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multi drug resistant tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451432/diagnosing-isolated-hepatosplenic-tuberculosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#1
Om Dawani, Raja Samir Khan, Mujtaba Jamal Syed, Abdul Moid Shehzad, Ahmed Alratoot, Muhammad Faizan Ahmed
For many years, tuberculosis (TB) has been endemic in Pakistan; many rare and unusual presentations have been reported. There is a myriad of non-specific symptoms which always requires a high index of clinical suspicion for TB. World Health Organization data suggest that Pakistan ranks as the fifth highest country burdened with TB and has the fourth highest prevalence of multi-drug resistant TB globally. With an annual incidence of 277 cases per 100,000, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment is self-evident...
January 1, 2018: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426372/assessment-of-genexpert%C3%A2-gxalert-platform-for-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-patients-linkage-to-care-in-tanzania
#2
Nicholaus Peter Mnyambwa, Issack Lekule, Esther S Ngadaya, Godfather Kimaro, Pammla Petrucka, Dong-Jin Kim, Johnson Lymo, Rudovick Kazwala, Fausta Mosha, Sayoki G Mfinanga
OBJECTIVE: The gap between patients diagnosed with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and enrolment in treatment is one of the major challenges in tuberculosis control programmes. A 4-year (2013-2016) retrospective review of patients' clinical data and subsequent in-depth interviews with health providers were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the GeneXpert GxAlert platform for MDR-TB diagnosis and its impact on linkage of patients to care in Tanzania. RESULTS: A total of 782 new rifampicin resistant cases were notified, but only 242 (32...
February 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412643/the-expanding-diversity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-drug-targets
#3
Samantha Wellington, Deborah T Hung
After decades of relative inactivity, a large increase in efforts to discover antitubercular therapeutics has brought insights into the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and promising new drugs such as bedaquiline, which inhibits ATP synthase, and the nitroimidazoles delamanid and pretomanid, which inhibit both mycolic acid synthesis and energy production. Despite these advances, the drug discovery pipeline remains underpopulated. The field desperately needs compounds with novel mechanisms of action capable of inhibiting multi- and extensively drug -resistant Mtb (M/XDR-TB) and, potentially, nonreplicating Mtb with the hope of shortening the duration of required therapy...
February 15, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407978/new-hydrazides-derivatives-of-isoniazid-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-higher-potency-and-lower-hepatocytotoxicity
#4
Frederico Silva Castelo-Branco, Evanoel Crizanto de Lima, Jorge Luiz de Oliveira Domingos, Angelo C Pinto, Maria Cristina S Lourenço, Karen Machado Gomes, Mariana Marques Costa-Lima, Carlos Fernando Araujo-Lima, Claudia Alessandra Fortes Aiub, Israel Felzenszwalb, Thadeu Estevam M M Costa, Carmen Penido, Maria G Henriques, Nubia Boechat
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and TB-HIV co-infection are major public health challenges. The anti-TB drugs of first choice were developed more than 4 decades ago and present several adverse effects, making the treatment of TB even more complicated and the development of new chemotherapeutics for this disease imperative. In this work, we synthesized two series of new acylhydrazides and evaluated their activity against different strains of Mtb...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406800/rapid-molecular-diagnostics-for-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-india
#5
Rajeswari Ramachandran, M Muniyandi
Rapid molecular diagnostic methods help in the detection of TB and Rifampicin resistance. These methods detect TB early, are accurate and play a crucial role in reducing the burden of drug resistant tuberculosis. Areas covered: This review analyses rapid molecular diagnostic tools used in the diagnosis of MDR-TB in India, such as the Line Probe Assay and GeneXpert. We have discussed the burden of MDR-TB and the impact of recent diagnostic tools on case detection and treatment outcomes. This review also discusses the costs involved in establishing these new techniques in India...
February 6, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405151/evaluation-of-genotype-mtbdrplus-line-probe-assay-in-detection-of-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistance-in-comparison-to-solid-culture-drug-susceptibility-testing-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-of-western-uttar-pradesh
#6
Shariq Ahmed, Indu Shukla, Nazish Fatima, Sumit K Varshney, Mohammad Shameem
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (Rif) are the key first-line antituberculosis drugs, and resistance to these drugs i.e., multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is likely to result in treatment failure and poor clinical outcomes. India has the highest burden of TB and MDR-TB in the world, disproportionately high even for India's population. The GenoType® MTBDRplus molecular method allows rapid detection of Rif and INH resistance. AIM: The present study was done to compare the performance of line probe assay test (GenoType® MTBDRplus) with solid culture method for an early diagnosis of MDR-TB...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402488/-clinical-and-microbiological-profile-of-patients-experiencing-relapses-of-tuberculosis-in-tunisia
#7
M Mjid, A Hedhli, M Zakhma, M Zribi, Y Ouahchi, S Toujani, J Cherif
INTRODUCTION: Relapse of tuberculosis (TB) is known to be as one of the major risk factors for resistant TB. The aim of this study is to focus on clinical, radiological and bacteriological features of patients with pulmonary TB relapse. METHODS: We performed a retrospective survey in the respiratory department of the teaching hospital La Rabta in Tunis between January 2000 and December 2014. Data of patients with a pulmonary TB relapse were analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, among 1250 patients hospitalized for pulmonary TB, 44 had a TB relapse...
February 2, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387346/drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-saudi-arabia-an-analysis-of-surveillance-data%C3%A2-2014-2015
#8
Maha Al Ammari, Abdulrahman Al Turaiki, Mohammed Al Essa, Abdulhameed M Kashkary, Sara A Eltigani, Anwar E Ahmed
Background: There is limited data that investigates the national rates of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Saudi Arabia.This study aimed to estimate the rates of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB), and monoresistance (MR) in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all TB cases reported to the National TB Control and Prevention Program (NTCPP) registry at the Saudi Ministry of Health between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382097/nigella-damascena-l-essential-oil-a-valuable-source-of-%C3%AE-elemene-for-antimicrobial-testing
#9
Elwira Sieniawska, Rafal Sawicki, Joanna Golus, Marta Swatko-Ossor, Grazyna Ginalska, Krystyna Skalicka-Wozniak
The most commonly used plant source of β-elemene is Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen & C. Ling (syn. of Curcuma aromatic Salisb.) with its content in supercritical CO₂ extract up to 27.83%. However, the other rich source of this compound is Nigella damascena L. essential oil, in which β-elemene accounts for 47%. In this work, the effective protocol for preparative isolation of β-elemene from a new source-N. damascena essential oil-using high performance counter-current chromatography HPCCC was elaborated...
January 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374822/analysis-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-financial-protection-policy-mdr-tb-health-insurance-schemes-in-chhattisgarh-state-india
#10
Debashish Kundu, Nandini Sharma, Sarabjit Chadha, Samia Laokri, George Awungafac, Lai Jiang, Miqdad Asaria
INTRODUCTION: There are significant financial barriers to access treatment for multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in India. To address these challenges, Chhattisgarh state in India has established a MDR-TB financial protection policy by creating MDR-TB benefit packages as part of the universal health insurance scheme that the state has rolled out in their effort towards attaining Universal Health Coverage for all its residents. In these schemes the state purchases health insurance against set packages of services from third party health insurance agencies on behalf of all its residents...
January 27, 2018: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362471/discovery-of-novel-bacterial-topoisomerase-i-inhibitors-by-use-of-in-silico-docking-and-in-vitro-assays
#11
Shayna Sandhaus, Prem P Chapagain, Yuk-Ching Tse-Dinh
Topoisomerases are important targets for antibacterial and anticancer therapies. Bacterial topoisomerase I remains to be exploited for antibiotics that can be used in the clinic. Inhibitors of bacterial topoisomerase I may provide leads for novel antibacterial drugs against pathogens resistant to current antibiotics. TB is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, and new TB drugs against an alternative target are urgently needed to overcome multi-drug resistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis topoisomerase I (MtbTopI) has been validated genetically and chemically as a TB drug target...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362378/comparing-different-technologies-for-active-tb-case-finding-among-the-homeless-a-transmission-dynamic-modelling-study
#12
Tendai Mugwagwa, Helen R Stagg, Ibrahim Abubakar, Peter J White
Homeless persons have elevated risk of tuberculosis (TB) and are under-served by conventional health services. Approaches to active case-finding (ACF) and treatment tailored to their needs are required. A transmission-dynamic model was developed to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of screening with mobile Chest X-ray, GeneXpert, or both. Effectiveness of ACF depends upon the prevalence of infection in the population (which determines screening 'yield'), patient willingness to wait for GeneXpert results, and treatment adherence...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358649/genome-wide-analysis-of-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#13
Francesc Coll, Jody Phelan, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Mridul B Nair, Kim Mallard, Shahjahan Ali, Abdallah M Abdallah, Saad Alghamdi, Mona Alsomali, Abdallah O Ahmed, Stephanie Portelli, Yaa Oppong, Adriana Alves, Theolis Barbosa Bessa, Susana Campino, Maxine Caws, Anirvan Chatterjee, Amelia C Crampin, Keertan Dheda, Nicholas Furnham, Judith R Glynn, Louis Grandjean, Dang Minh Ha, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Martin L Hibberd, Moses Joloba, Edward C Jones-López, Tomoshige Matsumoto, Anabela Miranda, David J Moore, Nora Mocillo, Stefan Panaiotov, Julian Parkhill, Carlos Penha, João Perdigão, Isabel Portugal, Zineb Rchiad, Jaime Robledo, Patricia Sheen, Nashwa Talaat Shesha, Frik A Sirgel, Christophe Sola, Erivelton Oliveira Sousa, Elizabeth M Streicher, Paul Van Helden, Miguel Viveiros, Robert M Warren, Ruth McNerney, Arnab Pain, Taane G Clark
To characterize the genetic determinants of resistance to antituberculosis drugs, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 6,465 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from more than 30 countries. A GWAS approach within a mixed-regression framework was followed by a phylogenetics-based test for independent mutations. In addition to mutations in established and recently described resistance-associated genes, novel mutations were discovered for resistance to cycloserine, ethionamide and para-aminosalicylic acid...
January 22, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357899/pediatric-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-case-report
#14
Christelle Géneviève Jouego, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Juergen Noeske, Ndo Akono Manuel, Leo Njock Ayuk
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children remain a major limitation in this setting, largely due to difficulties in isolating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric specimens, management with toxic second line drugs, and practically the inexistence of contact tracing. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a standardized 9-month regimen for adults and children in zones which are highly endemic for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348586/analogues-of-disulfides-from-allium-stipitatum-demonstrate-potent-anti-tubercular-activities-through-drug-efflux-pump-and-biofilm-inhibition
#15
Cynthia A Danquah, Eleftheria Kakagianni, Proma Khondkar, Arundhati Maitra, Mukhlesur Rahman, Dimitrios Evangelopoulos, Timothy D McHugh, Paul Stapleton, John Malkinson, Sanjib Bhakta, Simon Gibbons
Disulfides from Allium stipitatum, commonly known as Persian shallot, were previously reported to possess antibacterial properties. Analogues of these compounds, produced by S-methylthiolation of appropriate thiols using S-methyl methanethiosulfonate, exhibited antimicrobial activity, with one compound inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 17 µM (4 mg L-1) and other compounds inhibiting Escherichia coli and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations ranging between 32-138 µM (8-32 mg L-1)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343012/-the-effectiveness-of-individualized-treatment-regimen-on-smear-positive-retreatment-pulmonary-tuberculosis-with-mono-and-poly-drug-resistance
#16
Y H Liu, W W Gao, L Li, J Du, Y Ma, W Shu, X Y Lyu, S H Xie, H H Wang, T Chen
Objective: To analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of individualized treatment regimen in the therapy of smear-positive retreatment pulmonary tuberculosis with mono-and poly-drug resistance, and therefor to provide information on how to develop rational individualized regimen for retreatment tuberculosis cases with drug resistance. Methods: This was a multi-centered, prospective cohort study. Totally 254 cases of sputum positive tuberculosis with previous treatment history during the period from July 1, 2009 to August 30, 2016 were included in the analysis...
January 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342972/the-effect-of-combining-natural-terpenes-and-antituberculous-agents-against-reference-and-clinical-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#17
Elwira Sieniawska, Rafal Sawicki, Marta Swatko-Ossor, Agnieszka Napiorkowska, Agata Przekora, Grazyna Ginalska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopec
Background: On account of emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains, combinations of drugs with natural compounds were tested to search for antibiotic activity enhancers. In this work we studied terpenes (α-pinene, bisabolol, β-elemene, (R)-limonene, (S)-limonene, myrcene, sabinene), which are the main constituents of essential oil obtained from Mutellina purpurea L., a plant with described antitubercular activity, to investigate their interactions with antibiotics against reference Mtb strains and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates...
January 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337135/defining-bedaquiline-susceptibility-resistance-cross-resistance-and-associated-genetic-determinants-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Nazir A Ismail, Shaheed V Omar, Lavania Joseph, Netricia Govender, Linsay Blows, Farzana Ismail, Hendrik Koornhof, Andries W Dreyer, Koné Kaniga, Norbert Ndjeka
BACKGROUND: Bedaquiline (BDQ) is a novel agent approved for use in combination treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We sought to determine BDQ epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs), define and assess interpretive criteria against putative resistance associated variants (RAVs), microbiological outcomes and cross resistance with clofazimine (CFZ). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to BDQ were determined using 7H9 broth microdilution (BMD) and MGIT960...
January 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334758/anticancer-thiosemicarbazones-chemical-properties-interaction-with-iron-metabolism-and-resistance-development
#19
Petra Heffeter, Veronika F S Pape, Eva A Enyedy, Bernhard K Keppler, Gergely Szakas, Christian R Kowol
SIGNIFICANCE: During the last decades, thiosemicarbazones have been clinically developed for a variety of diseases including tuberculosis, viral infections, malaria and cancer. With regard to malignant diseases, the class of α-N-heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones, and here especially Triapine, was intensively developed in multiple clinical phase I/II trials. Recent Advances: Very recently two new derivatives, namely COTI-2 and DpC have entered phase I evaluation. Based on the strong metal-chelating/metal-interacting properties of thiosemicarbazones, interference with the cellular iron (and copper) homeostasis is assumed to play an important role in their biological activity...
January 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332649/isoniazid-and-rifampicin-heteroresistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolated-from-tuberculous-meningitis-patients-in-india
#20
Renu Gupta, Rajeev Thakur, Suman Kushwaha, Nupur Jalan, Pumanshi Rawat, Piyush Gupta, Amitesh Aggarwal, Meena Gupta, Vikas Manchanda
BACKGROUND: Heteroresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mixture of susceptible and resistant subpopulations) is thought to be a preliminary stage to full resistance and timely detection, initiation of correct treatment is vital for successful anti tubercular therapy. The aim of this study was to detect multi drug resistant (MDR) and heteroresistant M. tuberculosis with the associated gene mutations from patients of tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: A total of 197 M...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
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