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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918267/compulsivity-in-opioid-dependence
#1
Serenella Tolomeo, Keith Matthews, J Douglas Steele, Alex Baldacchino
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. METHOD: We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50)...
September 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916995/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-self-administration-of-the-short-acting-opioid-remifentanil-in-male-rats
#2
Rebecca S Hofford, Jonathan J Chow, Joshua S Beckmann, Michael T Bardo
BACKGROUND: Opioid abuse is a major problem around the world. Identifying environmental factors that contribute to opioid abuse and addiction is necessary for decreasing this epidemic. In rodents, environmental enrichment protects against the development of low dose stimulant self-administration, but studies examining the effect of enrichment and isolation (compared to standard housing) on the development of intravenous opioid self-administration have not been conducted. The present study investigated the role of environmental enrichment on self-administration of the short-acting μ-opioid remifentanil...
September 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911965/physiological-roles-of-cns-muscarinic-receptors-gained-from-knockout-mice
#3
REVIEW
Morgane Thomsen, Gunnar Sørensen, Ditte Dencker
Because the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes have overlapping distributions in many CNS tissues, and because ligands with a high degree of selectivity for a given subtype long remained elusive, it has been difficult to determine the physiological functions of each receptor. Genetically engineered knockout mice, in which one or more muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype has been inactivated, have been instrumental in identifying muscarinic receptor functions in the CNS, at the neuronal, circuit, and behavioral level...
September 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910257/between-a-rock-and-a-hard-place-prescription-opioid-restrictions-in-the-time-of-fentanyl-and-other-street-drug-adulterants
#4
Tessa Cheng, Kora DeBeck
Non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) has increased alarmingly across Canada and resulted in strict prescribing restrictions on opioids. Despite a clear need to reduce opioid prescriptions in response to this crisis, few other policies have been implemented and this singular focus is incongruent with the known characteristics of substance use disorders, negative effects of supply reduction policies, and realities of pain management. Given the recent rise of fentanyl and other dangerous adulterants in street drugs, this commentary argues that a comprehensive response to NMPOU that includes improvements to addiction management and harm-reduction services is urgently needed...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905733/why-it-s-inappropriate-not-to-treat-incarcerated-patients-with-opioid-agonist-therapy
#5
Sarah E Wakeman
Due to the criminalization of drug use and addiction, opioid use disorder is overrepresented in incarcerated populations. Decades of evidence supports opioid agonist therapy as a highly effective treatment that improves clinical outcomes and reduces illicit opioid use, overdose death, and cost. Opioid agonist therapy has been both studied within correctional facilities and initiated prerelease. It has been found to be beneficial, yet few incarcerated persons receive this evidence-based treatment. In addition to not offering treatment initiation for those who need it, most correctional facilities forcibly withdraw stable patients from opioid agonist therapy upon their entry into the criminal justice system...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892721/glial-and-neuroinflammatory-targets-for-treating-substance-use-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Ryan K Bachtell, Jermaine D Jones, Keith G Heinzerling, Patrick M Beardsley, Sandra D Comer
BACKGROUND: The plenary session at the 2016 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry: Translational Research in Addiction Conference focused on glia as potential players in the development, persistence and treatment of substance use disorders. Glia partake in various functions that are important for healthy brain activity. Drugs of abuse alter glial cell activity producing several perturbations in brain function that are thought to contribute to behavioral changes associated with substance use disorders...
August 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889218/opioid-use-following-gynecologic-and-pelvic-reconstructive-surgery
#7
Lekha S Hota, Hussein A Warda, Miriam J Haviland, Frances M Searle, Michele R Hacker
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Opioid use, addiction, and overdose are a growing epidemic in the USA. Our objective was to determine whether the amount of opioid medication prescribed following gynecologic and pelvic reconstructive surgery is insufficient, adequate, or in excess. We hypothesized that we were overprescribing postoperative opioids. METHODS: Participants who were at least 18 years old and underwent gynecologic and/or pelvic reconstructive surgery from April through August 2016 were eligible to participate...
September 9, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888944/the-novel-dopamine-d3-receptor-antagonists-partial-agonists-cab2-015-and-bak4-54-inhibit-oxycodone-taking-and-oxycodone-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#8
Zhi-Bing You, Jun-Tao Gao, Guo-Hua Bi, Yi He, Comfort Boateng, Jianjing Cao, Eliot L Gardner, Amy Hauck Newman, Zheng-Xiong Xi
The use of prescription opioid analgesics, particularly oxycodone, has dramatically increased, and parallels escalated opioid abuse and drug-related deaths worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of opioid dependence and expanding treatment options to counter prescription opioid abuse has become a critical public health matter. In the present study, we first evaluated the reinforcing effects of oxycodone in a rat model of self-administration and then explored the potential utility of two novel high affinity dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) antagonists/partial agonists, CAB2-015 and BAK4-54, for treatment of prescription opioid abuse and dependence...
September 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886172/use-of-alcohol-and-drugs-with-addiction-potential-among-older-women-and-men-in-a-population-based-study-the-nord-tr%C3%A3-ndelag-health-study-2006-2008-hunt3
#9
Kjerstin Tevik, Geir Selbæk, Knut Engedal, Arnfinn Seim, Steinar Krokstad, Anne-S Helvik
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the consumption habits of older adults in Norway with respect to alcohol and the use of drugs with addiction potential, such as benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics and opioids, among regular drinkers. We studied the prevalence of self-reported consumption of alcohol on a regular basis in community-living older men and women (≥ 65 years). Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence of dispensed prescribed drugs with addiction potential in older men and women who were regular drinkers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885516/treating-acute-pain-in-the-opiate-dependent-patient
#10
Coleen Dever
Opioid drugs, including prescription as well as heroin, have come to the national spotlight due to the unprecedented rate of overdose and addiction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has termed this problem as an "epidemic" that has reached record numbers of deaths in 2014. Approximately half of these deaths are the result from prescribed opioids. Also on the rise are the numbers of individuals who are diagnosed with chronic pain and are treated with opioids, methadone and buprenorphine. Individuals currently taking opioids for chronic pain confound the treatment of acute pain after traumatic injury...
September 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885301/perceptions-of-neighborhood-mediate-the-relationship-between-ptsd-symptoms-and-coping-in-a-neighborhood-matched-substance-using-sample
#11
Sara K Hertzel, Jennifer Schroeder, Landhing M Moran, Anika A Alvanzo, William J Kowalczyk, David H Epstein, Kenzie L Preston, Karran A Phillips
OBJECTIVES: People with substance use problems living in neighborhoods with high levels of disorder are disproportionately likely to experience trauma and develop PTSD symptoms. We sought to evaluate the relationships between objective neighborhood disorder, perceptions of neighborhood, and the use of maladaptive coping behaviors among both non-substance-using and substance-using participants with and without PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Participants (255 non-drug users [NDUs], 168 marijuana and/or alcohol users [MAUs], and 273 opioid and/or stimulant users) completed the Addiction Severity Index, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, The COPE Inventory, and the Perceived Neighborhood Scale...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873050/randomized-pilot-trial-measuring-knowledge-acquisition-of-opioid-education-in-emergency-department-patients-using-a-novel-media-platform
#12
Bharath Chakravarthy, Shashank Somasundaram, Jennifer Mogi, Roshan Burns, Wirachin Hoonpongsimanont, Warren Wiechmann, Shahram Lotfipour
BACKGROUND: The number of active opioid analgesic prescriptions has risen steadily causing increases in nonmedical opioid use, addiction and overdose. Insufficient focus on patient discharge instructions has contributed to lack of patient awareness regarding dangers of opioids. We examine whether an educational Khan Academy-styled animation discharge instruction on the dangers and safe usage of opioid analgesics elicits higher knowledge acquisition than current standard of care. Additionally, we measure the feasibility of implementing this video discharge instruction in the emergency department (ED)...
September 5, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872697/perceived-barriers-and-facilitators-to-providing-methadone-maintenance-treatment-among-rural-community-pharmacists-in-southwestern-ontario
#13
Joseph Fonseca, Andrew Chang, Feng Chang
PURPOSE: Misuse of opioids has become a public health concern across North America. Rural patients have limited access to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), an opioid addiction-treatment service that could be offered by community pharmacists. The aim of this study was to identify rural community pharmacists' perceived barriers, motivations, and solutions to offering MMT to their patients. METHODS: One-on-one, semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 community pharmacists who practice in rural southwestern Ontario...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871491/robust-age-but-limited-sex-differences-in-mu-opioid-receptors-in-the-rat-brain-relevance-for-reward-and-drug-seeking-behaviors-in-juveniles
#14
Caroline J W Smith, Aarane M Ratnaseelan, Alexa H Veenema
In the brain, the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) is involved in reward-seeking behaviors and plays a pivotal role in the mediation of opioid use disorders. Furthermore, reward-seeking behaviors and susceptibility to opioid addiction are particularly evident during the juvenile period, with a higher incidence of opioid use in males and higher sensitivity to opioids in females. Despite these age and sex differences in MOR-mediated behaviors, little is known regarding potential age and sex differences in the expression of MORs in the brain...
September 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868576/choice-between-delayed-food-and-immediate-opioids-in-rats-treatment-effects-and-individual-differences
#15
Leigh V Panlilio, Maria E Secci, Charles W Schindler, Charles W Bradberry
RATIONALE: Addiction involves maladaptive choice behavior in which immediate drug effects are valued more than delayed nondrug rewards. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To model this behavior and extend our earlier work with the prescription opioid oxycodone, we allowed rats to choose between immediate intravenous delivery of the short-acting opioid remifentanil and delayed delivery of highly palatable food pellets. Treatment drugs were tested on a baseline where remifentanil was preferred over food...
September 4, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868159/the-effects-of-residential-dual-diagnosis-treatment-on-alcohol-abuse
#16
Stephen J Schoenthaler, Kenneth Blum, Lyle Fried, Marlene Oscar-Berman, John Giordano, Edward J Modestino, Rajendra Badgaiyan
This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p < .005). A comparison between patients with and without weekly relapse produced significant differences in hospitalization (odds ratio 11...
July 2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867701/a-metabolic-study-on-the-biochemical-effects-of-chiral-illegal-drugs-in-rats-using-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#17
Kiyoshi Fukuhara, Akiko Ohno, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri
 Considering the pharmacological effects of chiral drugs, enantiopure drugs may differ from their racemic mixture formulation in efficacy, potency, or adverse effects. Levomethorphan (LVM) and Dextromethorphan (DXM) act on the central nervous system and exhibit different pharmacological features. LVM, the l-stereoisomer of methorphan, shows many similarities to opiates such as heroin, morphine and codeine, including the potential for addiction, while the d-stereoisomer, DXM, does not have the same opioid effect...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867062/home-based-delivery-of-xr-ntx-in-youth-with-opioid-addiction
#18
Hoa T Vo, Rachael Burgower, Ilya Rozenberg, Marc Fishman
Early experience with relapse prevention medications in the treatment of opioid addiction in youth has been positive, but barriers to effectiveness and broader adoption have included problems with adherence and retention, and lack of evidence or consensus about implementation. In particular there is relatively little known about either the effectiveness of extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX) in youth, or optimal models of care for its delivery. The purpose of this study is to report on a pilot initiative to improve the effectiveness of XR-NTX by delivering doses at home with assertive outreach to patients enrolled in a community treatment outpatient program...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866369/interpreting-quantitative-urine-buprenorphine-and-norbuprenorphine-levels-in-office-based-clinical-practice
#19
Joseph H Donroe, Stephen R Holt, Patrick G O'Connor, Nitin Sukumar, Jeanette M Tetrault
BACKGROUND: Quantitative urine buprenorphine testing is used to monitor patients receiving buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD), however the interpretation of urine buprenorphine testing is complex. Currently, interpretation of quantitative buprenorphine testing is guided by data from drug assay development studies and forensic labs rather than clinical treatment cohorts. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we describe the patterns of urine buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine levels in patients prescribed sublingual buprenorphine for OUD in an office-based addiction treatment clinic...
August 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865800/the-role-of-continuing-medical-education-in-increasing-enrollment-in-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs
#20
John T Finnell, Robert K Twillman, Stephanie A Breslan, Jan Schultz, Lyerka Miller
PURPOSE: Opioid diversion, misuse, and abuse are rapidly growing problems in the United States; >60% of all drug overdose deaths involve an opioid. At least 49 states now have fully operational prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) to support legitimate medical use of controlled substances; however, there is considerable underutilization of such programs. METHODS: To increase awareness of PDMPs and their use, a continuing medical education program including 2 webcasts and a series of newsletters was offered to health care providers...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
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