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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340510/the-diverse-family-of-mmpl-transporters-in-mycobacteria-from-regulation-to-antimicrobial-developments
#1
REVIEW
Albertus Viljoen, Violaine Dubois, Fabienne Girard-Misguich, Mickael Blaise, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterial genomes contain large sets of loci encoding membrane proteins that belong to a family of multidrug resistance pumps designated Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) permeases. Mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) transporters represent a subclass of RND transporters known to participate in the export of lipid components across the cell envelope. These surface-exposed lipids with unusual structures play key roles in the physiology of mycobacteria and/or can act as virulence factors and immunomodulators...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340485/an-approach-for-liposome-immobilization-using-sterically-stabilized-micelles-ssms-as-a-precursor-for-bio-layer-interferometry-based-interaction-studies
#2
Jakob Wallner, Gabriele Lhota, Markus Schosserer, Karola Vorauer-Uhl
Non-fluidic bio-layer interferometry (BLI) has rapidly become a standard tool for monitoring almost all biomolecular interactions in a label-free, real-time and high-throughput manner. High-efficiency screening methods which measure the kinetics of liposomes with a variety of compounds require the immobilization of liposomes. In this work, a method is described for immobilizing liposomes for interaction studies, based on the biophysical principles of this biosensor platform. The immobilization approach includes the loading of DSPE-PEG(2000)-biotin containing sterically stabilized micelles (SSMs) which are restructured in a buffer change step, resulting in an accessible substrate for liposome immobilization...
March 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340417/interfacial-interactions-between-skeletonema-costatum-extracellular-organic-matter-and-metal-oxides-implications-for-ceramic-membrane-filtration
#3
Noor Zaouri, Leonardo Gutierrez, Laure Dramas, Daniel Garces, Jean-Philippe Croue
In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO2 or Al2O3, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms...
March 21, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340324/vps36-mediated-plasma-membrane-protein-turnover-is-critical-for-arabidopsis-root-gravitropism
#4
Ya-Wen Hsu, Guang-Yuh Jauh
The gravitropic response is an evolutionary adaptation for plants to cope with the altered gravitational field. It involves reestablishing the distribution of the phytohormone auxin by differential degradation of auxin influx and efflux carriers. This process includes the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery to recognize ubiquitinated proteins and deliver them to vacuoles for degradation, as evidenced by vps36-1 mutants. Here, we generated RNAi knockdown plants of Vacuolar Protein Sorting 36 (VPS36) that could survive to adulthood...
March 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340032/osptr7-osnpf8-1-a-putative-peptide-transporter-in-rice-is-involved-in-dimethylarsenate-accumulation-in-rice-grain
#5
Zhong Tang, Yi Chen, Fei Chen, Yuchen Ji, Fang-Jie Zhao
Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major dietary source of arsenic (As) for the population consuming rice as their staple food. Rice grain contains both inorganic As and methylated As species, especially dimethyarsinate (DMA). DMA is highly mobile in long-distance translocation in plants, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, we showed that OsPTR7 (OsNPF8.1), a putative peptide transporter in rice, was permeable to DMA in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Transient expression of the OsPTR7-green fluorescent protein (GFP) in tobacco protoplasts showed that OsPTR7 was localized in the cell plasma membrane...
March 2, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339924/the-trans-golgi-network-and-the-golgi-stacks-behave-independently-during-regeneration-after-brefeldin-a-treatment-in-tobacco-by-2-cells
#6
Yoko Ito, Kiminori Toyooka, Masaru Fujimoto, Takashi Ueda, Tomohiro Uemura, Akihiko Nakano
The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays an essential role in intracellular membrane trafficking. In plant cells, recent live-cell imaging studies have revealed the dynamic behavior of the TGN independent from the Golgi apparatus. In order to better understand the relationships between the two organelles, we examined their dynamic responses to the reagent brefeldin A (BFA) and their recovery after BFA removal. Golgi markers responded to BFA similarly over a range of concentrations, whereas the behavior of the TGN was BFA concentration dependent...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335485/intra-amniotic-administration-of-raffinose-and-stachyose-affects-the-intestinal-brush-border-functionality-and-alters-gut-microflora-populations
#7
Sarina Pacifici, Jaehong Song, Cathy Zhang, Qiaoye Wang, Raymond P Glahn, Nikolai Kolba, Elad Tako
This study investigates the effectiveness of two types of prebiotics-stachyose and raffinose-which are present in staple food crops that are widely consumed in regions where dietary Fe deficiency is a health concern. The hypothesis is that these prebiotics will improve Fe status, intestinal functionality, and increase health-promoting bacterial populations in vivo (Gallus gallus). By using the intra-amniotic administration procedure, prebiotic treatment solutions were injected in ovo (day 17 of embryonic incubation) with varying concentrations of a 1...
March 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335329/nanoparticle-based-delivery-of-anaplasma-marginale-membrane-proteins-virb9-1-and-virb10-produced-in-the-pichia-pastoris-expression-system
#8
Bing Zhang, Antonio S Cavallaro, Karishma T Mody, Jun Zhang, James R Deringer, Wendy C Brown, Timothy J Mahony, Chengzhong Yu, Neena Mitter
Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are immunogenic components of the outer membrane type IV secretion system that have been identified as candidate antigens for vaccines targeting of A. marginale. Soluble VirB9-1 and VirB10 were successfully expressed using Pichia pastoris. When formulated with the self-adjuvanting silica vesicles, SV-100 (diameter: 50 nm, and pore entrance size: 6 nm), 200 µg of VirB9-1 and VirB10 were adsorbed per milligram of nanoparticle...
November 5, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335325/nanoscale-electric-characteristics-and-oriented-assembly-of-halobacterium-salinarum-membrane-revealed-by-electric-force-microscopy
#9
Denghua Li, Yibing Wang, Huiwen Du, Shiwei Xu, Zhemin Li, Yanlian Yang, Chen Wang
Purple membranes (PM) of the bacteria Halobacterium salinarum are a unique natural membrane where bacteriorhodopsin (BR) can convert photon energy and pump protons. Elucidating the electronic properties of biomembranes is critical for revealing biological mechanisms and developing new devices. We report here the electric properties of PMs studied by using multi-functional electric force microscopy (EFM) at the nanoscale. The topography, surface potential, and dielectric capacity of PMs were imaged and quantitatively measured in parallel...
November 2, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335027/a-transposon-derived-small-rna-regulates-gene-expression-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#10
Michael J Ellis, Ryan S Trussler, Onella Charles, David B Haniford
Bacterial sRNAs play an important role in regulating many cellular processes including metabolism, outer membrane homeostasis and virulence. Although sRNAs were initially found in intergenic regions, there is emerging evidence that protein coding regions of the genome are a rich reservoir of sRNAs. Here we report that the 5΄UTR of IS200 transposase mRNA (tnpA) is processed to produce regulatory RNAs that affect expression of over 70 genes in Salmonella Typhimurium. We provide evidence that the tnpA derived sRNA base-pairs with invF mRNA to repress expression...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334871/proteomics-insights-into-infantile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-cln1-point-to-the-involvement-of-cilia-pathology-in-the-disease
#11
Michal Segal-Salto, Karin Hansson, Tamar Sapir, Anna Kaplan, Talia Levy, Michaela Schwizer, Michael Frotscher, Peter James, Orly Reiner
Mutations in the depalmitoylation enzyme, palmitoyl protein thioesterase (PPT1), result in the early onset neurodegenerative disease known as Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Here, we provide proteomic evidence suggesting that PPT1 deficiency could be considered as a ciliopathy. Analysis of membrane proteins from brain enriched for acylated proteins from neonate Ppt1 knock out and control mice revealed a list of 88 proteins with differential expression levels. Amongst them, we identified Rab3IP, which regulates ciliogenesis in concert with Rab8 and Rab11...
March 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334810/bimodal-regulation-of-dishevelled-function-by-vangl2-during-morphogenesis
#12
Hwa-Seon Seo, Raymond Habas, Chenbei Chang, Jianbo Wang
Convergent extension (CE) is a fundamental morphogenetic mechanism that underlies numerous processes in vertebrate development, and its disruption can lead to human congenital disorders such as neural tube closure defects. The dynamic, oriented cell intercalation during CE is regulated by a group of core proteins identified originally in flies to coordinate epithelial planar cell polarity (PCP). The existing model explains how core PCP proteins, including Van Gogh (Vang) and Dishevelled (Dvl), segregate into distinct complexes on opposing cell cortex to coordinate polarity among static epithelial cells...
March 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334785/amino-acid-substitution-equivalent-to-human-chorea-acanthocytosis-i2771r-in-yeast-vps13-protein-affects-its-binding-to-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate
#13
Weronika Rzepnikowska, Krzysztof Flis, Joanna Kaminska, Marcin Grynberg, Agnieszka Urbanek, Kathryn R Ayscough, Teresa Zoladek
The rare human disorder chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is caused by mutations in hVPS13A gene. The hVps13A protein interacts with actin and regulates the level of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in the membranes of neuronal cells. Yeast Vps13 is involved in vacuolar protein transport and, like hVps13A, participates in PI4P metabolism. Vps13 proteins are conserved in eukaryotes, but their molecular function remains unknown. One of the mutations found in ChAc patients causes amino acids substitution I2771R which affects the localization of hVps13A in skeletal muscles...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334782/golgi-retained-cx32-mutants-interfere-with-gene-addition-therapy-for-cmt1x
#14
Styliana Kyriakoudi, Irene Sargiannidou, Alexia Kagiava, Margarita Olympiou, Kleopas A Kleopa
Numerous GJB1 gene mutations cause the X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X). GJB1 encodes connexin32 (Cx32), which forms trans-myelin gap junctions in Schwann cells. Most GJB1 mutations result in loss-of-function mechanisms, supporting the concept of gene replacement therapy. However, interactions between delivered wild type and endogenously expressed mutant Cx32 may potentially occur in the setting of gene replacement therapy. In order to screen for possible interactions of several representative CMT1X mutants with wild type Cx32 that may interfere with functional gap junction formation, we established an in vitro screening method co-expressing in HeLa cells wild type Cx32 and one of eight different Cx32 mutants including A39P, A39V, T55I, R75W, M93V, L143P, N175D and R183S...
February 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334733/mhc-class-i-chain-related-protein-a-and-b-mica-and-micb-are-predominantly-expressed-intracellularly-in-tumour-and-normal-tissue
#15
Hormas Ghadially, Lee Brown, Chris Lloyd, Leeanne Lewis, Arthur Lewis, Janette Dillon, Richard Sainson, Jelena Jovanovic, Natalie J Tigue, David Bannister, Lisa Bamber, Viia Valge-Archer, Robert W Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related protein A (MICA) and MHC class I chain-related protein B (MICB) are polymorphic proteins that are induced upon stress, damage or transformation of cells which act as a 'kill me' signal through the natural-killer group 2, member D receptor expressed on cytotoxic lymphocytes. MICA/B are not thought to be constitutively expressed by healthy normal cells but expression has been reported for most tumour types. However, it is not clear how much of this protein is expressed on the cell surface...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334543/-functional-impact-of-herg-from-physiological-role-to-target-of-anticancer-therapy
#16
Júlia Šatková, Markéta Bébarová
The human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG; officially designated as KCNH2) encodes the structure of protein forming α-subunit of voltage-gated ion channel which conducts the rapid component of delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr). This current plays an important role namely in the cardiac repolarization. Mutations in hERG result in inherited arrhythmogenic syndromes characterized by a lenghtening or shortening of QT interval on the electrocardiogram and by an increased occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334404/calcium-homeostasis-modulator-1-like-currents-in-rat-fungiform-taste-cells-expressing-amiloride-sensitive-sodium-currents
#17
Albertino Bigiani
Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels...
March 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334277/in-bone-metastasis-mir-34a-5p-absence-inversely-correlates-with-met-expression-while-met-oncogene-is-unaffected-by-mir-34a-5p-in-non-metastatic-and-metastatic-breast-carcinomas
#18
Paola Maroni, Rossella Puglisi, Gianfranco Mattia, Alessandra Carè, Emanuela Matteucci, Paola Bendinelli, Maria Alfonsina Desiderio
The highlight of the molecular basis and therapeutic targets of the bone-metastatic process requires the identification of biomarkers of metastasis colonization. Here, we studied miR-34a-5p expression, and Met-receptor expression and localization in bone metastases from ductal breast carcinomas, and in ductal carcinomas without history of metastasis (20 cases). miR-34a-5p was elevated in non-metastatic breast carcinoma, intermediate in the adjacent tissue and practically absent in bone metastases, opposite to pair-matched carcinoma...
March 16, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334272/17%C3%AE-estradiol-induced-acsl4-protein-expression-promotes-an-invasive-phenotype-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-mammary-carcinoma-cells
#19
Anissa Belkaid, Rodney J Ouellette, Marc E Surette
Long chain acyl-CoA synthase-4 (ACSL4) expression has been associated with an aggressive phenotype in breast carcinoma cells, whereas its role in ERα-positive breast cancer has not been studied. ACSL4 prefers 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) substrates, and along with other ACSLs has been associated with cellular uptake of exogenous fatty acids. 17β-estradiol induces proliferation and invasive capacities in ERα+ve breast carcinoma that is associated with modifications of cellular lipid metabolism...
March 10, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334216/deletion-of-mazf-increases-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-in-an-ica-dependent-manner
#20
Fuminori Kato, Yusuke Yabuno, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Motoyuki Sugai, Masayori Inouye
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are composed of a toxin that inhibits an essential cellular process (e.g., DNA replication, transcription, membrane integrity) and its cognate antitoxin that neutralizes the effect of the toxin. Staphylococcus aureus harbors two types of chromosomally encoded TA systems, namely mazEFsa encoding a UACAU-specific mRNA interferase and two paralogous genes of yefM-yoeBsa encoding a ribosome-dependent endoribonuclease system. However, little is known about the physiological role of MazEFsa and YefM-YoeBsa in S...
March 8, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
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