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Sarah Wills, Hugues Beaufrère, Gwyneth Watrous, Michelle L Oblak, Dale A Smith
CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Fatma Eminaga, Jonathan Le-Carratt, Adrian Jones, A Abhishek
The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on effect of initiating urate-lowering treatment (ULT) during an acute attack of gout on duration of index attack and persistence on ULT. OVID (Medline), EMBASE and AMED were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ULT initiation during acute gout attack published in English language. Two reviewers appraised the study quality and extracted data independently. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and relative risk (RR) were used to pool continuous and categorical data...
October 19, 2016: Rheumatology International
Andrew Finch Rheumatology, Paul Kubler Rheumatologist
Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis that is increasing in prevalence. It is caused by the deposition of urate crystals. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine and corticosteroids are options for the management of acute gout. They are equally efficacious and comorbidities guide the best choice. Allopurinol is an effective treatment for reducing concentrations of uric acid. Renal function guides the starting dose of allopurinol and the baseline serum uric acid concentration guides the maintenance dose...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
Bishoy Kamel, Garry G Graham, Kenneth M Williams, Kevin D Pile, Richard O Day
Febuxostat is a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor that has been developed to treat chronic gout. In healthy subjects, the pharmacokinetic parameters of febuxostat after multiple oral dose administration include an oral availability of about 85 %, an apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of 10.5 ± 3.4 L/h and an apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V ss/F) of 48 ± 23 L. The time course of plasma concentrations follows a two-compartment model. The initial half-life (t ½) is approximately 2 h and the terminal t ½ determined at daily doses of 40 mg or more is 9...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Alberto Ascherio, Michael A Schwarzschild
Since 2006, several longitudinal studies have assessed environmental or behavioural factors that seem to modify the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Increased risk of Parkinson's disease has been associated with exposure to pesticides, consumption of dairy products, history of melanoma, and traumatic brain injury, whereas a reduced risk has been reported in association with smoking, caffeine consumption, higher serum urate concentrations, physical activity, and use of ibuprofen and other common medications...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Valentina Giuffra, Simona Minozzi, Angelica Vitiello, Antonio Fornaciari
OBJECTIVES: Throughout history, gout has been referred to as the "disease of the kings", and has been clearly associated with the lifestyle of the aristocratic social classes. According to the written sources, several members of the famous Medici family of Florence suffered from an arthritic disease that contemporary physicians called "gout". A paleopathological study carried out on the skeletal remains of some members of the family, exhumed from their tombs in the Church of San Lorenzo in Florence, offered a unique opportunity to directly investigate the evidence of the arthritic diseases affecting this elite group...
September 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Alexis Ogdie, William J Taylor, Tuhina Neogi, Jaap Fransen, Tim L Jansen, H Ralph Schumacher, Worawit Louthrenoo, Janitzia Vazquez-Mellado, Maxim Eliseev, Geraldine McCarthy, Lisa K Stamp, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Francisca Sivera, Hang-Korng Ea, Martijn Gerritsen, Giovanni Cagnotto, Lorenzo Cavagna, Chingtsai Lin, Yin-Yi Chou, Anne-Kathrin Tausche, Manuella Lima Gomes Ochtrop, Matthijs Janssen, Jiunn-Horng Chen, Ole Slot, Juris Lazovskis, Douglas White, Marco A Cimmino, Till Uhlig, Nicola Dalbeth
OBJECTIVES: To examine the performance of ultrasound for the diagnosis of gout using presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as the gold standard. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR), a large, multi-center observational cross-sectional study of consecutive subjects with at least one swollen joint who conceivably may have gout. All subjects underwent arthrocentesis; cases were subjects with MSU crystal confirmation...
October 16, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Robert Morlock, Pierre Chevalier, Laura Horne, Javier Nuevo, Chris Storgard, Lalitha Aiyer, Dionne M Hines, Xavier Ansolabehere, Fredrik Nyberg
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to assess disease control, health resource utilization (HRU), and healthcare costs, and their predictors in gout patients across the USA, UK, Germany, and France. METHODS: Data were extracted from the PharMetrics Plus (USA), Clinical Practice Research Datalink-Hospital Episode Statistics (UK), and Disease Analyzer databases (Germany and France) for adult gout patients over a 3-year period: 2009-2011 (all dates +1 year for France)...
June 2016: Rheumatol Ther
Laura László, Balázs Sarkadi, Tamás Hegedűs
ABCG2/BCRP is a membrane protein, involved in xenobiotic and endobiotic transport in key pharmacological barriers and drug metabolizing organs, in the protection of stem cells, and in multidrug resistance of cancer. Pharmacogenetic studies implicated the role of ABCG2 in response to widely used medicines and anticancer agents, as well as in gout. Its Q141K variant exhibits decreased functional expression thus increased drug accumulation and decreased urate secretion. Still, there has been no reliable molecular model available for this protein, as the published structures of other ABC transporters could not be properly fitted to the ABCG2 topology and experimental data...
2016: PloS One
Jeffrey N Miner, Philip K Tan, David Hyndman, Sha Liu, Cory Iverson, Payal Nanavati, David T Hagerty, Kimberly Manhard, Zancong Shen, Jean-Luc Girardet, Li-Tain Yeh, Robert Terkeltaub, Barry Quart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
H Bastian, M Worsch, A Huppertz, A Krause, W A Schmidt
Clinical manifestations of gouty arthropathy are usually acute inflammatory arthritis, bursitis and accumulation of urate crystals in the form of tophi. Manifestations on the axial skeleton are also known and have been described but occur infrequently and for this reason play a subordinate role in the awareness of rheumatologists. With dual energy computed tomography (CT) gout tophi can be detected even in unusual regions or regions that are difficult to access for puncturing. We describe two rare cases of gouty arthropathy of the axial skeleton in a 76-year-old male patient with spinal involvement and in a 53-year-old female patient with involvement of the sacroiliac joint...
October 11, 2016: Der Internist
Zhijun Sun, Xing Wu, Weiping Li, Hui Peng, Xuhua Shen, Lu Ma, Huirong Liu, Hongwei Li
BACKGROUND: Diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction may arise from reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability, following interaction with superoxide to form peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite can induce formation of 3-nitrotyrosine-modified proteins. RhoA/ROCK signaling is also involved in diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction. The study aimed to investigate possible links between Rho/ROCK signaling, hyperglycemia, and peroxynitrite in small coronary arteries. METHODS: Rat small coronary arteries were exposed to normal (NG; 5...
October 11, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Toshihide Higashino, Hirotaka Matsuo, Masayuki Sakiyama, Akiyoshi Nakayama, Takahiro Nakamura, Tappei Takada, Hiraku Ogata, Yusuke Kawamura, Makoto Kawaguchi, Mariko Naito, Sayo Kawai, Yuzo Takada, Hiroshi Ooyama, Hiroshi Suzuki, Nariyoshi Shinomiya
PDZ domain containing 1 (PDZK1) is a scaffold protein that organizes a transportsome and regulates several transporters' functions including urate and drug transporters. Therefore, PDZK1 in renal proximal tubules may affect serum uric acid levels through PDZK1-binding renal urate transporters. Two previous studies in Japanese male population reported that a PDZK1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12129861, was not associated with gout. In the present study, we performed a further association analysis between gout and rs12129861 in a different large-scale Japanese male population and a meta-analysis with previous Japanese population studies...
July 30, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Tianqiao Yong, Minglong Zhang, Diling Chen, Ou Shuai, Shaodan Chen, Jiyan Su, Chunwei Jiao, Delong Feng, Yizhen Xie
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cordyceps militaris was recorded in the classic traditional Chinese medicine book with the main functions of "protecting liver and enhancing kidney functions", influencing serum uric acid levels. AIM OF STUDY: The aim is to investigate the hypouricemic effects and possible mechanism of C. militaris in hyperuricemic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A water extract (WECM) was prepared by decocting C. militaris directly at 80 (o)C in water bath, followed by lyophilization...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jeffrey Miner, Philip K Tan, David Hyndman, Sha Liu, Cory Iverson, Payal Nanavati, David T Hagerty, Kimberly Manhard, Zancong Shen, Jean-Luc Girardet, Li-Tain Yeh, Robert Terkeltaub, Barry Quart
BACKGROUND: Excess body burden of uric acid promotes gout. Diminished renal clearance of uric acid causes hyperuricemia in most patients with gout, and the renal urate transporter (URAT)1 is important for regulation of serum uric acid (sUA) levels. The URAT1 inhibitors probenecid and benzbromarone are used as gout therapies; however, their use is limited by drug-drug interactions and off-target toxicity, respectively. Here, we define the mechanism of action of lesinurad (Zurampic®; RDEA594), a novel URAT1 inhibitor, recently approved in the USA and Europe for treatment of chronic gout...
October 3, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Damian J Damian, Roseanne McNamee, Matthew Carr
BACKGROUND: Treatment of hypertension reduces incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure perhaps partly by controlling different metabolic parameters. There is limited information regarding the changes in potassium, sodium, weight, cholesterol and glucose levels in patients using anti-hypertensives. This study aimed to determine changes in potassium, sodium, glucose, cholesterol, weight, urea and urate levels in patients using anti-hypertensives. Furthermore, to describe these changes and differences between the atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide plus amiloride and placebo arms of the Medical Research Council (MRC) elderly randomised controlled trial...
October 4, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Jhih-Jia Jhang, Jia-Wei Ong, Chi-Cheng Lu, Chin-Lin Hsu, Jia-Hong Lin, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Gow-Chin Yen
Uric acid is a metabolite obtained from purine by xanthine oxidase activity (XO) and high levels of serum uric acid leads to hyperuricemia and gout. Mesona procumbens Hemsl. has been used as a healthy beverage and a traditional remedy. In this study, the hypouricemic effects of M. procumbens extracts were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The 50% ethanol extract of M. procumbens (EE50) showed the strongest inhibitory effect on monosodium urate (MSU)-induced XO activity in THP-1 cells. However, the phenolics and flavonoids in EE50 may not serve as inhibitors of XO...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Philip K Tan, Traci M Ostertag, Jeffrey N Miner
Gout is caused by elevated serum urate levels, which can be treated using inhibitors of the uric acid transporter, URAT1. We exploited affinity differences between the human and rat transporters to map inhibitor binding sites in URAT1. Human-rat transporter chimeras revealed that human URAT1 serine-35, phenylalanine-365 and isoleucine-481 are necessary and sufficient to provide up to a 100-fold increase in affinity for inhibitors. Moreover, serine-35 and phenylalanine-365 are important for high-affinity interaction with the substrate urate...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
H Zhao, J Shen, D Djukovic, C Daniel-MacDougall, H Gu, X Wu, W-H Chow
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a metabolic disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms linking metabolic profiles and weight gain are largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we used semi-targeted metabolomics to assay 156 metabolites selected from 25 key metabolic pathways in plasma samples from 300 non-smoking healthy women identified from Mano-A-Mano, the Mexican American Cohort study. The study subjects were randomly divided into two cohorts: training (N = 200) and testing (N = 100) cohorts...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
B Gerber, F Brandenberger-Schenk, E Rothenanger, C Müller
In this study data on composition of uroliths collected from cats and epidemiologic data of affected cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009 are summarised. Of 884 stones analysed 50% (n=441) were composed of calcium oxalate, 45% (n=398) of struvite, 3% (n=18) of ammonium urate, 1% (n=12) were mixed stones, 1% (n=9) were composed of silica, 3 stones were solidified blood, 2 consisted of cystine and 1of xanthine. 40% of the ureteral stones were composed of struvite. Domestic cats had significantly less calcium oxalate stones compared to British Shorthair or Persian cats...
October 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
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