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Patrik T Nilsson, Ulf Bergendorf, Håkan Tinnerberg, Erik Nordin, Mats Gustavsson, Bo Strandberg, Maria Albin, Anders Gudmundsson
The risk among asphalt workers of developing adverse health effects may increase due to their occupational exposure. One area of special concern arises when rubber granules are mixed into bitumen to enhance asphalt properties. This research characterizes and compares bitumen and rubber bitumen regarding the emissions of and workers' exposure to particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzothiazole. A laboratory and a field study were carried out. In the laboratory, two types of bitumen, one with and one without rubber, were heated up to two temperatures (140°C and 160°C)...
June 21, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Maurice S Albin
Background The United States Civil War (1861-1865) pitted the more populous industrialized North (Union) against the mainly agricultural slaveholding South (Confederacy). This conflict cost an enormous number of lives, with recent estimates mentioning a total mortality greater than 700,000 combatants [1]. Although sulfuric ether (ETH) and chloroform (CHL) were available since Morton's use of the former in 1846 and the employment of the latter in 1847, and even though inhalational agents were used in Crimean war (1853-1856) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), the United States Civil War gave military surgeons on both sides the opportunity to experience the use of these two agents because of the large number of casualties...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Albin Lobo, José M Torres-Ruiz, Regis Burlett, Cedric Lemaire, Camille Parise, Claire Francioni, Laura Truffaut, Ivana Tomášková, Jon Kehlet Hansen, Erik Dahl Kjær, Antoine Kremer, Sylvain Delzon
The genus Quercus comprises important species in forestry not only for their productive value but also for their ability to withstand drought. Hence an evaluation of inter- and intraspecific variation in drought tolerance is important for selecting the best adapted species and provenances for future afforestation. The presence of long vessels makes it difficult to assess xylem vulnerability to embolism in oak. Thanks to the development of an in situ flow centrifuge equipped with a large rotor, we quantified (i) the between species variability of embolism resistance in four native and two exotic species of oaks in Europe and (ii) the within species variability in Quercus petraea ...
September 15, 2018: Forest Ecology and Management
X Liu, J Lan, Y S Huang, P H Cao, C L Zhou, Y K Ren, N Q He, S J Liu, Y L Tian, T L Nguyen, L Jiang, J M Wan
Chloroplasts play an essential role in plant growth and development, and cold conditions affect chloroplast development. Although many genes or regulators involved in chloroplast biogenesis and development have been isolated and characterized, many components affecting chloroplast biogenesis under cold conditions have not been characterized. Here, we report the functional characterization of a white stripe leaf 5 (wsl5) mutant in rice. The mutant develops white-striped leaves during early leaf development and is albinic when planted under cold stress...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nicole J Kus, Monika B Dolinska, Kenneth L Young, Emilios K Dimitriadis, Paul T Wingfield, Yuri V Sergeev
Human tyrosinase (hTyr) is a Type 1 membrane bound glycoenzyme that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting steps of melanin production in the melanosome. Mutations in the Tyr gene are linked to oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1), an autosomal recessive disorder. Currently, the application of enzyme replacement therapy for a treatment of OCA1 is hampered by the absence of pure hTyr. Here, full-length hTyr (residues 1-529) was overexpressed in Trichoplusia ni larvae infected with a baculovirus, solubilized with detergent and purified using chromatography...
2018: PloS One
Yiyi Xu, Monica Kåredal, Jörn Nielsen, Mariana Adlercreutz, Ulf Bergendorf, Bo Strandberg, Ann-Beth Antonsson, Håkan Tinnerberg, Maria Albin
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists as to the health effects of exposure to asphalt and crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt, which contains recycled rubber tyres. OBJECTIVE: To assess exposures and effects on airway symptoms, lung function and inflammation biomarkers in conventional and CRM asphalt road pavers. METHODS: 116 conventional asphalt workers, 51 CRM asphalt workers and 100 controls were investigated. A repeated-measures analysis included 31 workers paving with both types of asphalt...
May 30, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Maarjaliis Paavo, Jin Zhao, Hye Jin Kim, Winston Lee, Jana Zernant, Carolyn Cai, Rando Allikmets, Stephen H Tsang, Janet R Sparrow
Purpose: We sought to advance interpretations and quantification of short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (SW-AF) emitted from bisretinoid lipofuscin and near-infrared autofluoresence (NIR-AF) originating from melanin. Methods: Carriers of mutations in X-linked GPR143/OA1, a common form of ocular albinism; patients with confirmed mutations in ABCA4 conferring increased SW-AF; and subjects with healthy eyes were studied. SW-AF (488 nm excitation, 500-680 nm emission) and NIR-AF (excitation 787 nm, emission >830 nm) images were acquired with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Roger L Albin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Brandon K McCafferty, Ann M Holleschau, John E Connett, C Gail Summers
PURPOSE: To evaluate change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) during the second decade of life and the effects of albinism type and extraocular muscle surgery on BCVA in children with albinism. METHODS: In this retrospective longitudinal study, 41 patients with albinism with clinic visits recording binocular BCVA at least once between the ages of 10 and 13 years (visit A) and again between the ages of 17 and 20 years (visit B) were included. Type of albinism, age at each visit, and interval eye muscle surgeries were recorded for each patient...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Albin Stjernbrandt, Daniel Carlsson, Hans Pettersson, Ingrid Liljelind, Tohr Nilsson, Jens Wahlström
PURPOSE: To identify factors associated with the reporting of cold sensitivity, by comparing cases to controls with regard to anthropometry, previous illnesses and injuries, as well as external exposures such as hand-arm vibration (HAV) and ambient cold. METHODS: Through a questionnaire responded to by the general population, ages 18-70, living in Northern Sweden (N = 12,627), cold sensitivity cases (N = 502) and matched controls (N = 1004) were identified, and asked to respond to a second questionnaire focusing on different aspects of cold sensitivity as well as individual and external exposure factors suggested to be related to the condition...
May 28, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
David J Lin, Seth N Levin, Catherine S W Albin, Anna E Goodheart, Nagagopal Venna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Neurology
Jeroen Brijs, Albin Gräns, Per Hjelmstedt, Erik Sandblom, Nicole van Nuland, Charlotte Berg, Michael Axelsson
The fish gut is responsible for numerous potentially energetically costly processes, yet, little is known about its metabolism. Here, we provide the first in vivo measurements for aerobic metabolism of the gut in a teleost fish by measuring gut blood flow, as well as arterial and portal venous oxygen content. At 10°C, gut oxygen uptake rates were 4.3±0.5 ml O2 h-1 kg-1 (∼11% of whole animal oxygen uptake). Following acute warming to 15°C, gut blood flow increased ∼3.4-fold and gut oxygen uptake rate increased ∼3...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Albin Alfreider, Teresa Bogensperger
The analysis of RubisCO genes is a highly useful instrument to explore the diversity of chemoautotrophic bacteria using the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle for CO2 fixation. However, because of the wide taxonomic distribution of phylogenetically related RubisCO forms, environmental studies targeting chemoautotrophs are hampered in habitats dominated by phototrophs. Here, we report the development of a gene marker that specifically detects form IA RubisCO genes in bacteria, excluding photoautotrophic representatives...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Claudia Yahalom, Michal Macarov, Galit Lazer-Derbeko, Gheona Altarescu, Tal Imbar, Jordana H Hyman, Talia Eldar-Geva, Anat Blumenfeld
BACKGROUND: In developed countries, genetically inherited eye diseases are responsible for a high percentage of childhood visual impairment. We aim to report our experience using preimplantation genetic diagnostics (PGD) in order to avoid transmitting a genetic form of eye disease associated with childhood visual impairment and ocular cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective case series of women who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and PGD due to a familial history of inherited eye disease and/or ocular cancer, in order to avoid having a child affected with the known familial disease...
May 21, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
Hans Albin Gritsch
This manuscript reviews the outcomes of a European clinical trial to evaluate the effects of living kidney donation on adrenal function. The study shows that left-sided donor nephrectomy is associated with transiently reduced adrenocortical responsiveness, which returns to baseline after 28 d.
May 17, 2018: European Urology Focus
J Fredrik Lindgren, Erik Ytreberg, Albin Holmqvist, Magnus Dahlström, Peter Dahl, Mattias Berglin, Anna-Lisa Wrange, Mia Dahlström
How zinc oxide influences copper release has been tested and the lowest release rate of copper from various combinations of copper and zinc in a paint matrix evaluated, whilst still deterring macrofouling, including barnacles and bryozoans. Copper (I) oxide was added to a generic AF paint in 0, 8.5, 11.7 or 16.3 wt% copper oxide in combination with 0, 10 or 20 wt% zinc oxide and applied on PMMA panels. The results show that zinc influences the release rate of copper. When 10 and 20 wt% zinc was added, the total amount of copper released significantly increased by on average 32 and 47% respectively...
May 15, 2018: Biofouling
Brian S McKay
Albinism, typically characterized by decreased melanin synthesis, is associated with significant visual deficits owing to developmental changes during neurosensory retina development. All albinism is caused by genetic mutations in a group of diverse genes including enzymes, transporters, G-protein coupled receptor. Interestingly, these genes are not expressed in the neurosensory retina. Further, regardless of cause of albinism, all forms of albinism have the same retinal pathology, the extent of which is variable...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ayman Alhamdow, Christian Lindh, Jessika Hagberg, Pål Graff, Håkan Westberg, Annette M Krais, Maria Albin, Per Gustavsson, Håkan Tinnerberg, Karin Broberg
Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known carcinogens and workplace PAH exposure may increase the risk of cancer. Monitoring early cancer-related changes can indicate whether the exposure is carcinogenic. Here, we enrolled 151 chimney sweeps, 152 controls, and 19 creosote-exposed male workers from Sweden. We measured urinary PAH metabolites using LC/MS/MS, the cancer-related markers telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) using qPCR, and DNA methylation of lung cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR using pyrosequencing...
May 2, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Helena Bilandžija, Lindsey Abraham, Li Ma, Kenneth J Renner, William R Jeffery
Multiple cave populations of the teleost Astyanax mexicanus have repeatedly reduced or lost eye and body pigmentation during adaptation to dark caves. Albinism, the complete absence of melanin pigmentation, is controlled by loss-of-function mutations in the oca2 gene. The mutation is accompanied by an increase in the melanin synthesis precursor l-tyrosine, which is also a precursor for catecholamine synthesis. In this study, we show a relationship between pigmentation loss, enhanced catecholamine synthesis and responsiveness to anaesthesia, determined as a proxy for catecholamine-related behaviours...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Andreas Streun, Terence Garvey, Lenny Rivkin, Volker Schlott, Thomas Schmidt, Philip Willmott, Albin Wrulich
An upgrade of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) is planned for 2021-2024 and includes the exchange of the existing storage ring by a new one providing about 40-50 times lower emittance in user operation mode. This will extend the performance of SLS in particular in the fields of coherent imaging, full-field tomography, soft X-ray angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. A science case and a conceptual design for the machine have been established. As a summary of these reports, the novel lattice design, undulator developments and scientific highlights are presented...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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