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naloxone and shock

João Zugaib, Leda Menescal-de-Oliveira
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucial in the modulation of the sensory, affective and cognitive aspects of nociceptive processing. Also, it participates in the planning and execution of behavioral responses evoked by nociceptive stimuli via descending projections to the brainstem. In laboratory animals nociceptive experimental tests evaluate behavioral responses that preferentially express the sensory-discriminative or affective-motivational component of pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the participation of opioid and cholinergic neurotransmission in the ACC on different nociceptive responses in guinea pigs...
September 15, 2017: Brain Research
Audrée Elliott, Pierre-André Dubé, Amélie Cossette-Côté, Laura Patakfalvi, Eric Villeneuve, Martin Morris, Sophie Gosselin
CONTEXT: Intraosseous (IO) access is an established route of administration in resuscitation situations. Patients with serious poisoning presenting to the emergency department may require urgent antidote therapy. However, intravenous (IV) access is not always readily available. OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the current evidence for IO administration of antidotes that could be used in poisoning. The primary outcome was mortality as a surrogate of efficacy. Secondary outcomes included hemodynamic variables, electrocardiographic variables, neurological status, pharmacokinetics outcomes, and adverse effects as defined by each article...
December 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Xiaoxiao Ni, Zhifeng Liu, Qiuyou Xie, Huasheng Tong, Lei Su, Ronghao Yu
With the global warming, the incidence of heat stroke was significantly higher than before. Severe heat stroke has a high mortality, high morbidity and consolidated central nervous system injury characteristics. The main features of severe heat stroke cerebral injury include cognitive impairment, delirium, convulsions and coma. Its mechanism is related with heat shock induced cerebral tissue ischemia and hypoxia, vascular dysfunction, secondary cascade inflammation and so on. Currently, the main treatment of heat stroke cerebral injury is the hypothermia therapy, dehydration for the reduction of intracranial pressure, naloxone and other cerebral protection and nutrition treatments...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
María-José Sánchez-Catalán, Fanny Faivre, Ipek Yalcin, Marc-Antoine Muller, Dominique Massotte, Monique Majchrzak, Michel Barrot
The GABAergic tail of the ventral tegmental area (tVTA), also named rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), exerts an inhibitory control on dopamine neurons of the VTA and substantia nigra. The tVTA has been implicated in avoidance behaviors, response to drugs of abuse, reward prediction error, and motor functions. Stimulation of the lateral habenula (LHb) inputs to the tVTA, or of the tVTA itself, induces avoidance behaviors, which suggests a role of the tVTA in processing aversive information. Our aim was to test the impact of aversive stimuli on the molecular recruitment of the tVTA, and the behavioral consequences of tVTA lesions...
February 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Elena Martínez-Laorden, Pilar Almela, María-Victoria Milanés, María-Luisa Laorden
Heat shock protein (Hsp27) renders cardioprotection from stress situations but little is known about its role in myofilaments. In this study we have evaluated the relationship between Hsp27 and troponin response after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. Rats were treated with two morphine (75 mg) pellets during six days. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone on day seven. Hsp27 expression, Hsp27 phosphorylated at serine 82 (Ser82), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and µ-calpain were evaluated by immunoblotting in left ventricle...
November 5, 2015: European Journal of Pharmacology
Felicia Mary Michael, Alok Nath Mohapatra, Lavanya Venkitasamy, Kirubhanand Chandrasekar, Tenzin Seldon, Sankar Venkatachalam
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the dreaded neurological conditions and finding a cure for it has been a hot area of research. Naloxone - a mu-opiate receptor (mor) antagonist was considered for SCI treatment based on its positive effects under shock conditions. In contrary to animal studies based reports about the potential benefits of naloxone in treating SCI, a large scale clinical trial [National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study II (NASCIS II)] conducted in USA failed to witness any effectiveness...
September 2015: Neurological Research
Eitika Chauhan, Anjana Bali, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
AIMS: The present study was designed to investigate the existence of cross adaptation between immobilization and foot shock stress, and to identify the role of endogenous opioids in cross adaptation. METHODS: Mice were subjected to acute stress using a single episode of immobilization of 2h duration; while stress adaptation was induced by repeated exposures to homotypic stressor for 5 days. To explore the existence of cross adaptation, homotypic stressor was replaced with a heterotypic stressor on the 6th day and foot shocks of 0...
April 15, 2015: Life Sciences
Ru-Yin Tsai, Yu-Che Cheng, Chih-Shung Wong
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Microglia have a crucial role in maintaining neuronal homeostasis in the central nervous system. Immune factors released from microglia have important roles in nociceptive signal transduction. Activation of microglia seems to be a shared mechanism in pathological pain and morphine tolerance because pharmacological attenuation of microglia activation provides satisfactory management in both situations. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effect of 1nM (+)-naloxone, which is not an opioid receptor antagonist, on morphine-induced activation of microglia EOC13...
May 2015: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Wenjing Cheng, Yunhong Li, Xiaolin Hou, Nan Zhang, Jiao Ma, Feijia Ding, Fan Li, Zhenhua Miao, Yanli Zhang, Qi Qi, Guanghua Li, Ying Shen, Juan Liu, Weidong Huang, Yin Wang
Heat shock protein (HSP)60 is primarily a mitochondrial protein. Previous experiments have found that changes in the location of intracellular HSP60 have been associated with apoptosis. Extracellular HSP60 mediates apoptosis via its ligand, Toll‑like receptor (TLR)-4. TLR-4 is an important factor expressed on microglia, with a central role in generating neuroimmune responses in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Naloxone is a highly effective nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, and has been reported to be pharmacologically beneficial for the treatment of brain diseases through inhibiting microglia activation...
October 2014: Molecular Medicine Reports
Hai-Yu Yang, Xiao-Ping Pu, Yong Liu
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that opioid dependence-related neuronal plasticity may rely not only on protein synthesis, but also on protein degradation, mainly mediated by ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of morphine on the regulation of protein degradation in the brain and to determine which proteins are involved in the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Mice were given chronic morphine administration and the state of morphine dependence was confirmed by induction of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping...
June 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Elena Martínez-Laorden, Juan-Antonio García-Carmona, Alberto Baroja-Mazo, Paola Romecín, Noemí M Atucha, María-Victoria Milanés, María-Luisa Laorden
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF₁ receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF₁ receptors...
February 2014: British Journal of Pharmacology
W E Lux, G Feuerstein, A I Faden
Soybean lipoxygenase, an enzyme which catalyzes the formation of the vasoactive lipid 15-hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HPETE) from arachidonic acid, was administered to unanesthetized guinea pigs previously prepared with indwelling vascular cannulae for continuous cardiovascular monitoring. Administration of this enzyme (150 mg/kg IV) resulted in profound hypotension in this model, but no cardiovascular change was observed after administration of equal weight or equimolar amounts of another protein (ovalbumin)...
May 1984: Pharmaceutical Research
Ji Hyun Rhee, V Sandeep Yadavalli, Parit Mekaroonkamol, Rene Franco, K Randall Young, Adam Rowden
SESSION TYPE: Critical Care Student/Resident Case Report Posters IIPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 23, 2012 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Cocaine washout syndrome (CWS) is a rare complication caused by prolonged cocaine use, manifested by brief coma that resolves spontaneously. The proposed mechanism is depletion of adrenergic neurotransmitters due to prolonged and persistent stimulation. There are only 3 cases reported in the literature and the incidence of this syndrome is unknown. Here, we report an unusually extreme case of CWS presenting with coma and refractory shock...
October 1, 2012: Chest
Mihaela D Iordanova, Tatiana Haralambous, Gavan P McNally, R Frederick Westbrook
The contribution of opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens to contextual and auditory fear conditioning was examined. Impairment in contextual fear conditioning was found when training occurred under accumbal infusions of the opioid receptor agonist morphine in a dose-dependent and receptor specific fashion, only when shock onset coincided with auditory stimulus offset. Contextual fear conditioning was spared, however when the delivery of shock was not signalled by an auditory stimulus, the auditory stimulus was of low intensity (70dB), or an interval (10s or 30s) was interpolated between auditory stimulus offset and shock onset...
June 23, 2013: Brain Research
Daisuke Setoguchi, Yasuyuki Kakihana
Naloxone hydrochloride is an agent capable of antagonizing respiratory depression and analgesic actions which are inherent to the opioid by competitively acting at opioid receptors. It greatly contributed to basic research on antagonistic action of opioid receptors due to its high affinity to opioid receptors, in particular, micro-receptor. Naloxone has been recommended as an analeptic agent at a guideline level for patients with revealed or suspicious opioid addiction. Further, it has also been used as a preventive and treatment agent for spinal cord ischemia...
January 2013: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Y N Nekrasova, Y A Zolotarev, E V Navolotskaya
The synthetic peptide octarphin (TPLVTLFK, fragment 12-19 of β-endorphin), a selective agonist of the non-opioid β-endorphin receptor, was labeled with tritium yielding specific activity of 28 Ci/mmol. The binding of [3H]octarphin to rat adrenal cortex membranes was studied under normal conditions as well as after cold and heat shocks. It was found that under normal conditions [(3)H]octarphin specifically binds to the membranes with high affinity: K(d1) = 36.3 ± 2.5 nM, B(max1) = 41.0 ± 3.8 pmol/mg protein...
December 2012: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
E Martínez-Laorden, M A Hurle, M V Milanés, M L Laorden, P Almela
The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [e.g., noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and the expression and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. The present study investigated the role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and β-adrenoceptor on the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal by the administration of [amino[(4-aminophenyl)thio]methylene]-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzeneacetonitrile (SL327), a selective inhibitor of ERK activation, or propranolol (a β-adrenoceptor antagonist)...
September 2012: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Fu-Cheng Luo, Lei Qi, Tao Lv, Sheng-Dong Wang, Hua Liu, Hajime Nakamura, Junji Yodoi, Jie Bai
There are few efficacious interventions to combat morphine dependence. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) are emerging as important modulators of neuronal function. They have been shown to be involved in cellular protective mechanisms against a variety of toxic stressors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a pharmacological inducer of Trx-1 and Hsp70, on morphine-induced hyperlocomotion, rewarding effect, and withdrawal syndrome. Trx-1 and Hsp70 expression was increased in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, and nucleus accumbens of mice after GGA treatment...
April 1, 2012: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
S G Jones, C Kamunde, K Lemke, E D Stevens
There have been suggestions that analgesics be used by fish researchers. But in the absence of dose-response data for morphine, this suggestion seems imprudent. The purpose of the present study was to develop a dose-response relationship in fish using six doses of morphine. The response (movement of the fins or tail) to a noxious stimulus (electrical shock to the face region) was monitored before and after a dose of morphine intraperitoneally (i.p.). The i.p. dose of morphine ED(50) in rainbow trout was 6.7 ± 0...
December 2012: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Noura S Abul-Husn, Suresh P Annangudi, Avi Ma'ayan, Dinah L Ramos-Ortolaza, Steven D Stockton, Ivone Gomes, Jonathan V Sweedler, Lakshmi A Devi
Opiates produce significant and persistent changes in synaptic transmission; knowledge of the proteins involved in these changes may help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying opiate dependence. Using an integrated quantitative proteomics and systems biology approach, we explored changes in the presynaptic protein profile following a paradigm of chronic morphine administration that leads to the development of dependence. For this, we isolated presynaptic fractions from the striata of rats treated with saline or escalating doses of morphine, and analyzed the proteins in these fractions using differential isotopic labeling...
2011: PloS One
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