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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525291/the-state-of-opioid-agonist-therapy-in-canada-20-years-after-federal-oversight
#1
Joseph K Eibl, Kristen Morin, Esa Leinonen, David C Marsh
Opioid agonist therapy was introduced in Canada in 1959 with the use of methadone for the treatment of opioid dependence. The regulation of methadone was the responsibility of Health Canada until 1995, when oversight was transferred to the provincial health systems. During the more than 20 years since the federal health authority transferred oversight of methadone to the provincial level, methadone programming has evolved differently in every province. The landscape of opioid dependence treatment is varied across the country, with generally increasing treatment capacity in all provinces and dramatic increases in some...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523735/variability-in-prescription-opioid-intake-and-reinforcement-amongst-129-substrains
#2
Susan M Jimenez, Aiden F Healy, Michal A Coelho, Chelsea N Brown, Tod E Kippin, Karen K Szumlinski
Opioid abuse in the United States has reached epidemic proportions, with treatment admissions and deaths associated with prescription opioid abuse quadrupling over the past 10 years. Although genetics are theorized to contribute substantially to inter-individual variability in the development, severity, and treatment outcomes of opioid abuse/addiction, little direct preclinical study has focused on the behavioral genetics of prescription opioid reinforcement and drug-taking. Herein, we employed different 129 substrains of mice currently available from The Jackson Laboratory (129S1/SvlmJ, 129X1/SvJ, 129S4/SvJaeJ and 129P3/J) as a model system of genetic variation and assayed mice for oral opioid intake and reinforcement, as well as behavioral and somatic signs of dependence...
May 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520496/shelter-based-opioid-treatment-increasing-access-to-addiction-treatment-in-a-family-shelter
#3
Avik Chatterjee, Aura Obando, Erica Strickland, Ariana Nestler, Rachel Harrington-Levey, Toni Williams, Terri LaCoursiere-Zucchero
In 2015, the Family Team at the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program developed shelter-based opioid treatment (SBOT) as an option to treat opioid use disorder on-site at a family motel- shelter. Our objectives in the small retrospective study outlined here were to assess SBOT's feasibility and to describe patient characteristics and early outcomes in an effort to promote dissemination. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print May 18, 2017: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303786).
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511763/are-insurers-prior-authorization-rules-killing-opioid-addicts
#4
Joseph Burns
The results can be tragic. Patients with addictions are unlikely to wait the hours or days it takes health insurers to approve the medications they need. Insurers are changing their practices, but not without some outside pressure.
April 2017: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511485/spiritual-well-being-and-associated-factors-with-relapse-in-opioid-addicts
#5
Mohammad-Reza Noormohammadi, Masoud Nikfarjam, Fatemeh Deris, Neda Parvin
INTRODUCTION: Opioid dependence relapse is a complex and multidimensional problem, and lack of spiritual well-being is a major concern in opioid addicts. AIM: This study was conducted to determine spiritual well-being and factors associated with relapse among opioid addicts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2015 to September 2015. According to purposive sampling, 312 eligible addicted patients were enrolled in the study...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506719/two-fatalities-associated-with-synthetic-opioids-ah-7921-and-mt-45
#6
Helena Fels, Julia Krueger, Hans Sachs, Frank Musshoff, Matthias Graw, Gabriele Roider, Andreas Stoever
In this study, two fatalities associated with the synthetic opioids AH-7921 and MT-45 are reported. Within the last few years, both compounds have emerged on the recreational drug market and are sold as "research chemicals" on the internet. In the first case, a 22-year-old woman was found dead in the bedroom of her apartment by two of her friends. A plastic bag labeled "AH-7921" was found in the apartment and the two friends stated that the deceased had consumed AH-7921 prior to her death. The woman was a known drug addict...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502978/the-opioid-receptor-triple-agonist-dpi-125-produces-analgesia-with-less-respiratory-depression-and-reduced-abuse-liability
#7
Shou-Pu Yi, Qing-Hong Kong, Yu-Lei Li, Chen-Ling Pan, Jie Yu, Ben-Qiang Cui, Ying-Fei Wang, Guan-Lin Wang, Pei-Lan Zhou, Li-Li Wang, Ze-Hui Gong, Rui-Bin Su, Yue-Hai Shen, Gang Yu, Kwen-Jen Chang
Opioid analgesics remain the first choice for the treatment of moderate to severe pain, but they are also notorious for their respiratory depression and addictive effects. This study focused on the pharmacology of a novel opioid receptor mixed agonist DPI-125 and attempted to elucidate the relationship between the δ-, μ- and κ-receptor potency ratio and respiratory depression and abuse liability. Five diarylmethylpiperazine compounds (DPI-125, DPI-3290, DPI-130, KUST202 and KUST13T02) were selected for this study...
May 15, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501595/corticolimbic-circuitry-in-the-modulation-of-chronic-pain-and-substance-abuse
#8
REVIEW
Anna M W Taylor
The transition from acute to chronic pain is accompanied by increased engagement of emotional and motivational circuits. Adaptations within this corticolimbic circuitry contribute to the cellular and behavioral maladaptations associated with chronic pain. Central regions within the corticolimbic brain include the mesolimbic dopamine system, the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex. The evidence reviewed herein supports the notion that chronic pain induces significant changes within these corticolimbic regions that contribute to the chronicity and intractability of pain...
May 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501425/the-effects-of-kratom-on-restraint-stress-induced-analgesia-and-its-mechanisms-of-action
#9
José Luis Vázquez López, Lorenz Schild, Thomas Günther, Stefan Schulz, Hartmud Neurath, Axel Becker
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa and its extracts are called kratom (dried leaves, extract). They contain several alkaloids with an affinity for different opioid receptors. They are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases, as a substitute by opiate addicts, and to mitigate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Apart from their medical properties, they are used to enhance physical endurance and as a means of overcoming stress. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the effects of kratom on restraint-stress-induced analgesia which occurs during or following exposure to a stressful or fearful stimulus...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496494/effect-of-inhalation-of-lavender-essential-oil-on-vital-signs-in-open-heart-surgery-icu
#10
Armaiti Salamati, Soheyla Mashouf, Faraz Mojab
This study evaluated the effects of inhalation of Lavender essential oil on vital signs in open heart surgery ICU. The main complaint of patients after open-heart surgery is dysrhythmia, tachycardia, and hypertension due to stress and pain. Due to the side effects of chemical drugs, such as opioids, use of non-invasive methods such as aromatherapy for relieving stress and pain parallel to chemical agents could be an important way to decrease the dose and side effects of analgesics. In a multicenter, single-blind trial, 40 patients who had open-heart surgery were recruited...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496466/validated-spectrophtometric-method-for-simultaneous-determination-of-buprenorphine-and-naloxone-in-pharmaceutical-dosage-forms
#11
Effat Souri, Farzaneh Sadat Ahmadi, Maliheh Barazandeh Tehrani, Majid Mohammad Hosseini, Sedigheh Fadaye Vatan
Buprenorphine is a partial mu agonist and kappa antagonist which is used for the treatment of pain and opioid addiction. A mixture of buprenorphine hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride has been approved for the treatment of opioid dependence. In this study a third order derivative spectrophotometric method based on zero-crossing technique has been used for the simultaneous determination of buprenorphine hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride in tablets. The measurements were carried out at wavelengths of 257...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494762/the-north-american-opioid-epidemic-current-challenges-and-a-call-for-treatment-as-prevention
#12
Devesh Vashishtha, Maria Luisa Mittal, Daniel Werb
There is a need for creative, public health-oriented solutions to the increasingly intractable problems associated with the North American opioid epidemic. This epidemic is a fundamentally continental problem, as routes of migration, drug demand, and drug exchange link the USA with Mexico and Canada. The challenges faced throughout North America include entrenched prescribing practices of opioid medications, high costs and low availability of medication-assisted treatment (MAT), and policy approaches that present substantial barriers to care...
May 12, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493563/nalmefene-prevents-alcohol-induced-neuroinflammation-and-alcohol-drinking-preference-in-adolescent-female-mice-role-of-tlr4
#13
Jorge Montesinos, Anabel Gil, Consuelo Guerri
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that, by activating innate immune receptors toll-like 4 (TLR4), adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure causes neuroinflammation, myelin damage and behavioral dysfunctions. Recent findings reveal that clinically-used opioid antagonists naltrexone (NT) and naloxone (NX) inhibit opioid-induced TLR4 signaling, and that NT, NX and nalmefene (NF), the 6-methylene derivative of NX, are able to reduce alcohol drinking escalation. METHODS: NF (0...
May 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493264/drop-out-from-a-drug-treatment-clinic-and-associated-reasons
#14
Leila Hoseinie, Zhaleh Gholami, Behrang Shadloo, Azarakhsh Mokri, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
The aim of this study was to assess drop-out rates and associated reasons among patients at the Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) clinic. In a one-year period (April 2014 to March 2015), all patients with drug dependence who had been referred for treatment and attended for a first assessment were included in this study (N=242). Those who received treatment were followed until March 2016. Survival analysis showed that 70.2% had dropped out from treatment. Log rank test showed that treatment drop-out rates differed between the different approaches used (P < 0...
May 1, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492461/overcoming-barriers-to-initiating-medication-assisted-treatment-for-heroin-use-disorder-in-a-general-medical-hospital-a-case-report-and-narrative-literature-review
#15
Sameer Hassamal, Matthew Goldenberg, Waguih Ishak, Margaret Haglund, Karen Miotto, Itai Danovitch
Deaths due to heroin overdoses are increasing and are the leading cause of death among intravenous heroin users. Although medication-assisted treatment (MAT) improves morbidity and mortality in patients with opioid use disorders, it is underutilized. Most efforts to expand access to MAT have focused on outpatient settings. Although the inpatient medical setting presents a critical opportunity to initiate treatment, general hospitals are often unfamiliar with MAT, creating a number of barriers to its use. In this report, we describe the case of a woman with heroin use disorder who was initiated on buprenorphine maintenance treatment while hospitalized for cardiac disease related to her intravenous heroin use...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492129/codeine-misuse-and-dependence-in-south-africa-perspectives-of-addiction-treatment-providers
#16
Charles D H Parry, Eileen Rich, Marie Claire Van Hout, Paolo Deluca
BACKGROUND: General practitioners are referring patients with codeine-related problems to specialist treatment facilities, but little is known about the addiction treatment providers, the kinds of treatment they provide, and whether training or other interventions are needed to strengthen this sector. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the perspectives of addiction treatment providers regarding treatment for codeine misuse or dependence. METHOD: Twenty addiction treatment providers linked to the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use and the South African Addiction Medicine Society were contacted telephonically and asked 20 questions...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491463/-pro-dopamine-regulation-kb220z%C3%A2-as-a-long-term-therapeutic-modality-to-overcome-reduced-resting-state-dopamine-tone-in-opiate-opioid-epidemic-in-america
#17
K Blum, F Marcelo, K Dushaj, L Fried, R D Badgaiyan
Since it is known that relapse, morality, and hospitalizations have been tied to the presence of the Dopamine D2 Receptor A1 allele, as one example, and carriers of this gene variant have a proclivity to favor amino-acid therapy, it seems intuitive that the incorporation of modalities to provide a balance and or restoration of hypodopaminergia should be considered as a front-line tactic to overcome the current American opiate/opioid epidemic, saving millions from death and unwanted locked-in-addiction. If we continue down the prim road path of fighting addiction to narcotics with narcotics, we are doomed to fail...
September 2016: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487076/evidence-for-differential-opioid-use-disorder-in-schizophrenia-in-an-addiction-treatment-population
#18
Joshua Chiappelli, Shuo Chen, Ann Hackman, L Elliot Hong
Although people diagnosed with schizophrenia are known to have elevated risks of abuse and dependence for nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, and cannabis, it is less clear if schizophrenia is associated with higher rates of opioid use disorders compared to either the general population or individuals with other major psychiatric disorders. Here we examine a large publicly available database from substance abuse treatment centers to compare how frequently patients with schizophrenia report problems with heroin or other opioid drugs compared to other major drugs of abuse...
May 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485408/genetic-and-pharmacological-antagonism-of-nk1-receptor-prevents-opiate-abuse-potential
#19
A J Sandweiss, M I McIntosh, A Moutal, R Davidson-Knapp, J Hu, A K Giri, T Yamamoto, V J Hruby, R Khanna, T M Largent-Milnes, T W Vanderah
Development of an efficacious, non-addicting analgesic has been challenging. Discovery of novel mechanisms underlying addiction may present a solution. Here we target the neurokinin system, which is involved in both pain and addiction. Morphine exerts its rewarding actions, at least in part, by inhibiting GABAergic input onto substance P (SP) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), subsequently increasing SP release onto dopaminergic neurons. Genome editing of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) in the VTA renders morphine non-rewarding...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479011/extended-release-naltrexone-for-opioid-use-disorder-started-during-or-following-incarceration
#20
Thomas Lincoln, Benjamin D Johnson, Patrick McCarthy, Ellen Alexander
A western Massachusetts county jail began initiating extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) prior to release from incarceration and linking participants to community treatment providers upon release. Program barriers prevented the start of XR-NTX prior to release for a subset. METHODS: This report consists of the initial 67 jail releasees with opioid dependence, 47 who received XR-NTX before release, and 20 after release. Utility of the program was assessed by determining medication addiction treatment (MAT) retention rates at 4, 8, and 24 weeks...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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