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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549496/mutual-impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-tuberculosis-in-china
#1
Jun Cheng, Hui Zhang, Yan Lin Zhao, Li Xia Wang, Ming Ting Chen
China has a double burden of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis, and many studies have been carried out on the mutual impact of these two diseases. This paper systematically reviewed studies conducted in China covering the mutual impact of epidemics of diabetes and tuberculosis, the impact of diabetes on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and on the tuberculosis clinical manifestation and treatment outcome, the yields of bi-directional screening, and economic evaluation for tuberculosis screening among diabetes patients...
May 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544095/phenotypic-assays-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#2
Ok-Ryul Song, Nathalie Deboosere, Vincent Delorme, Christophe J Queval, Gaspard Deloison, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Frank Lafont, Alain Baulard, Raffaella Iantomasi, Priscille Brodin
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major global threat, killing more than one million persons each year. With the constant increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to first- and second-line drugs, there is an urgent need for the development of new drugs to control the propagation of TB. Although screenings of small molecules on axenic M. tuberculosis cultures were successful for the identification of novel putative anti-TB drugs, new drugs in the development pipeline remains scarce. Host-directed therapy may represent an alternative for drug development against TB...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533124/the-novel-gene-mtb192-is-a-candidate-marker-for-the-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#3
Junhua Chen, Li Jiang, Wei Su, Gaihuan Zheng, Xu Hongmei
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most main threats to the global TB control work at present. And it's very difficult to detect. From a screen of differentially expressed genes in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains, we identified a new gene, mtb192. In the present study, we verified the association of mtb192 with TB drug resistance by detecting its expression in clinical isolates from paediatric TB patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The homology of mtb192 was analysed by gene blasting in GenBank...
May 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496433/interplay-between-mutations-and-efflux-in-drug-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#4
Diana Machado, Tatiane S Coelho, João Perdigão, Catarina Pereira, Isabel Couto, Isabel Portugal, Raquel De Abreu Maschmann, Daniela F Ramos, Andrea von Groll, Maria L R Rossetti, Pedro A Silva, Miguel Viveiros
Numerous studies show efflux as a universal bacterial mechanism contributing to antibiotic resistance and also that the activity of the antibiotics subject to efflux can be enhanced by the combined use of efflux inhibitors. Nevertheless, the contribution of efflux to the overall drug resistance levels of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly understood and still is ignored by many. Here, we evaluated the contribution of drug efflux plus target-gene mutations to the drug resistance levels in clinical isolates of M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487681/etha-r-independent-killing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-ethionamide
#5
Michelle L T Ang, Siti Z Zainul Rahim, Paola Florez de Sessions, Wenwei Lin, Vanessa Koh, Kevin Pethe, Martin L Hibberd, Sylvie Alonso
Ethionamide (ETH) is part of the drug arsenal available to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. The current paradigm of this pro-drug activation involves the mycobacterial enzyme EthA and the transcriptional repressor, EthR. However, several lines of evidence suggest the involvement of additional players. The ethA/R locus was deleted in Mycobacterium bovis BCG and three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains. While complete resistance to ETH was observed with BCG ethA/R KO, drug susceptibility and dose-dependent killing were retained in the ethA/R KO MTB mutants, suggesting the existence of an alternative pathway of ETH bio-activation in MTB...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472053/recurrent-tuberculosis-and-associated-factors-a-five-year-countrywide-study-in-uzbekistan
#6
Jamshid Gadoev, Damin Asadov, Anthony D Harries, Nargiza Parpieva, Katie Tayler-Smith, Petros Isaakidis, Engy Ali, Sven Gudmund Hinderaker, Gozalov Ogtay, Andrew Ramsay, Avazbek Jalolov, Masoud Dara
BACKGROUND: In Uzbekistan, despite stable and relatively high tuberculosis treatment success rates, relatively high rates of recurrent tuberculosis have recently been reported. Recurrent tuberculosis is when a patient who was treated for pulmonary tuberculosis and cured, later develops the disease again. This requires closer analysis to identify possible causes and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Using countrywide data, this study aimed to analyse trends in recurrent tuberculosis cases and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454646/activity-of-rifampicin-and-linezolid-combination-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#7
Flaviane Granero Maltempe, Katiany Rizzieri Caleffi-Ferracioli, Renata Claro Ribeiro do Amaral, Fernanda de Oliveira Demitto, Vera Lúcia Dias Siqueira, Regiane Bertin de Lima Scodro, Mário Hiroyuki Hirata, Fernando Rogério Pavan, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Linezolid (LZD) is not commonly used for treating tuberculosis (TB), but in some patients with drug-resistant TB it is being used. However, the in vitro LZD activity, in combination with rifampicin (RIF) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been fully elucidated. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of RIF/LZD combination against M. tuberculosis clinical isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of the RIF/LZD combination was firstly determined in M...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451184/combatting-amr-photoactivatable-ruthenium-ii-isoniazid-complex-exhibits-rapid-selective-antimycobacterial-activity
#8
Nichola A Smith, Pingyu Zhang, Simon E Greenough, Michael D Horbury, Guy J Clarkson, Daniel McFeely, Abraha Habtemariam, Luca Salassa, Vasilios G Stavros, Christopher G Dowson, Peter J Sadler
The novel photoactive ruthenium(ii) complex cis-[Ru(bpy)2(INH)2][PF6]2 (1·2PF6, INH = isoniazid) was designed to incorporate the anti-tuberculosis drug, isoniazid, that could be released from the Ru(ii) cage by photoactivation with visible light. In aqueous solution, 1 rapidly released two equivalents of isoniazid and formed the photoproduct cis-[Ru(bpy)2(H2O)2](2+) upon irradiation with 465 nm blue light. We screened for activity against bacteria containing the three major classes of cell envelope: Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium smegmatis in vitro using blue and multi-colored LED multi-well arrays...
January 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449659/vitamin-d-and-activated-vitamin-d-in-tuberculosis-in-equatorial-malaysia-a-prospective-clinical-study
#9
Anna P Ralph, Muhammad Redzwan S Rashid Ali, Timothy William, Kim Piera, Uma Parameswaran, Elspeth Bird, Christopher S Wilkes, Wai Khew Lee, Tsin Wen Yeo, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25D] concentration) is often reported in tuberculosis. Adjunctive vitamin D has been tested for its potential to improve treatment outcomes, but has proven largely ineffective. To better understand vitamin D in tuberculosis, we investigated determinants of 25D and its immunologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), their inter-relationship in tuberculosis, longitudinal changes and association with outcome...
April 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449494/clinical-outcomes-for-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-with-adjunctive-resectional-lung-surgery-in-beijing-china
#10
Yan Ma, Yu Pang, Jian Du, Yuhong Liu, Liang Li, Weiwei Gao
The objective of this study was to assess the performance of adjective resectional lung surgery for multidrug resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients in Beijing, China. Between October 1992 and October 2012, 21 MDR/XDR patients undergoing pulmonary resection at Beijing Chest Hospital were enrolled in this study. The clinical outcomes of MDR- and XDR-TB patients were analyzed with a 3-year surgical follow-up. Out of 21 patients enrolled in this study, 20 patients (95.2%) had unilateral cavitary disease, and 1 patient (4...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448028/system-for-efficacy-and-cytotoxicity-screening-of-inhibitors-targeting-intracellular-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Xingji Zheng, Yossef Av-Gay
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. With the increased spread of multi drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), there is a real urgency to develop new therapeutic strategies against M. tuberculosis infections. Traditionally, compounds are evaluated based on their antibacterial activity under in vitro growth conditions in broth; however, results are often misleading for intracellular pathogens like M. tuberculosis since in-broth phenotypic screening conditions are significantly different from the actual disease conditions within the human body...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440326/complex-multifractal-nature-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genome
#12
Saurav Mandal, Tanmoy Roychowdhury, Keilash Chirom, Alok Bhattacharya, R K Brojen Singh
The mutifractal and long range correlation (C(r)) properties of strings, such as nucleotide sequence can be a useful parameter for identification of underlying patterns and variations. In this study C(r) and multifractal singularity function f(α) have been used to study variations in the genomes of a pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genomic sequences of M. tuberculosis isolates displayed significant variations in C(r) and f(α) reflecting inherent differences in sequences among isolates. M. tuberculosis isolates can be categorised into different subgroups based on sensitivity to drugs, these are DS (drug sensitive isolates), MDR (multi-drug resistant isolates) and XDR (extremely drug resistant isolates)...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434936/defining-a-research-agenda-to-address-the-converging-epidemics-of-tuberculosis-and-diabetes-part-1-epidemiology-and-clinical-management
#13
REVIEW
Julia A Critchley, Blanca I Restrepo, Katharina Ronacher, Anil Kapur, Andrew A Bremer, Larry S Schlesinger, Randall Basaraba, Hardy Kornfeld, Reinout van Crevel
There is growing interest in the interaction between type 2 diabetes (DM) and tuberculosis (TB), but many research questions remain unanswered. Epidemiologists, basic scientists and clinical experts recently convened and identified priorities. This is the first of two reviews on this topic, summarising priority areas of research with regard to epidemiology, clinical management and public health. First, from an epidemiological point of view, more study is needed to determine the importance of transient hyperglycemia in TB patients, and on the importance of DM for the global epidemic of multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB...
April 19, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425478/data-intensive-genome-level-analysis-for-identifying-novel-non-toxic-drug-targets-for-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#14
Divneet Kaur, Rintu Kutum, Debasis Dash, Samir K Brahmachari
We report the construction of a novel Systems Biology based virtual drug discovery model for the prediction of non-toxic metabolic targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This is based on a data-intensive genome level analysis and the principle of conservation of the evolutionarily important genes. In the 1623 sequenced Mtb strains, 890 metabolic genes identified through a systems approach in Mtb were evaluated for non-synonymous mutations. The 33 genes showed none or one variation in the entire 1623 strains, including 1084 Russian MDR strains...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424703/immune-responses-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-why-do-they-fail-to-protect-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
REVIEW
Juan I Moliva, Joanne Turner, Jordi B Torrelles
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the current leading cause of death due to a single infectious organism. Although curable, the broad emergence of multi-, extensive-, extreme-, and total-drug resistant strains of M.tb has hindered eradication efforts of this pathogen. Furthermore, computational models predict a quarter of the world's population is infected with M.tb in a latent state, effectively serving as the largest reservoir for any human pathogen with the ability to cause significant morbidity and mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415989/evaluation-of-genotype-mtbdrplus-ver-2-0-line-probe-assay-for-the-detection-of-mdr-tb-in-smear-positive-and-negative-sputum-samples
#16
Abyot Meaza, Abebaw Kebede, Zelalem Yaregal, Zekarias Dagne, Shewki Moga, Bazezew Yenew, Getu Diriba, Helina Molalign, Mengistu Tadesse, Desalegn Adisse, Muluwork Getahun, Kassu Desta
BACKGROUND: Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses formidable challenges to TB control due to its complex diagnostic and treatment challenges and often associated with a high rate of mortality. Accurate and rapid detection of MDR-TB is critical for timely initiation of treatment. Line Probe Assay (LPA) is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic test based on DNA-STRIP technology for the identification of the M. tuberculosis complex and its resistance to rifampicin (RMP) and/or isoniazid (INH)...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408267/population-pharmacokinetics-of-moxifloxacin-cycloserine-p-aminosalicylic-acid-and-kanamycin-for-the-treatment-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#17
Min Jung Chang, Byunghak Jin, Jung-Woo Chae, Hwi-Yeol Yun, Eun Sun Kim, Yeon Joo Lee, Young-Jae Cho, Ho Il Yoon, Choon-Taek Lee, Kyoung Un Park, Junghan Song, Jae-Ho Lee, Jong Sun Park
Control of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires extensive, supervised chemotherapy because second-line anti-TB drugs have a narrower therapeutic range than first-line drugs. This study aimed to develop population pharmacokinetic (PK) models for second-line drugs in patients with MDR-TB, evaluate the recommended dosage regimens and, if necessary, suggest new dosage regimens. A prospective, single-centre PK study was performed on second-line anti-TB drugs in patients with MDR-TB. Moxifloxacin, cycloserine, p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), kanamycin and other second-line drugs were administered to the patients...
June 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406247/hba1c-level-cannot-predict-the-treatment-outcome-of-smear-positive-non-multi-drug-resistant-hiv-negative-pulmonary-tuberculosis-inpatients
#18
Ken Tashiro, Nobuyuki Horita, Kenjiro Nagai, Misako Ikeda, Masaharu Shinkai, Masaki Yamamoto, Takashi Sato, Yu Hara, Hideyuki Nagakura, Yuji Shibata, Hiroki Watanabe, Kentaro Nakashima, Ryota Ushio, Akimichi Nagashima, Atsuya Narita, Nobuaki Kobayashi, Makoto Kudo, Takeshi Kaneko
We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether the HbA1c level on admission could predict the in-hospital treatment outcome of smear-positive non-multi-drug-resistant HIV-negative culture-proven pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients. Our standard regimens under the direct observation were HRZE or HRE for the first two months followed by combination therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin. Our cohort consisted of consecutive 239 patients consisted of 147 men and 92 women with a median age of 73 years...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404672/increased-tuberculosis-patient-mortality-associated-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-second-line-antituberculous-drugs
#19
Sophia B Georghiou, Marva Seifert, Donald G Catanzaro, Richard S Garfein, Timothy C Rodwell
Rapid molecular diagnostics have great potential to limit the spread of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB). These technologies detect mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome that confer phenotypic drug resistance. However, there is little data published regarding the relationships between the detected Mtb resistance mutations and M/XDR-TB treatment outcomes, limiting our current ability to exploit the full potential of molecular diagnostics. We analyzed clinical, microbiological and sequencing data for 451 patients and their clinical isolates collected in a multinational, observational cohort study to determine if there was an association between Mtb resistance mutations and patient mortality...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404233/molecular-detection-of-drug-resistance-to-ofloxacin-and-kanamycin-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-using-multiplex-allele-specific-pcr
#20
Richa Kumari, Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba
Drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is the biggest global health challenge as it hinders the tuberculosis control program and makes the disease more worsen. Molecular methods interrupt the spread of drug resistance by facilitating the appropriate anti- tuberculosis therapy at correct time through rapid diagnosis of multi drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). In this study we standardized and evaluated the diagnostic utility of multiplex allele specific PCR (MAS-PCR) targeting gyrA D94G and rrs A1401G mutations for detection of resistance against two key drugs (ofloxacin and kanamycin) of second line anti tuberculosis treatment...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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