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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192889/effects-of-aristolochic-acid-i-and-or-hypokalemia-on-tubular-damage-in-c57bl-6-rat-with-aristolochic-acid-nephropathy
#1
Joo-Hark Yi, Sang-Woong Han, Wan-Young Kim, Jin Kim, Moon-Hyang Park
Background/Aims: This study was designed to investigate the roles of aristolochic acid I (AA-I) and hypokalemia in acute aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). Methods: After an adaptation period (1 week), a total of 40 C57BL/6 mice (male, 8 weeks old) were divided into four groups: I (control group), II (low potassium [K] diet), III (normal K diet with administration of AA-I [10 mg/kg weight]), and IV (low K diet with AA-I). After collecting 24 hours of urine at 2 weeks, the mice were sacrificed, and their blood and kidneys were obtained to perform immunochemical staining and/or Western blot analysis...
February 15, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152176/metformin-sglt2-dehydration-and-acidosis-potential
#2
John A D'Elia, Alissa R Segal, Larry A Weinrauch
Clinicians are aware of the risks and benefits of metformin in type 2 diabetes. In geriatric populations lactic acidosis due to diminishing kidney function is an issue. The recent addition of a group of agents to control diabetes through increased glycosuria may increase the risk of dehydration and acidosis. This may happen due to gastrointestinal loss from metformin diarrhea or urine loss from diuretics. A typical example is presented.
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151777/longitudinal-assessment-of-proximal-tubular-dysfunction-in-hiv-seropositive-and-seronegative-persons-correlates-and-implications
#3
Kerry M Schnell, Mohamed G Atta, Derek M Fine, Katie Zook, Allison M Mcfall, Michelle M Estrella, George J Schwartz, Gregory M Lucas
BACKGROUND: Proximal tubule dysfunction (PTD) is common in HIV-positive persons and has been associated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). However, few studies have assessed the natural history PTD in HIV-positive and -negative individuals, or the association of PTD with the subsequent trajectory of directly measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR). METHODS: We followed 192 HIV-positive and 100 HIV-negative, non-diabetic participants for three years. We measured 3 PTD markers (normoglycemic glycosuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus, and tubular proteinuria) and mGFR (by iohexol disappearance from serum) annually...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143656/bone-marrow-transplantation-improves-proximal-tubule-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-dent-disease
#4
Sarah S Gabriel, Hendrica Belge, Alkaly Gassama, Huguette Debaix, Alessandro Luciani, Thomas Fehr, Olivier Devuyst
Dent disease is a rare X-linked tubulopathy caused by mutations in the endosomal chloride-proton exchanger (ClC-5) resulting in defective receptor-mediated endocytosis and severe proximal tubule dysfunction. Bone marrow transplantation has recently been shown to preserve kidney function in cystinosis, a lysosomal storage disease causing proximal tubule dysfunction. Here we test the effects of bone marrow transplantation in Clcn5(Y/-) mice, a faithful model for Dent disease. Transplantation of wild-type bone marrow in Clcn5(Y/-) mice significantly improved proximal tubule dysfunction, with decreased low-molecular-weight proteinuria, glycosuria, calciuria, and polyuria four months after transplantation, compared to Clcn5(Y/-) mice transplanted with ClC-5 knockout bone marrow...
January 28, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132967/kidney-cadmium-toxicity-diabetes-and-high-blood-pressure-the-perfect-storm
#5
Soisungwan Satarug, David A Vesey, Glenda C Gobe
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant of widespread exposure and pervasive toxicity. Absorption, systemic transport and uptake of Cd are mediated by metal transporters that the body uses for acquisition of physiologically-essential elements, notably of iron, zinc and calcium. Currently, human exposure to Cd is known to damage the kidneys, especially the proximal tubular cells that actively reabsorb Cd along with zinc, glucose and amino acids in the glomerular filtrate. Severe kidney damage, glycosuria and proteinuria are known outcomes after high dietary Cd intake (> 200 µg/day)...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132008/compensatory-changes-in-energy-balance-during-dapagliflozin-treatment-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-trial-energize-study-protocol
#6
Surya Panicker Rajeev, Victoria S Sprung, Carl Roberts, Jo A Harrold, Jason C G Halford, Andrej Stancak, Emma J Boyland, Graham J Kemp, Daniel J Cuthbertson, John P H Wilding
INTRODUCTION: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are effective blood-glucose-lowering medications with beneficial effects on body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, observed weight loss is less than that predicted from quantified glycosuria, suggesting a compensatory increase in energy intake or a decrease in energy expenditure. Studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) have suggested most body weight change is due to loss of adipose tissue, but organ-specific changes in fat content (eg, liver, skeletal muscle) have not been determined...
January 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110639/amitraz-poisoning-a-case-report-of-an-unusual-pesticide-poisoning-in-sri-lanka-and-literature-review
#7
H M M T B Herath, S P Pahalagamage, Nilukshana Yogendranathan, M D M S Wijayabandara, Aruna Kulatunga
BACKGROUND: Amitraz is a pesticide used worldwide on animals and in agriculture. It contains triazapentadiene, which is a centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonist. Amitraz poisoning is fairly uncommon in humans and occurs via oral, dermal or inhalational routes. Only a limited number of case reports of human intoxication have been published and most of them are of accidental ingestion by children. CASE PRESENTATION: A twenty-year-old Sri Lankan female presented following self-ingestion of 20 ml of amitraz resulting in 37...
January 23, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109116/aminoaciduria-caused-by-fanconi-syndrome-in-a-heifer
#8
N Cesbron, L Dorso, A-L Royer, G Dervilly-Pinel, J Hervé
A case study of renal tubular dysfunction consistent with idiopathic Fanconi syndrome is reported in an 18-month-old Holstein heifer. The clinical, biochemical, and histopathological features are described. The heifer had clinical signs of growth retardation, wasting, and persistent diarrhea. Biochemical blood analysis identified hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and hypochloremia. Urinalysis identified glycosuria, proteinuria, and acidic pH. Histological examination of the kidney disclosed mild tubular necrosis with proteinaceous casts in the lumina of renal tubules...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043708/emerging-roles-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-cardiology
#9
REVIEW
Atsushi Tanaka, Koichi Node
The ultimate goal of treatment in people with diabetes mellitus is to prevent development of cardiovascular (CV) disease, resulting in prolongation of healthy life expectancy. Although impaired glycemic metabolism has a central role in its pathology, a number of studies have demonstrated that remedy for its imbalance cannot necessarily be accomplished as a therapeutic goal. A comprehensive medical approach against multi-factorial pathologies in diabetes, such as insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, in addition to diet and exercise therapy should be rather performed in the routine clinical setting...
March 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011230/sglt-2-inhibitors-their-pleiotropic-properties
#10
REVIEW
Natalia G Vallianou, Eleni Geladari, Christos E Kazazis
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a global pandemic. Nowadays, it is estimated that approximately 415 million people all over the world have diabetes. The sodium glucose co-transporters 2 inhibitors are a new class of glucose-lowering agents, which act through a novel mechanism by producing a decline in glucose re-absorption in the kidney, thereby increasing glycosuria and decreasing serum glucose levels. Data suggest that apart from lowering HbA1c, they produce a small but significant weight loss and a small decrease in blood pressure...
December 9, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008953/glycosuria-and-renal-outcomes-in-patients-with-nondiabetic-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Chi-Chih Hung, Hugo You-Hsien Lin, Jia-Jung Lee, Lee Moay Lim, Yi-Wen Chiu, Heng-Pin Chiang, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Hung-Chun Chen
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have shown a potential for renoprotection beyond blood glucose lowering. Glycosuria in nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is sometimes noted. Whether glycosuria in CKD implies a channelopathy or proximal tubulopathy is not known. The consequence of glycosuria in CKD is also not studied. We performed a cross-sectional study for the association between glycosuria and urine electrolyte excretion in 208 nondiabetic patients. Fractional excretion (FE) of glucose >4% was 3...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920852/inversion-of-excreted-intravenous-contrast-fluid-levels-in-the-urinary-bladder-on-computed-tomography
#12
Tiffany Chan, Brian McGillen, Kathryn McGillen
Fluid-fluid levels occur on computed tomography due to differences in density between the 2 fluids. For example, intravenous (IV) contrast excreted into the urinary bladder layers posterior with gravity in the supine patient with normal, unopacified urine layering anterior, due to their differing densities. The rare presence of inverted fluid-contrast levels in the bladder calls attention to the existence of pathology such as microscopic hematuria, infectious debris, glycosuria, and purulent fluid. In such instances, the hypodense, nonopacified urine is the abnormality and is often only recognized due to the excreted IV contrast "floating" on top of it within the bladder...
December 2016: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904113/fanconi-syndrome-associated-with-hyponatremia-in-two-patients-with-legionella-pneumonia
#13
Akihiro Ryuge, Yasuhiko Ito, Taishi Yamakawa, Hitoshi Tanaka, Hirotoshi Yasui, Shuko Mashimo, Kenshi Watanabe, Rie Nomura, Nobukazu Suganuma, Shoichi Maruyama
Legionella pneumophila is a cause of community-acquired pneumonia that is reported to induce electrolyte disorders, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia. We herein report two Japanese men with Legionella pneumonia and hyponatremia and hypophosphatemia. These findings were associated with an elevation of urinary low-molecular-weight tubular protein, including urinary β2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, the fractional excretion of phosphate and uric acid, and the presence of glycosuria and panaminoaciduria, suggesting that their electrolyte disorders had been caused by Fanconi syndrome...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872640/nucleotide-analogue-related-proximal-renal-tubular-dysfunction-during-long-term-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Abhasnee Sobhonslidsuk, Jirachaya Wanichanuwat, Pawin Numthavaj, Areepan Sophonsritsuk, Supanna Petraksa, Alongkorn Pugasub, Paisan Jittorntam, Anucha Kongsomgan, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Bunyong Phakdeekitcharoen
Background. There have been few reports of nucleotide analogue-related renal tubular dysfunction (RTD) in CHB patients. We assessed the prevalence and presentation of nucleotide analogue-related proximal RTD. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in CHB patients taking nucleotide analogues. Inclusion criteria were patients who were on adefovir or tenofovir as mono- or add-on therapy with lamivudine (LAM) >1 year. Serum and urine were collected. Fractional excretion of phosphate (FEPO4), uric acid (FEUA), and potassium was calculated...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867961/cardio-renal-protection-with-empagliflozin
#15
Richard J MacIsaac, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci
Cardiovascular (CV) and kidney disease are common and significant complications in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CV disease is the leading cause of death, morbidly and hospitalisations for people with T2DM. Furthermore, diabetic kidney disease is a major risk factor for CV disease and is the main reason why patients need renal replacement therapy. In this perspective, we highlight the results of the recent landmark EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial which has shown that empagliflozin, a member of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor class of glucose lowering medications, reduces death from CV causes, hospitalisation for heart failure and progression to end stage kidney disease in patients with T2DM and established CV disease...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865300/effect-of-dapagliflozin-treatment-on-fluid-and-electrolyte-balance-in-diabetic-rats
#16
Ling Chen, Lauren M LaRocque, Orhan Efe, Juan Wang, Jeff M Sands, Janet D Klein
AIM: This study evaluates the effect of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on fluid or electrolyte balance and its effect on urea transporter-A1 (UT-A1), aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) protein abundance in diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by injection of streptozotocin into the tail vein. Serum Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) concentration, urine Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) excretion, blood glucose, urine glucose excretion, urine volume, urine osmolality and urine urea excretion were analyzed after the administration of dapagliflozin...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799484/renal-fanconi-syndrome-and-hypophosphatemic-rickets-in-the-absence-of-xenotropic-and-polytropic-retroviral-receptor-in-the-nephron
#17
Camille Ansermet, Matthias B Moor, Gabriel Centeno, Muriel Auberson, Dorothy Zhang Hu, Roland Baron, Svetlana Nikolaeva, Barbara Haenzi, Natalya Katanaeva, Ivan Gautschi, Vladimir Katanaev, Samuel Rotman, Robert Koesters, Laurent Schild, Sylvain Pradervand, Olivier Bonny, Dmitri Firsov
Tight control of extracellular and intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels is critical to most biochemical and physiologic processes. Urinary Pi is freely filtered at the kidney glomerulus and is reabsorbed in the renal tubule by the action of the apical sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, NaPi-IIa/NaPi-IIc/Pit2. However, the molecular identity of the protein(s) participating in the basolateral Pi efflux remains unknown. Evidence has suggested that xenotropic and polytropic retroviral receptor 1 (XPR1) might be involved in this process...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799232/hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-and-offspring-cardiac-structure-and-function-in-adolescence
#18
Simon Timpka, Corrie Macdonald-Wallis, Alun D Hughes, Nishi Chaturvedi, Paul W Franks, Debbie A Lawlor, Abigail Fraser
BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to preeclampsia is associated with higher blood pressure and later risk of stroke. We aimed to investigate the associations of maternal preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and maternal blood pressure change in pregnancy with offspring cardiac structure and function in adolescence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from a prospective birth cohort study, we included offspring who underwent echocardiography (mean age, 17.7 years; SD, 0...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754289/br-08-1-high-sodium-intake-reduction-in-diabetes-with-hypertension
#19
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753987/sy-10-1-renal-glucose-handling-and-sglt2
#20
Resham Poudel
The kidneys maintain glucose homeostasis through its utilization, gluconeogenesis, and reabsorption. Glucose is freely filtered and reabsorbed in order to retain energy essential between meals. The amount of glucose reabsorbed by the kidneys is equivalent to the amount entering the filtration system. With a daily glomerular filtration rate of 180 L, approximately 180 g (180 L/day × 100 mg/dL) of glucose must be reabsorbed each day to maintain an average fasting plasma glucose concentration of 5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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