilal Ahmad Malla, Ashraf M Bhat, Bashir Shazia, Fayaz A Rather, Saleem M Najar, Imtiyaz A Wani
Screening for kidney diseases by urinalysis in school children is being conducted in many parts of the world with inexpensive tools such as urinary dipsticks. We conducted this study to know the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria in school children (age group 12-14 years) in Kashmir valley as no previous study is available. After applying exclusion criteria, 2068 children were screened for proteinuria by dipstick method. Another test was performed in the children with abnormal findings in the first sample with dipstick of the same brand, after a period of one-month...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
James G Johnson, Jennifer N Langan, Chen Gilor
An 8-yr-old male golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on hyperglycemia and persistent glycosuria. Initial treatment consisted of the oral antihyperglycemic medications glipizide and metformin that resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations; however, marked glycosuria persisted. Insufficient improvement on oral antihyperglycemic therapy and poor feasibility of daily subcutaneous insulin therapy led to an investigation into an alternative therapy with extended-release exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic, at a dosage of 0...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Xiangzhong Zhao, Li Cui, Yanhua Lang, Ting Liu, Jingru Lu, Cui Wang, Sylvie Tuffery-Giraud, Irene Bottillo, Xinsheng Wang, Leping Shao
Familial renal glycosuria (FRG) is caused by mutations in the SLC5A2 gene, which codes for Na(+)-glucose co-transporters 2 (SGLT2). The aim of this study was to analyze and identify the mutations in 16 patients from 8 families with FRG. All coding regions, including intron-exon boundaries, were analyzed using PCR followed by direct sequence analysis. Six mutations in SLC5A2 gene were identified, including five missense mutations (c.393G > C, p.K131N; c.1003A > G, p.S335G; c.1343A > G, p...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhe Wei, Jin-Wei He, Wen-Zhen Fu, Zhen-Lin Zhang
CONTEXT: Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) was an important cause of adult-onset hypophosphatemic osteomalacia. However, its clinical characteristics and mechanisms have not been well defined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to summarize the clinical characteristics of ADV-induced osteomalacia and to explore the association between ADV-associated tubulopathy and polymorphisms in genes encoding drug transporters. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Seventy-six affected patients were clinically studied...
September 21, 2016: Bone
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Resham Poudel
The kidneys maintain glucose homeostasis through its utilization, gluconeogenesis, and reabsorption. Glucose is freely filtered and reabsorbed in order to retain energy essential between meals. The amount of glucose reabsorbed by the kidneys is equivalent to the amount entering the filtration system. With a daily glomerular filtration rate of 180 L, approximately 180 g (180 L/day × 100 mg/dL) of glucose must be reabsorbed each day to maintain an average fasting plasma glucose concentration of 5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Leonie van Meer, Matthijs Moerland, Marloes van Dongen, Bas Goulouze, Marieke de Kam, Erica Klaassen, Adam Cohen, Jacobus Burggraaf
ISIS 388626 is an antisense sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor designed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by induction of glucosuria. ISIS 388626 was demonstrated to be safe and effective in preclinical trails in several species. We undertook the present study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 13 weekly doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg of ISIS 388626 in humans. ISIS 388626 increased 24-hour urinary glucose excretion dose dependently with 508.9 ± 781.45 mg/day in the 100-mg and 1299.8 ± 1833...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Anne E de Leeuw, Rudolf A de Boer
Diabetes is a growing epidemic worldwide characterized by an elevated concentration of blood glucose, associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Although in general reduction of hyperglycaemia is considered a therapeutic goal, hypoglycaemic therapies do not necessarily reduce cardiovascular mortality and may even aggravate cardiovascular risk factors, such as body weight. A new class of antidiabetic drugs acts by inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), which (partially) prevents reabsorption of glucose from the renal filtrate...
October 2016: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
M Rizzi, R Trevisan
AIMS: To review prevalence and significance of urinary tract (UTI) and genital infections (GI) in diabetes and the effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors on these complications. DATA SYNTHESIS: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is 2-3 times higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic women. The treatment of ASB has no impact on the development of UTIs and/or a decline in renal function. Therefore, there is no indication for screening for and/or treatment of ASB...
July 12, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Anna Bonjoch, Jordi Puig, Nuria Pérez-Alvarez, Javier Juega, Patricia Echeverría, Bonaventura Clotet, Ramón Romero, J Bonet, E Negredo
Kidney injury (defined as the presence of albuminuria, proteinuria, glycosuria [without hyperglycemia], hematuria, and/or renal hypophosphatemia) is an emerging problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, although few data are available on the role of protease inhibitors (PIs) in this condition.To determine the time to kidney injury in a cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving a PI-containing regimen.We report the results of a subanalysis of a published cross-sectional study. The subanalysis included only patients receiving PI-containing regimens for more than 6 months (377 of the overall 970 patients)...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
A Clementi, M Buiatti, R Mussinelli, F Salinaro, V E Andreucci, A Balducci, T Perrone, P Esposito, S Perlini
OBJECTIVE: Among the many health-related challenges posed by the increased number of Migrants, cardiovascular risk evaluation has been less extensively evaluated than communicable disease prevention and treatment. Ethnic background is one of the many non-modifiable determinants of cardiovascular disease, whereas stress and modifiable factors such as dietary habits and smoking are very likely to be profoundly altered in the migrant population. DESIGN AND METHOD: To compare the prevalence of hypertension in Italian residents as compared with Migrants, a total of 6027 voluntary subjects underwent medical interview, body weight, height and blood pressure (BP) measurement, risk factor evaluation and urine analysis during the National Kidney Day survey held in 2012 and 2013 by the Federazione Italiana del Rene (FIR)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Teruo Jojima, Takanori Tomotsune, Toshie Iijima, Kazumi Akimoto, Kunihiro Suzuki, Yoshimasa Aso
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are new oral antidiabetic drugs that reduce hyperglycemia by promoting urinary glucose excretion. Glycosuria produced by SGLT2 inhibitors is associated with weight loss, mainly due to reduced fat volume. We investigated the effects of empagliflozin (selective SGLT2 inhibitor) and linagliptin (DPP-4 inhibitor) on steatohepatitis and fibrosis in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with diabetes. METHODS: A novel NASH model was generated by administration of streptozotocin to C57BL/6J mice at 2 days old, with a high-fat diet from 4 weeks...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Valentina Vellecco, Emma Mitidieri, Antonella Gargiulo, Vincenzo Brancaleone, Danilo Matassa, Thomas Klein, Franca Esposito, Giuseppe Cirino, Mariarosaria Bucci
AIM: To test the effect of linagliptin in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a murine model of type 1 diabetes, to unveil a possible direct cardiovascular action of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors beyond glycaemia control. METHODS: NOD mice were grouped according to glycosuria levels as NODI: none; NODII: high; NODIII: severe. Linagliptin treatment was initiated once they reached NODII levels. Vascular reactivity was assessed ex vivo on aorta harvested from mice upon reaching NODIII level...
July 27, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
K Pafili, E Maltezos, N Papanas
INTRODUCTION: There is now an abundance of anti-diabetic agents. However, only few patients achieve glycemic targets. Moreover, current glucose-lowering agents mainly depend upon insulin secretion or function. Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors present a novel glucose-lowering therapy, inducing glycosuria in an insulin-independent fashion. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors discuss the key efficacy and safety data from phase II clinical trials in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of the main SGLT2 inhibitors approved or currently in development, and provide a rationale for their use in T2DM...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
M Vignon, V Javaugue, M P Alexander, K El-Karoui, A Karras, D Roos-Weil, B Royer, B Asli, B Knebelmann, G Touchard, A Jaccard, B Arnulf, F Bridoux, N Leung, J P Fermand
We retrospectively reviewed 49 patients with light-chain (LC) Fanconi syndrome. Patients presented with chronic kidney disease (median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 33 ml/min/m2) and tubular proteinuria. All patients tested had elevated fractional excretion of phosphate, uric acid, generalized aminoaciduria and/or normoglycemic glycosuria. Thirty-eight patients had monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance and 11 patients had an overt hematological malignancy. The monoclonal LC isotype was kappa in 46/49 cases...
July 20, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
(no author information available yet)
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising, and in 2015 more than 5% of adults in the UK were affected by this condition.(1,2) Management of type 2 diabetes includes encouraging lifestyle changes (increased exercise, modification of diet and smoking cessation) alongside the provision of medication to minimise long-term complications and manage blood sugar control while avoiding unwanted effects of drug treatment.(3) Of particular importance, people with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and therefore the aims of treatment also include modification of associated risk factors...
July 2016: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
Kamal Kant Sahu, Arjun Datt Law, Nidhi Jain, Alka Khadwal, Vikas Suri, Pankaj Malhotra, Subhash Chander Varma
A-14-year old boy, presented with a short history of excessive thirst and increased urine output. Clinical examination showed pallor, generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. For evaluation of his polyuric state he underwent routine laboratory investigations, including renal function test, acid-base studies, urine analysis. Blood tests suggested hypokalemia, hypouricemia, hypocalcemia and hyperchloremia with normal liver and kidney function tests. The arterial blood gas analysis was suggestive of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Jodie L Morris, Tahnee L Bridson, Md Abdul Alim, Catherine M Rush, Donna M Rudd, Brenda L Govan, Natkunam Ketheesan
The persistent rise in global incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) continues to have significant public health and economic implications. The availability of relevant animal models of T2D is critical to elucidating the complexity of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disease and the implications this has on susceptibility to T2D complications. Whilst many high-fat diet-induced rodent models of obesity and diabetes exist, growing appreciation of the contribution of high glycaemic index diets on the development of hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance highlight the requirement for animal models that more closely represent global dietary patterns reflective of modern society...
2016: Biology Open
Jean-Luc Faillie
Sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, also known as gliflozins, are a new class of orally active drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes. By inhibiting the SGLT responsible for the reabsorption of glucose from the kidney, their use aims primarily to induce glycosuria and, as a consequence, lower glycemic levels. However, their specific mechanism of action involves other pharmacodynamic consequences including potentially harmful adverse reactions. This manuscript reviews the physiological and pharmacological background behind inhibition of SGLTs, and discusses the pharmacological aspects of the safety of gliflozins...
July 5, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Caio Yogi Yonamine, Erika Pinheiro-Machado, Maria Luiza Michalani, Helayne Soares Freitas, Maristela Mitiko Okamoto, Maria Lucia Corrêa-Giannella, Ubiratan Fabres Machado
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that has been proposed to improve glycemic control in diabetes, by mechanisms that involve improvement in insulin secretion and activity. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), in which insulin therapy is obligatory, resveratrol treatment has never been investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate resveratrol as an adjunctive agent to insulin therapy in a T1D-like experimental model. METHODS: Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
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