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multi drug resistant tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665951/statistical-considerations-for-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-efficacy-trials
#1
S Kim, J A Seddon, A J Garcia-Prats, G Montepiedra
The inclusion of newly licensed or repurposed drugs in regimens to treat children for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) may lead to treatment that is shorter than traditional regimens and composed only of oral medications. As an all-oral regimen may be more acceptable and have a better safety profile than current regimens, demonstrating non-inferiority may be satisfactory. Demonstrating non-inferior efficacy requires setting a non-inferiority margin and safeguarding study assay sensitivity. Multi-arm, multistage designs may currently not be appropriate in pediatric trials because of the lack of sensitive and specific intermediate outcomes...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656530/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-after-solid-organ-transplantation-a-review-of-more-than-2000-cases
#2
Cybele Lara R Abad, Raymund R Razonable
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a common pathogen worldwide, and it may cause significant infection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). We reviewed all reported TB cases to provide an update on its epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome after SOT. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID were reviewed from January 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 2016 using key words tuberculosis and solid organ transplant or transplantation. RESULTS: There were 187 publications reporting 2082 cases of TB among kidney (n=1719), liver (n=253), heart (n=77), lung (n=25), and kidney-pancreas (n=8) recipients...
April 15, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650301/-pulmonary-intravascular-talcosis-a-case-report
#3
J Reverso-Meinietti, F Vandenbos, K Risso, J Coyne, S Leroy, B Padovani, F Burel-Vandenbos
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary intravascular talcosis is a rare condition occurring in intravenous drug users injecting oral medications. Talc results in a foreign-body granulomatous reaction giving a radiological haematogenic miliary appearance mimicking miliary tuberculosis. Drug users represent a population at risk for both these conditions and their distinction may be challenging. CASE REPORT: We reported the case of a man, 33 year-old, intravenous drug addict, detected by the health services because he was the partner of a person who died of contagious and multi-resistant tuberculosis...
April 9, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642833/-management-and-treatment-difficulties-of-multi-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-pediatric-case
#4
Selda Hançerli Törün, Emine Manolya Acar, Ayper Somer, Gonca Erköse, Dilek Şatana, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Zeki Kılıçaslan
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628698/drug-resistant-skeletal-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-south-india
#5
J Arockiaraj, G S Balaji, V M Cherian, Jepegnanam T S, B P Thomas, Joy S Michael, P M Poonnoose
Back ground: Drug resistant tuberculosis is alarmingly on the rise especially in developing countries. Skeletal tuberculosis accounts up to 10% of all extra pulmonary tuberculosis. World Health Organisation (WHO) has not formulated guidelines for the management of Multi-drug resistant skeletal tuberculosis. Results: A retrospective analysis of patients treated for musculoskeletal tuberculosis was done, to study drug resistance patterns. The outcome was assessed both clinically and radiologically...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610667/a-survey-of-knowledge-attitude-and-practices-of-private-retail-pharmacies-staff-in-tuberculosis-care-study-from-dera-ismail-khan-city-pakistan
#6
Tehmina Mustafa, Yasir Shahzad, Ayyaz Kiani
Background: In order to engage pharmacies in tuberculosis (TB) care, a survey was conducted in the Dera Ismail (DI) Khan City of the Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa province, Pakistan. The objectives were to; 1) characterize the retail pharmacies; 2) determine knowledge of the staff on various aspects of pulmonary TB; 3) determine practices related to the sale of anti-TB drugs, and referrals of presumptive TB patient, and willingness to participate in the National Tuberculosis Control Programme's (NTP) Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) strategy...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601253/the-current-status-challenges-and-future-developments-of-new-tuberculosis-vaccines
#7
Wenping Gong, Yan Liang, Xueqiong Wu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex causes tuberculosis (TB), one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. TB results in more fatalities than multi-drug resistant (MDR) HIV strain related coinfection. Vaccines play a key role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the only licensed preventive vaccine against TB, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), is ineffective for prevention of pulmonary TB in adults. Therefore, it is very important to develop novel vaccines for TB prevention and control...
March 30, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599974/tuberculosis-in-south-asia-a-tide-in-the-affairs-of-men
#8
REVIEW
Buddha Basnyat, Maxine Caws, Zarir Udwadia
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the most common cause of infectious disease deaths worldwide. What is perhaps less appreciated is that the caseload of tuberculosis patients in South Asia is staggering.South Asia has almost 40% of the global TB burden with 4,028,165 cases in 2015. This region also has a disproportionate share of TB deaths (681,975 deaths, 38% of the global burden). Worldwide just 12.5% of TB cases are in HIV positive individuals, but much research and investment has focused on HIV-associated TB...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593055/validation-of-the-fluorotype%C3%A2-mtbdr-assay-for-the-detection-of-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-isolates
#9
Doris Hillemann, Carsten Haasis, Sönke Andres, Tobias Behn, Katharina Kranzer
For Mycobacterial tuberculosis complex the rapid and accurate diagnosis of drug resistance is crucial to ensure early initiation of appropriate therapy. Recently a new molecular diagnostic test, the FluoroType ® MTBDR aimed at detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance has become available. This study aimed to evaluate the FluoroType ® MTBDR in comparison to phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) using M. tuberculosis complex isolates.MTBC isolates underwent phenotypic DST and were tested using the FluoroType ® MTBDR and Genotype MTBDRplus...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589538/antimicrobial-peptides-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-allies-or-foes
#10
Bruno Rivas-Santiago, Flor Torres-Juarez
Tuberculosis is an ancient disease that has become a serious public health issue in recent years, although increasing incidence has been controlled, deaths caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been accentuated due to the emerging of multi-drug resistant strains and the comorbidity with diabetes mellitus and HIV. This situation is threatening the goals of world health organization (WHO) to eradicate tuberculosis in 2035. WHO has called for the creation of new drugs as an alternative for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, among the plausible molecules that can be used are the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)...
March 27, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581937/the-california-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-consult-service-a-partnership-of-state-and-local-programs
#11
N S Shah, J Westenhouse, P Lowenthal, G Schecter, L True, S Mase, P M Barry, J Flood
Background: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend expert consultation for multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases. In 2002, the California MDR-TB Service was created to provide expert MDR-TB consultations. We describe the characteristics, treatment outcomes and management of patients referred to the Service. Methods: Surveillance data were used for descriptive analysis of cases, with consultation during July 2002-December 2012. Clinical consultation data and modified World Health Organization indicators were used to assess the care and management of cases, with consultation from January 2009 to December 2012...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579427/factors-predicting-treatment-success-in-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-treated-under-programmatic-conditions
#12
A K Janmeja, Deepak Aggarwal, Ruchika Dhillon
BACKGROUND: Treatment success in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis under programmatic conditions has been far from satisfactory. Knowledge of the factors predicting treatment outcome can guide us to take appropriate corrective measures for better results. However, there is a scarcity of data on these predictors in Indian patients. The present study was sought to evaluate association of different patient and disease specific factors with treatment outcome in MDR-TB patients. METHODS: It was a retrospective study that involved evaluation of data of MDR-TB patients who were started on Cat-IV treatment between January 2012 and December 2014...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574065/genetic-sequencing-for-surveillance-of-drug-resistance-in-tuberculosis-in-highly-endemic-countries-a-multi-country-population-based-surveillance-study
#13
Matteo Zignol, Andrea Maurizio Cabibbe, Anna S Dean, Philippe Glaziou, Natavan Alikhanova, Cecilia Ama, Sönke Andres, Anna Barbova, Angeli Borbe-Reyes, Daniel P Chin, Daniela Maria Cirillo, Charlotte Colvin, Andrei Dadu, Andries Dreyer, Michèle Driesen, Christopher Gilpin, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Sven Hoffner, Alamdar Hussain, Nazir Ismail, S M Mostofa Kamal, Faisal Masood Khanzada, Michael Kimerling, Thomas Andreas Kohl, Mikael Mansjö, Paolo Miotto, Ya Diul Mukadi, Lindiwe Mvusi, Stefan Niemann, Shaheed V Omar, Leen Rigouts, Marco Schito, Ivita Sela, Mehriban Seyfaddinova, Girts Skenders, Alena Skrahina, Sabira Tahseen, William A Wells, Alexander Zhurilo, Karin Weyer, Katherine Floyd, Mario C Raviglione
BACKGROUND: In many countries, regular monitoring of the emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is hampered by the limitations of phenotypic testing for drug susceptibility. We therefore evaluated the use of genetic sequencing for surveillance of drug resistance in tuberculosis. METHODS: Population-level surveys were done in hospitals and clinics in seven countries (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, and Ukraine) to evaluate the use of genetic sequencing to estimate the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, pyrazinamide, kanamycin, amikacin, and capreomycin...
March 21, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571116/the-critically-ill-patient-with-tuberculosis-in-intensive-care-clinical-presentations-management-and-infection-control
#14
REVIEW
Akaninyene Otu, Madiha Hashmi, Ahmed M Mukhtar, Arthur Kwizera, Simon Tiberi, Bruce Macrae, Alimudin Zumla, Martin W Dünser, Mervyn Mer
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top ten causes of death worldwide. In 2016, there were 490,000 cases of multi-drug resistant TB globally. Over 2 billion people have asymptomatic latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. TB represents an important, but neglected management issue in patients presenting to intensive care units. Tuberculosis in intensive care settings may present as the primary diagnosis (active drug sensitive or resistant TB disease). In other patients TB may be an incidental co-morbid finding as previously undiagnosed sub-clinical or latent TB which may re-activate under conditions of stress and immunosuppression...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567319/in-silico-design-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-epitope-ensemble-vaccines
#15
Preksha Shah, Jaymisha Mistry, Pedro A Reche, Derek Gatherer, Darren R Flower
Effective control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a global necessity. In 2015, tuberculosis (TB) caused more deaths than HIV. Considering the increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant forms of M. tuberculosis, the need for effective TB vaccines becomes imperative. Currently, the only licensed TB vaccine is Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Yet, BCG has many drawbacks limiting its efficacy and applicability. We applied advanced computational procedures to derive a universal TB vaccine and one targeting East Africa...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566660/mutations-of-rpob-katg-inha-and-ahp-genes-in-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-kyrgyz-republic
#16
Jainagul Isakova, Nurmira Sovkhozova, Denis Vinnikov, Zoy Goncharova, Elnura Talaibekova, Nazira Aldasheva, Almaz Aldashev
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify mutations of rpoB, katG, inhA and ahp-genes associated Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) in Kyrgyz Republic. We studied 633 smear samples from the primary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. We verified Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to RIF and INH using culture method of absolute concentrations, and commercially available test named "TB-BIOCHIP" (Biochip-IMB, Moscow, Russian Federation)...
March 22, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564867/-microbiological-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-20-years-in-the-province-of-soria-performance-and-basic-opportunities-of-improvement
#17
S García-De Cruz, C Aldea-Mansilla, A Campos-Bueno, V Del Villar-Sordo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the bacteriological diagnosis of the tuberculosis in the province of Soria (Spain), as well as to analyse the techniques diagnostic performance and the use of the microbiology laboratory regarding tuberculosis. METHODS: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was designed, including all patients with tuberculosis of any location that had their residence in the province of Soria. The period of study included patients diagnosed between 1994 and 2013 and a 24 months follow-up after the beginning of treatment was realized...
March 19, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563202/next-generation-sequencing-for-characterizing-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genes-from-clinical-isolates-in-the-ukraine
#18
L T Daum, O S Konstantynovska, O S Solodiankin, O O Liashenko, P I Poteiko, V I Bolotin, I I Hrek, A V Rohozhyn, J D Rodriguez, G W Fischer, J P Chambers, A P Gerilovych
The Ukraine ranks among the top twenty countries with the highest number of multi-drug resistant (MDR), and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cases in the world. However, little is known of the genetic diversity, i.e., resistance signatures in clinical isolates from this region. We analyzed seven of most prevalent MDR/XDR antibiotic resistance conferring genes from clinical isolates ( N = 75 ) collected from geographically diverse Ukrainian oblasts and its southern Crimean peninsula...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562987/treatment-responses-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-germany
#19
J Heyckendorf, F van Leth, K Avsar, G Glattki, G Günther, B Kalsdorf, M Müller, I D Olaru, T Rolling, H J F Salzer, M Schuhmann, E Terhalle, C Lange
BACKGROUND: Excellent treatment outcomes have recently been reported for patients with multi/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) in settings where optimal resources for individualised therapy are available. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether differences remain in treatment responses between patients with M/XDR-TB and those with non-M/XDR-TB. METHOD: Patients with TB were prospectively enrolled between March 2013 and March 2016 at five hospitals in Germany...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545276/bedaquiline-and-delamanid-for-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-multicentre-cohort-study-in-korea
#20
Cheon Tae Kim, Tae-Ok Kim, Hong-Joon Shin, Young Chun Ko, Yeong Hun Choe, Hak-Ryul Kim, Yong-Soo Kwon
Relatively little is known about the efficacy and safety of the programmatic use of bedaquiline and delamanid in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment.This study evaluated 61 patients with MDR-TB treated with bedaquiline (n=39), delamanid (n=11) or both, either sequentially (n=10) or in coadministration (n=1), for >1 month, combined with a World Health Organization-recommended regimen.Of these, 49 (80.3%) were male and 12 (19.7%) were female. The median (interquartile range (IQR)) age was 53 (38...
March 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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