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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150865/enhanced-mu-opioid-receptor-dependent-opioidergic-modulation-of-striatal-cholinergic-transmission-in-dyt1-dystonia
#1
Giulia Ponterio, Annalisa Tassone, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Valentina Vanni, Maria Meringolo, Massimo Santoro, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Paola Bonsi, Antonio Pisani
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptor activation modulates acetylcholine release in the dorsal striatum, an area deeply involved in motor function, habit formation, and reinforcement learning as well as in the pathophysiology of different movement disorders, such as dystonia. Although the role of opioids in drug reward and addiction is well established, their involvement in motor dysfunction remains largely unexplored. METHODS: We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the responses to mu activation in 2 mouse models of DYT1 dystonia (Tor1a(+/Δgag) mice, Tor1a(+/-) torsinA null mice, and their respective wild-types)...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148954/our-life-depends-on-this-drug-competence-inequity-and-voluntary-consent-in-clinical-trials-on-supervised-injectable-opioid-assisted-treatment
#2
Daniel Steel, Kirsten Marchand, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes
Supervised injectable opioid assisted treament (siOAT) prescribes injectable opioids to individuals for whom other forms of addiction treatment have been ineffective. In this article, we examine arguments that opioid-dependent people should be assumed incompetent to voluntarily consent to clinical research on siOAT unless proven otherwise. We agree that concerns about competence and voluntary consent deserve careful attention in this context. But we oppose framing the issue solely as a matter of the competence of opioid-dependent people and emphasize that it should be considered in the context of inequities in access to siOAT as a medical treatment...
December 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145012/the-gut-brain-interaction-in-opioid-tolerance
#3
REVIEW
Hamid I Akbarali, William L Dewey
The prevailing opioid crisis has necessitated the need to understand mechanisms leading to addiction and tolerance, the major contributors to overdose and death and to develop strategies for developing drugs for pain treatment that lack abuse liability and side-effects. Opioids are commonly used for treatment of pain and symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. The significant effect of opioids in the gut, both acute and chronic, includes persistent constipation and paradoxically may also worsen pain symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143483/the-impact-of-mental-health-comorbidities-on-adherence-to-buprenorphine-a-claims-based-analysis
#4
Megan Litz, Douglas Leslie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research has been inconclusive about whether opioid-dependent patients with psychiatric comorbidities have shorter treatment retention and higher relapse rates. This study aims to evaluate the impact of mental health comorbidities on adherence to buprenorphine using a large, national health insurance claims data base. METHODS: We used MarketScan® data from 2012 to 2014 to perform this analysis. Inclusion criteria included all patients with an opioid use disorder-related ICD-9 code who had been prescribed buprenorphine (n = 2947)...
November 16, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143401/assessment-of-risk-behaviors-in-patients-with-opioid-prescriptions-a-study-of-indiana-s-inspect-data
#5
Marion S Greene, Robert Andrew Chambers, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Eric R Wright, Gregory K Steele, Terrell W Zollinger
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) can serve as screening tools and support the clinical decision-making process in patients receiving opioids. The objective of the study was to utilize 2014 INSPECT (Indiana's PDMP) data to identify factors that increase patients' likelihood to engage in opioid-related risk behaviors. METHODS: Based on a literature review, four risk behaviors were identified: Receiving >90 morphine milligram equivalents (MME), having >4 opioid prescribers, obtaining opioids from >4 pharmacies, and concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines...
November 16, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143399/buprenorphine-naloxone-treatment-responses-differ-between-young-adults-with-heroin-and-prescription-opioid-use-disorders
#6
Mauricio Romero-Gonzalez, Abtin Shahanaghi, Gregory J DiGirolamo, Gerardo Gonzalez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder among young adults is rising sharply with an increase in morbidity and mortality. This study examined differences in treatment response to a fixed dose of buprenorphine-naloxone between heroin (HU) and prescriptions opioids (POU) users. METHODS: Eighty opioid dependent young adults (M = 22 years) were treated with buprenorphine-naloxone 16-4 mg/day for 8 weeks. Differences between HU (N = 17) and POU (N = 63) on changes in weekly opioid use, opioid craving, withdrawal, and depression symptoms were analyzed with mixed-effects regression models...
November 16, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143398/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-the-health-of-children-prenatally-exposed-to-methadone-buprenorphine-or-naltrexone-compared-with-non-exposed-control-children
#7
Erin Kelty, Gary Hulse
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the health of children exposed to opioid pharmacotherapies in utero. This study aims to examine the health of children from birth to 5 years of age, who were exposed to methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone with non-exposed children. METHODS: Children were identified by linking the treatment records of women treated with one of the three opioid pharmacotherapies with midwife notifications. Live-born children exposed to methadone (n = 198), buprenorphine (n = 122), naltrexone (n = 67) in utero, and neonates not prenatally exposed to opioids (n = 387) born between 2001 and 2011 in Western Australia were included in the study...
November 16, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142795/comorbid-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-opioid-dependence
#8
Rikinkumar S Patel, Ahmed Elmaadawi, Suhayl Nasr, John Haskin
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is predominant amongst individuals addicted to opioids and obscures the course of illness and the treatment outcome. We report the case of a patient with major depressive disorder and opioid dependence, who experienced post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms during a recent visit to the inpatient unit. The similarity of symptoms between post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid dependence is so high that, sometimes, it is a challenge to differentiate between these conditions...
September 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141966/nutritional-factors-affecting-adult-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function
#9
REVIEW
Shibu M Poulose, Marshall G Miller, Tammy Scott, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141653/test-of-a-workforce-development-intervention-to-expand-opioid-use-disorder-treatment-pharmacotherapy-prescribers-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#10
Todd Molfenter, Hannah K Knudsen, Randy Brown, Nora Jacobson, Julie Horst, Mark Van Etten, Jee-Seon Kim, Eric Haram, Elizabeth Collier, Sanford Starr, Alexander Toy, Lynn Madden
BACKGROUND: Overdoses due to non-medical use of prescription opioids and other opiates have become the leading cause of accidental deaths in the USA. Buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone are key evidence-based pharmacotherapies available to addiction treatment providers to address opioid use disorder (OUD) and prevent overdose deaths. Treatment organizations' efforts to provide these pharmacotherapies have, however, been stymied by limited success in recruiting providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) to prescribe these medications...
November 15, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139482/opioid-misuse-in-gastroenterology-and-non-opioid-management-of-abdominal-pain
#11
REVIEW
Eva Szigethy, Mitchell Knisely, Douglas Drossman
Opioids were one of the earliest classes of medications used for pain across a variety of conditions, but morbidity and mortality have been increasingly associated with their chronic use. Despite these negative consequences, chronic opioid use is increasing worldwide, with the USA and Canada having the highest rates. Chronic opioid use for noncancer pain can have particularly negative effects in the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including opioid-induced constipation, narcotic bowel syndrome, worsening psychopathology and addiction...
November 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137290/expression-of-protein-kinase-a-and-the-kappa-opioid-receptor-in-selected-brain-regions-and-conditioned-place-aversion-in-morphine-dependent-rats
#12
Xiuhua Song, Wenqiang Li, Yuzhong Shi, Jingdan Zhang, Yi Li
This study examined adaptive changes in protein kinase A (PKA) and kappa opioid receptor (KOR) in selected addiction-related brain regions before and after conditioned place aversion (CPA). Seventy-two male SD rats were randomly assigned to an experimental group (morphine + naloxone, "MN") and 2 control groups: MS (morphine + saline) and SN (saline + naloxone). MN rats were intraperitoneally injected with morphine twice per day for 6.5 days and naloxone once and trained to establish CPA model. MS and SN rats were injected with equivalent volumes of morphine plus saline and saline plus naloxone, respectively...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136566/treatment-for-opioid-use-and-outcomes-in-older-adults-a-systematic-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Anne Marie Carew, Catherine Comiskey
BACKGROUND: Historically, issues relating to problem substance use among older people have received little attention, and have only recently been recognised. METHODS: A literature review of relevant material was conducted in November 2015 to assess current outcome research among older adults treated for opioid dependence. Multiple electronic databases were searched and results were supplemented by grey literature, library and online searches, and relevant references within selected articles...
November 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130600/opioid-dependence-and-pregnancy-in-early-twentieth-century-america
#14
Nathan Tauger
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Research on Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome has prompted discussion over how to ensure best outcomes for pregnant women who use drugs and for drug-dependent newborns. Before Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and the 1980s panic of "crack babies," turn-of-the-century American medical journals discussed infants born to drug-using mothers. This paper aimed to determine whether women who used drugs while pregnant in early twentieth-century America were subject to the stigma many face today...
November 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124683/the-21st-century-cures-act-implications-for-the-reduction-of-racial-health-disparities-in-the-us-criminal-justice-system-a-public-health-approach
#15
Donna M Cole, Dawna Marie Thomas, Kelsi Field, Amelia Wool, Taryn Lipiner, Natalie Massenberg, Barbara J Guthrie
Past drug epidemics have disproportionately criminalized drug addiction among African Americans, leading to disparate health outcomes, increased rates of HIV/AIDS, and mass incarceration. Conversely, the current opioid addiction crisis in the USA focuses primarily on white communities and is being addressed as a public health problem. The 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to reduce racial health disparities in the criminal justice system through the Act's public health approach to addiction and mental health issues...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121158/opioid-use-by-patients-after-rhinoplasty
#16
Sagar Patel, Angela Sturm, Michael Bobian, Peter F Svider, Giancarlo Zuliani, Russell Kridel
Importance: Given the increase in opioid addiction and overdose in the United States, reasoned opioid use after outpatient surgery may affect prescription medication abuse. Objectives: To examine patient use of opioids after rhinoplasty and establish an optimal postrhinoplasty pain management regimen. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series, opioid use was evaluated in 62 patients who underwent rhinoplasty performed by 3 fellowship-trained facial plastic surgeons, 2 in private practice in Texas and 1 in an academic setting in Michigan, from February 2016 to September 2016...
November 9, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120275/ethnic-differences-in-psychosocial-factors-in-methadone-maintenance-hmong-versus-non-hmong
#17
Gavin Bart
Little is known about the characteristics of U.S.-based Asian populations undergoing methadone maintenance treatment for opioid use disorders. We evaluated psychosocial factors in 76 Hmong and 130 non-Hmong on methadone maintenance for at least two months in a single urban methadone maintenance clinic. Assessments included the Addiction Severity Index 5th Edition, the Symptom Checklist-90, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The Hmong were older, predominately male, and on lower doses of methadone than the non-Hmong...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112519/methadone-versus-buprenorphine-for-opioid-use-dependence-and-risk-of-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#18
Lara S Lemon, Steve N Caritis, Raman Venkataramanan, Robert W Platt, Lisa M Bodnar
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to estimate the association between methadone and neonatal abstinence syndrome compared with buprenorphine using a probabilistic bias analysis to account for unmeasured confounding by severity of addiction. METHODS: We used a cohort of live-born infants exposed in utero to methadone or buprenorphine for maternal opioid maintenance therapy at Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA from 2013-2015 (n=716). We determined exposure and outcome status using pharmacy billing claims...
November 6, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107424/selective-kappa-opioid-antagonists-for-treatment-of-addiction-are-we-there-yet
#19
REVIEW
Mohamed A Helal, Eman S Habib, Amar G Chittiboyina
Kappa opioid receptor (KOP) is a G-protein coupled receptor mainly expressed in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. It is implicated in nociception, diuresis, emotion, cognition, and immune system functions. KOP agonists possess a strong analgesic effect accompanied by a feeling of dysphoria. On the other hand, antagonists of this receptor were found to block depression, anxiety, and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models. Recently, great interest has been given to the development of selective KOP antagonists as an addiction treatment that does not cause dependence itself or show high relapse rates like the currently used agents...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105663/exacerbated-craving-in-the-presence-of-stress-and-drug-cues-in-drug-dependent-patients
#20
Kenzie L Preston, William J Kowalczyk, Karran A Phillips, Michelle L Jobes, Massoud Vahabzadeh, Jia-Ling Lin, Mustapha Mezghanni, David H Epstein
In addiction, risk factors for craving and use include stress and drug-related cues. Stress and cues have additive or more-than-additive effects on drug seeking in laboratory animals, but, surprisingly, seem to compete with one another (ie, exert less-than-additive effects) in human laboratory studies of craving. We sought heretofore elusive evidence that human drug users could show additive (or more-than-additive) effects of stress and cues on craving, using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Outpatients (N=182) maintained on daily buprenorphine or methadone provided self-reports of stress, craving, mood, and behavior on electronic diaries for up to 16 weeks...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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