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multi drug resistant tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895634/cytosolic-proteome-profiling-of-aminoglycosides-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-using-maldi-tof-ms
#1
Divakar Sharma, Manju Lata, Rananjay Singh, Nirmala Deo, Krishnamurthy Venkatesan, Deepa Bisht
Emergence of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is the consequence of the failure of second line TB treatment. Aminoglycosides are the important second line anti-TB drugs used to treat the multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Main known mechanism of action of aminoglycosides is to inhibit the protein synthesis by inhibiting the normal functioning of ribosome. Primary target of aminoglycosides are the ribosomal RNA and its associated proteins. Various mechanisms have been proposed for aminoglycosides resistance but still some are unsolved...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890360/anti-tubercular-peptides-a-quest-of-future-therapeutic-weapon-to-combat-tuberculosis
#2
REVIEW
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Paul Agastian
Tuberculosis (TB) is a symbolic menace to mankind, infecting almost one third of the world's populace and causing over a million mortalities annually. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the key pathogen of TB that invades and replicates inside the host's macrophage. With the emerging dilemma of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), the exigency for developing new TB drugs is an obligation now for worldwide researchers. Among the propitious antimycobacterial agents examined in last few decades, anti-tubercular peptides have been substantiated to be persuasive with multiple advantages such as low immunogenicity, selective affinity to bacterial negatively charged cell envelopes and most importantly divergent mechanisms of action...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885861/additional-synthesis-on-thiophene-containing-trisubstituted-methanes-trsms-as-inhibitors-of-m-tuberculosis-and-3d-qsar-studies
#3
P Singh, T Saha, P Mishra, M K Parai, S Ireddy, S Lavanya Kumar M, S Krishna, S K Kumar, V Chaturvedi, S Sinha, M I Siddiqi, G Panda
We earlier reported thiophene-containing trisubstituted methanes (TRSMs) as novel cores carrying anti-tubercular activity, and identified S006-830 as the phenotypic lead with potent bactericidal activity against single- and multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). In this work, we carried out additional synthesis of several TRSMs. The reaction scheme essentially followed the Grignard reaction and Friedel-Crafts alkylation, followed by insertion of a dialkylaminoethyl chain...
November 2016: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883374/association-between-body-mass-index-and-sputum-culture-conversion-among-south-korean-patients-with-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-a-tuberculosis-referral-hospital
#4
Hyun Oh Park, Sung Hwan Kim, Seong Ho Moon, Joung Hun Byun, Jong Woo Kim, Chung Eun Lee, Jong Duk Kim, In Seok Jang, Jun Ho Yang
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an important global health problem. Furthermore, the time to identify a positive sputum culture is an important risk factor for the spread of tuberculosis, and several factors can predict a prolonged time to culture conversion. Moreover, the relationship between poor nutritional status and infectious disease is clearly established. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and sputum culture conversion within 3 months among patients with MDR-TB...
November 21, 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872016/tuberculosis-eradication-versus-control
#5
Marco Schito, Debra Hanna, Alimuddin Zumla
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 10.4 million people succumbed to tuberculosis (TB) in 2015 and is now the number one cause of death world-wide from a preventable infectious disease. Bold vision is needed from global leaders and plans have been proposed to end the TB epidemic. However enthusiasm must be matched by tangible and achievable goals based on the science and available funding. In order to reach the target and goals set by the WHO's End-TB Strategy, the challenges for TB eradication need to be addressed...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865397/transmission%C3%A2-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-mongolia-is-driven-by-beijing-strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistant-to-all-first-line-drugs
#6
Ulziijargal Gurjav, Baasansuren Erkhembayar, Buyankhishig Burneebaatar, Erdenegerel Narmandakh, Oyuntuya Tumenbayar, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Ben J Marais, Vitali Sintchenko
BACKGROUND: Mongolia has high and rising rates of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Spatio-temporal and programmatic evidence suggests a major contribution from MDR-TB transmission, but genotypic evidence has not been assessed. METHODS: All MDR-TB cases identified during 2012 were examined. Demographic and bacteriological data were obtained from the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory. Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from culture-confirmed category 1 treatment failures were genotyped using 24-loci mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU-24) analysis...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863623/tuberculous-lymphadenitis-of-the-head-and-neck-in-canadian-children-experience-from-a-low-burden-region
#7
Jason J Xu, Shazia Peer, Blake C Papsin, Ian Kitai, Evan J Propst
BACKGROUND: Children are more likely than adults to develop extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which often presents as cervical lymphadenopathy. The role of surgery in management is uncertain. We reviewed all head and neck EPTB cases presenting to our tertiary care pediatric institution over a twelve-year period. METHODS: All children 18 years of age and younger with EPTB involving the head and neck were included. We recorded clinical data and age at diagnosis, birth country, BCG vaccination status, as well as radiographic, surgical, histological, and microbiological results...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860197/crispr-cas9-the-ultimate-weapon-to-battle-infectious-diseases
#8
REVIEW
M Doerflinger, W Forsyth, G Ebert, M Pellegrini, M J Herold
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. Novel therapeutics are urgently required to treat multidrug-resistant organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by acute infections such as malaria and dengue fever virus as well as chronic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis B virus. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, which has revolutionized biomedical research, holds great promise for the identification and validation of novel drug targets...
November 16, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846812/predictors-of-hospitalization-of-tuberculosis-patients-in-montreal-canada-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Lisa A Ronald, J Mark FitzGerald, Andrea Benedetti, Jean-François Boivin, Kevin Schwartzman, Gillian Bartlett-Esquilant, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is the most costly health system component of tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Our objectives were to identify how frequently patients are hospitalized, and the factors associated with hospitalizations and length-of-stay (LOS) of TB patients in a large Canadian city. METHODS: We extracted data from the Montreal TB Resource database, a retrospective cohort of all active TB cases reported to the Montreal Public Health Department between January 1996 and May 2007...
November 15, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835653/impact-of-hypoxia-on-drug-resistance-and-growth-characteristics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates
#10
Zhonghua Liu, Yulu Gao, Hua Yang, Haiyang Bao, Lianhua Qin, Changtai Zhu, Yawen Chen, Zhongyi Hu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a specific aerobic bacterium, but can survive under hypoxic conditions, such as those in lung cheese necrosis, granulomas, or macrophages. It is not clear whether the drug sensitivity and growth characteristics of MTB under hypoxic conditions are different from those under aerobic conditions. In this study, we examined the drug resistance and growth characteristics of MTB clinical isolates by a large sample of in vitro drug susceptibility tests, using an automatic growth instrument...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810467/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-drug-resistance-testing-challenges-recent-developments-and-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
T Schön, P Miotto, C U Köser, M Viveiros, E Böttger, E Cambau
Drug-resistance testing, or antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), is mandatory for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cases of failure on standard therapy. We reviewed the different methods and techniques of phenotypic and genotypic approaches. Although multiresistant and extensively drug-resistant (MDR/XDR) tuberculosis is present worldwide, AST for M. tuberculosis (AST-MTB) is still mainly performed according to the resources available rather than the drug-resistance rates. Phenotypic methods, i.e. culture-based AST, are commonly used in high-income countries to confirm susceptibility of new cases of tuberculosis...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807274/diverse-drug-resistant-subpopulations-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-are-sustained-in-continuous-culture
#12
Diepreye Ayabina, Charlotte Hendon-Dunn, Joanna Bacon, Caroline Colijn
Drug resistance to tuberculosis (TB) has become more widespread over the past decade. As such, understanding the emergence and fitness of antibiotic-resistant subpopulations is crucial for the development of new interventions. Here we use a simple mathematical model to explain the differences in the response to isoniazid (INH) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells cultured under two growth rates in a chemostat. We obtain posterior distributions of model parameters consistent with data using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806932/progress-on-mechanism-of-ethambutol-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#13
Wang Ting, Jiao Weiwei, Shen Adong
The occurance and prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis poses a serious threat to the global tuberculosis control. Ethambutol (EMB) is one of the first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs, which is usually used in combination with isoniazid and rifampicin for treating pan-sensitive tuberculosis, and it can also be used in drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, the situation of EMB resistance is alarmingly high, especially in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. In China, EMB resistance rate in the previously treated cases was up to 17...
October 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806714/the-emerging-threat-of-pre-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-west-africa-preparing-for-large-scale-tuberculosis-research-and-drug-resistance-surveillance
#14
Florian Gehre, Jacob Otu, Lindsay Kendall, Audrey Forson, Awewura Kwara, Samuel Kudzawu, Aderemi O Kehinde, Oludele Adebiyi, Kayode Salako, Ignatius Baldeh, Aisha Jallow, Mamadou Jallow, Anoumou Dagnra, Kodjo Dissé, Essosimna A Kadanga, Emmanuel Oni Idigbe, Catherine Onubogu, Nneka Onyejepu, Aissatou Gaye-Diallo, Awa Ba-Diallo, Paulo Rabna, Morto Mane, Moumine Sanogo, Bassirou Diarra, Zingue Dezemon, Adama Sanou, Madikay Senghore, Brenda A Kwambana-Adams, Edward Demba, Tutty Faal-Jawara, Samrat Kumar, Leopold D Tientcheu, Adama Jallow, Samba Ceesay, Ifedayo Adetifa, Assan Jaye, Mark J Pallen, Umberto D'Alessandro, Beate Kampmann, Richard A Adegbola, Souleymane Mboup, Tumani Corrah, Bouke C de Jong, Martin Antonio
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem. Adequate management requires baseline drug-resistance prevalence data. In West Africa, due to a poor laboratory infrastructure and inadequate capacity, such data are scarce. Therefore, the true extent of drug-resistant TB was hitherto undetermined. In 2008, a new research network, the West African Network of Excellence for Tuberculosis, AIDS and Malaria (WANETAM), was founded, comprising nine study sites from eight West African countries (Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo)...
November 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803747/multi-drug-resistant-tuberculous-spondylitis-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Quratulain Fatima Kizilbash, Barbara Joyce Seaworth
While tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis is an ancient scourge, multi-drug resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a modern major public health concern. The objective of this study was to review and summarize the data available on MDR-TB spondylitis. An extensive search of the PubMed database was conducted for articles in English relevant to MDR-TB spondylitis by December 2015. Tuberculous spondylitis accounts for 0.5-1% of all TB cases, and it is estimated that there are probably 5000 MDR-TB spondylitis cases each year worldwide...
October 2016: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799063/tuberculosis-care-strategies-and-their-economic-consequences-for-patients-the-missing-link-to-end-tuberculosis
#16
Belete Getahun, Moges Wubie, Getiye Dejenu, Tsegahun Manyazewal
BACKGROUND: While investment in the development of Tuberculosis (TB) treatment strategies is essential, it cannot be assumed that the strategies are affordable for TB patients living in countries with high economic constraints. This study aimed to determine the economic consequences of directly observed therapy for TB patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional cost-of-illness analysis was conducted between September to November 2015 among 576 randomly selected adult TB patients who were on directly observed treatment in 27 public health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
November 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789468/shorter-regimen-for-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-cures-more-than-80-of-patients
#17
Sophie Cousins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784282/mechanisms-of-first-line-antimicrobial-resistance-in-multi-drug-and-extensively-drug-resistant-strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#18
Navisha Dookie, A Willem Sturm, Prashini Moodley
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, drug resistant tuberculosis is a major public health crisis in the face of the colossal HIV pandemic. METHODS: In an attempt to understand the distribution of drug resistance in our setting, we analysed the rpoB, katG, inhA, pncA and embB genes associated with resistance to key drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the KwaZulu-Natal province. RESULTS: Classical mutations were detected in the katG, inhA and embB genes associated with resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776589/provider-perspectives-on-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-case-study
#19
A Daftary, N Padayatchi
OBJECTIVE: To examine influences on health care workers' (HCWs') capacity to deliver health care for multi- and/or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in South Africa. DESIGN: Qualitative data were collected via group and individual interviews with a purposive sample of 17 HCWs at a centralised, tertiary TB facility and analysed using grounded theory. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: 1) personal infection control practices among HCWs may be weakened by a workplace culture comprising low motivation, disparate risk perceptions and practices across workforce hierarchies, physical discomfort, and problems managing patients with treatment-induced hearing loss...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774247/off-patent-drugs-at-brand-name-prices-a-puzzle-for-policymakers
#20
Naren P Tallapragada
In August 2015, Turing Pharmaceuticals acquired the marketing rights to Daraprim (pyrimethamine), a drug used to treat parasitic infections like malaria and toxoplasmosis. Soon after, Turing caused an uproar when it announced that it would raise the price per tablet of Daraprim from [Formula: see text], a 5500% price hike for a drug that has been on the market for over 60 years and off patent since the 1970s. Old, off-patent drugs are becoming increasingly expensive; Daraprim is the archetypal example. Turing had the power to set a high price for Daraprim because the drug's limited patient population, the absence of competing manufacturers, and a lack of therapeutic alternatives all created an effective monopoly...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
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