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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719657/isolation-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-bacteriophages-against-mdr-bacterial-isolates-from-septic-wound-infections
#1
Roja Rani Pallavali, Vijaya Lakshmi Degati, Dakshayani Lomada, Madhava C Reddy, Vijaya Raghava Prasad Durbaka
Multi-drug resistance has become a major problem for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. The use of bacteriophages is an attractive approach to overcome the problem of drug resistance in several pathogens that cause fatal diseases. Our study aimed to isolate multi drug resistant bacteria from patients with septic wounds and then isolate and apply bacteriophages in vitro as alternative therapeutic agents. Pus samples were aseptically collected from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science (RIMS), Kadapa, A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719654/vibrio-vulnificus-induces-mtor-activation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-macrophages
#2
Dan-Li Xie, Meng-Meng Zheng, Yi Zheng, Hui Gao, Jie Zhang, Ting Zhang, Jian-Chun Guo, X Frank Yang, Xiao-Ping Zhong, Yong-Liang Lou
Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus), a Gram-negative marine bacterium, can cause life-threatening primary septicemia, especially in patients with liver diseases. How V. vulnificus affects the liver and how it acts on macrophages are not well understood. In this report, we demonstrated that V. vulnificus infection causes a strong inflammatory response, marked expansion of liver-resident macrophages, and liver damage in mice. We demonstrated further that V. vulnificus activates mTOR in macrophages and inhibition of mTOR differentially regulates V...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719354/thymol-and-carvacrol-strongly-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-growth-of-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli
#3
P Raei, T Pourlak, M Y Memar, N Alizadeh, M Aghamali, E Zeinalzadeh, M Asgharzadeh, H S Kafil
Discovery of novel drugs with new mechanisms of action and without cross-reaction with current therapeutic agents is crucial in the management of infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of carvacrol and thymol on biofilm formation and antimicrobial activity against different carbapenemase-producing Gram negative bacilli. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect of thymol and carvacrol was investigated against strains harboring different genes related to carbapenemase resistance...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719350/characterization-of-candidate-probionts-isolated-from-human-breast-milk
#4
S Khalkhali, N Mojgani
This study was designed to isolate and identify the potential probionts present in 32 healthy mothers' breast milk. Microbial culture media and 16SrRNA sequencing were used to isolate and identify the bacteria and all isolates were analyzed for their antagonistic potential, resistance to acidic pH, bile salts and survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The colonization potential was further assessed based on adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines. The breast milk samples harbored significant numbers of Gram positive and catalase negative (85%) bacteria...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719324/susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-to-a-lipid-a-biosynthesis-inhibitor
#5
Sineenart Sengyee, Natnaree Saiprom, Suporn Paksanont, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Narisara Chantratita
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality and relapse. Current antimicrobial therapy using ceftazidime (CAZ) is often ineffective. Inhibitors of LpxC, the enzyme responsible for lipid A biosynthesis, have potential antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria in vivo, but their activity against B. pseudomallei is unclear. Herein, we investigated the susceptibility of B. pseudomallei clinical isolates to LpxC-4, an LpxC inhibitor, and LpxC-4 in combination with CAZ...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718238/bacteriology-of-diabetic-foot-in-tertiary-care-hospital-frequency-antibiotic-susceptibility-and-risk-factors
#6
Syeda Sadia Amjad, Jamal Zafar, Nadia Shams
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot being one of the frequent and disabling complications of diabetes. In view of widespread regional variation in causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibility, the current study aimed to determine frequency of causative organisms, their antimicrobial susceptibility and associated risk factors. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 months' duration at dept. of Medicine; PIMS Hospital Islamabad. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic foot ulcer were enrolled after informed consent...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717425/high-throughput-nanoparticle-tracking-analysis-for-monitoring-outer-membrane-vesicle-production
#7
Matthias J H Gerritzen, Dirk E Martens, René H Wijffels, Michiel Stork
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical membrane nanoparticles released by Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs can be quantified in complex matrices by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). NTA can be performed in static mode or with continuous sample flow that results in analysis of more particles in a smaller time-frame. Flow measurements must be performed manually despite the availability of a sample changer on the NanoSight system. Here we present a method for automated measurements in flow mode. OMV quantification in flow mode results in lower variance in particle quantification (coefficient of variation (CV) of 6%, CV static measurements of 14%)...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717421/isolation-of-membrane-vesicles-from-prokaryotes-a-technical-and-biological-comparison-reveals-heterogeneity
#8
Priscila Dauros Singorenko, Vanessa Chang, Alana Whitcombe, Denis Simonov, Jiwon Hong, Anthony Phillips, Simon Swift, Cherie Blenkiron
Prokaryotes release membrane vesicles (MVs) with direct roles in disease pathogenesis. MVs are heterogeneous when isolated from bacterial cultures so Density Gradient Centrifugation (DGC) is valuable for separation of MV subgroups from contaminating material. Here we report the technical variability and natural biological heterogeneity seen between DGC preparations of MVs for Mycobacterium smegmatis and Escherichia coli and compare these DGC data with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns. Crude preparations of MVs, isolated from cultures by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation were separated by DGC with fractions manually collected as guided by visible bands...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717042/modeling-the-kinetics-of-the-permeation-of-antibacterial-agents-into-growing-bacteria-and-its-interplay-with-efflux
#9
Wright W Nichols
A mathematical model of the passive permeation of a novel solute into bacteria is developed that explicitly accounts for intracellular dilution through growth. A bacterial cell envelope permeability coefficient of >10(-8) cm(2)s(-1) approx., is predicted to ensure passive permeation into rapidly replicating bacterial cells. The relative importance of the permeability coefficients of the cytoplasmic and outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria in determining the overall envelope permeability coefficient is analyzed quantitatively...
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717038/a-human-biofilm-disrupting-monoclonal-antibody-potentiates-antibiotic-efficacy-in-rodent-models-of-both-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-infections
#10
Yan Q Xiong, Angeles Estellés, L Li, W Abdelhady, R Gonzales, Arnold S Bayer, Edgar Tenorio, Anton Leighton, Stefan Ryser, Lawrence M Kauvar
Many serious bacterial infections are antibiotic-refractory due to biofilm formation. A key structural component of biofilm is extracellular DNA which is stabilized by bacterial proteins, including those from the DNABII family. TRL1068 is a high affinity human monoclonal antibody against a DNABII epitope conserved across both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species. In the current study, the efficacy of TRL1068 for disruption of biofilm was demonstrated in vitro in the absence of antibiotics by scanning electron microscopy...
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717036/transmission-of-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-to-healthcare-worker-gowns-and-gloves-during-care-of-nursing-home-residents-in-va-community-living-centers
#11
Natalia Blanco, Lisa Pineles, Alison D Lydecker, J Kristie Johnson, John D Sorkin, Daniel J Morgan, Mary-Claire Roghmann
Objective: To estimate the risk of transmission of antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria (RGNB) to gowns and gloves (G&G) worn by healthcare workers (HCWs) when providing care to nursing home residents and to identify types of care and resident characteristics associated with transmission.Methods: A multi-center, prospective observational study was conducted enrolling residents and HCWs from VA nursing homes. Perianal swabs to detect RGNB were collected from residents. HCWs wore G&G during usual care activities and at the end of the interaction the G&G were swabbed in a standardized manner...
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716359/predictors-of-polymyxin-b-treatment-failure-in-gram-negative-healthcare-associated-infections-among-critically-ill-patients
#12
Bahiah Ismail, Mohd Nazri Shafei, Azian Harun, Saedah Ali, Mahamarowi Omar, Zakuan Zainy Deris
BACKGROUND: With increasing prevalence and spread of multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections, parenteral polymyxins resurged in clinical practice. The primary aim of the study was to determine the predictors of treatment failure and in-hospital mortality among critically ill patients treated with polymyxin B. METHODS: Demographic data, underlying diseases, procedures and details on polymyxin B therapy were retrospectively analyzed in a cohort of 84 patients who received intravenous polymyxin B in an intensive care unit from 2010 to 2014...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716170/sinonasal-t2r-mediated-nitric-oxide-production-in-response-to-bacillus-cereus
#13
Ryan M Carey, Alan D Workman, Carol H Yan, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Upper airway epithelial cells produce bactericidal nitric oxide (NO) in response to both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our previous work demonstrated that T2R38, a bitter taste receptor (T2R) expressed in airway epithelium, produces NO in response to quorum-sensing molecules secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We also demonstrated that Staphylococci products elicit an NO response when using a T2R-independent pathway. When screening additional human pathogens for epithelial T2R activation, we found that the gram-positive aerobe Bacillus cereus secretes a T2R agonist that yields NO production...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715501/diversity-and-distribution-of-nuclease-bacteriocins-in-bacterial-genomes-revealed-using-hidden-markov-models
#14
Connor Sharp, James Bray, Nicholas G Housden, Martin C J Maiden, Colin Kleanthous
Bacteria exploit an arsenal of antimicrobial peptides and proteins to compete with each other. Three main competition systems have been described: type six secretion systems (T6SS); contact dependent inhibition (CDI); and bacteriocins. Unlike T6SS and CDI systems, bacteriocins do not require contact between bacteria but are diffusible toxins released into the environment. Identified almost a century ago, our understanding of bacteriocin distribution and prevalence in bacterial populations remains poor. In the case of protein bacteriocins, this is because of high levels of sequence diversity and difficulties in distinguishing their killing domains from those of other competition systems...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715499/helicobacter-pylori-modulates-host-cell-responses-by-cagt4ss-dependent-translocation-of-an-intermediate-metabolite-of-lps-inner-core-heptose-biosynthesis
#15
Saskia C Stein, Eugenia Faber, Simon H Bats, Tatiana Murillo, Yvonne Speidel, Nina Coombs, Christine Josenhans
Highly virulent Helicobacter pylori cause proinflammatory signaling inducing the transcriptional activation and secretion of cytokines such as IL-8 in epithelial cells. Responsible in part for this signaling is the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) that codetermines the risk for pathological sequelae of an H. pylori infection such as gastric cancer. The Cag type IV secretion system (CagT4SS), encoded on the cagPAI, can translocate various molecules into cells, the effector protein CagA, peptidoglycan metabolites and DNA...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715411/a-curated-genome-scale-metabolic-model-of-bordetella-pertussis-metabolism
#16
Nick Fyson, Jerry King, Thomas Belcher, Andrew Preston, Caroline Colijn
The Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough, a serious respiratory infection causing hundreds of thousands of deaths annually worldwide. There are effective vaccines, but their production requires growing large quantities of B. pertussis. Unfortunately, B. pertussis has relatively slow growth in culture, with low biomass yields and variable growth characteristics. B. pertussis also requires a relatively expensive growth medium. We present a new, curated flux balance analysis-based model of B...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714913/novel-fri1-like-viruses-infecting-acinetobacter-baumannii-vb_abap_as11-and-vb_abap_as12-characterization-comparative-genomic-analysis-and-host-recognition-strategy
#17
Anastasia V Popova, Daria G Lavysh, Evgeniy I Klimuk, Mikhail V Edelstein, Alexander G Bogun, Mikhail M Shneider, Artemiy E Goncharov, Sergey V Leonov, Konstantin V Severinov
Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, non-fermenting aerobic bacterium which is often associated with hospital-acquired infections and known for its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics, form biofilms, and survive for long periods in hospital environments. In this study, we present two novel viruses, vB_AbaP_AS11 and vB_AbaP_AS12, specifically infecting and lysing distinct multidrug-resistant clinical A. baumannii strains with K19 and K27 capsular polysaccharide structures, respectively. Both phages demonstrate rapid adsorption, short latent periods, and high burst sizes in one-step growth experiments...
July 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714894/carbonic-anhydrase-from-porphyromonas-gingivalis-as-a-drug-target
#18
REVIEW
Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
Periodontitis originates from a microbial synergy causing the development of a mouth microbial imbalance (dysbiosis), consisting of a microbial community composed of anaerobic bacteria. Most studies concerning the treatment of periodontitis have primarily take into account the Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, because it is a prominent component of the oral microbiome and a successful colonizer of the oral epithelium. Here, we focus our attention on the study of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4...
July 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714845/bacillus-mangrovi-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-sediment-sample-from-a-mangrove-forest
#19
Vasundhera Gupta, Pradip Kumar Singh, Suresh Korpole, Naga Radha Srinivas Tanuku, Anil Kumar Pinnaka
A facultatively anaerobic, endospore forming, alkali-tolerant, Gram-stain-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain AK61T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Coringa mangrove forest, India. Colonies were circular, 1.5 mm in diameter, shiny, smooth, yellowish and convex with entire margins after 48 h growth at 30 °C. Growth occurred at 15-42 °C, with 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6-9. AK61T was positive for amylase activity and negative for oxidase, catalase, aesculinase, caseinase, cellulase, DNase, gelatinase, lipase and urease activities...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714843/roseomonas-suffusca-sp-nov-isolated-from-lagoon-sediments
#20
Y Subhash, Sang-Seob Lee
Three light-brown-coloured, Gram-stain-negative, small rod- to oval-shaped, motile bacteria were isolated from lagoon sediments collected from North Carolina, USA. The strains (S1T, AS3 and AS6) grew aerobically at 13-42 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C) and pH 6.5-9.1 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5). All three strains were positive for catalase and oxidase activity, and no added NaCl was required for growth. C18 : 1ω6c/C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω7c, C18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl and C16 : 0 were the predominant fatty acids (>5 %)...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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