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multi drug resistant tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031637/molecular-epidemiology-of-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-ireland-2001-2014
#1
E Roycroft, R F O'Toole, M M Fitzgibbon, L Montgomery, M O'Meara, P Downes, S Jackson, J O'Donnell, I F Laurenson, A M McLaughlin, J Keane, T R Rogers
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this work was to examine the acquisition and spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in Ireland. METHODS: All available Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates (n=42), from MDR-TB cases diagnosed in Ireland between 2001 and 2014, were analysed using phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing, Mycobacterial-Interspersed-Repetitive-Units Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028228/preventing-emergence-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-myanmar-s-transitioning-health-system
#2
Mishal S Khan, Coll Hutchison, Richard J Coker, Joanne Yoong, Khaung M Hane, Anh L Innes, Tin M Khaing, Sithu Aung
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a particular threat to the populations of resource-limited countries. Although inadequate treatment of TB has been identified as a major underlying cause of drug resistance, essential information to inform changes in health service delivery and policy is missing. We investigate factors that may be driving the emergence of MDR-TB in Myanmar, a country where investment and health system reforms are ongoing to address the unexplained, high occurrence of MDR-TB. We conducted a multi-centre, retrospective case-control study in 10 townships across Yangon...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027495/monitoring-and-managing-antibiotic-resistance-in-refugee-children
#3
Helena C Maltezou, Dana Elhadad, Daniel Glikman
The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020204/linezolid-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-infection-following-prolonged-low-dosage-linezolid-treatment-for-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#4
Ilaria Baccani, Alberto Antonelli, Angelo Galano, Filippo Bartalesi, Alessandro Bartoloni, Gian Maria Rossolini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990539/new-drugs-and-vaccines-for-tuberculosis
#5
S Beg, Praveen Gaur, Shikha Mishra
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that resulted in estimated 9.6 million new cases in 2014 and 1.5 million deaths. The available drug regimen for TB is time consuming which more often leads to the patient non compliance which then results in occurrence of drug resistant TB (Multi-drug and extremely drug resistant TB) in several portions of the world. The dangerous combinations of TB and HIV is taking its toll on human health. The foremost factor is non- profit associated with the development of anti TB drugs...
October 6, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980217/incremental-cost-effectiveness-of-bedaquiline-for-the-treatment-of-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-model-based-analysis
#6
Kathryn Schnippel, Cynthia Firnhaber, Francesca Conradie, Norbert Ndjeka, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: Nearly 20,000 people were diagnosed with multi-drug and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) in South Africa in 2015, yet only one-half of the patients who start treatment are expected to have a successful outcome. There is increasing evidence of the effectiveness and safety of new drug regimens containing bedaquiline for MDR/RR-TB; however, whether they are affordable for high-burden, limited-resource settings is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the incremental cost effectiveness of a bedaquiline-based regimen for MDR/RR-TB treatment in South Africa compared with the standard kanamycin-based regimen...
October 4, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974394/laboratory-evaluation-of-the-anyplex%C3%A2-ii-mtb-mdr-and-mtb-xdr-tests-based-on-multiplex-real-time-pcr-and-melting-temperature-analysis-to-identify-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-drug-resistance
#7
Yuriko Igarashi, Kinuyo Chikamatsu, Akio Aono, Lina Yi, Hiroyuki Yamada, Akiko Takaki, Satoshi Mitarai
We evaluated the performance of two multiplex, real-time PCR tests (Anyplex II MTB/MDR and MTB/XDR; Seegene, Seoul, Korea), designed to detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and drug-resistance mutations associated with isoniazid, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones, and second-line injectable drugs. We analyzed 122 clinical isolates with the Anyplex II MTB/MDR test, 68 of which were also tested with the Anyplex II MTB/XDR test. The Anyplex II MTB/MDR and MTB/XDR tests showed the following respective sensitivities and specificities: 68...
August 25, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969162/home-based-care-as-an-approach-to-improve-the-efficiency-of-treatment-for-mdr-tuberculosis-a-quasi-experimental-pilot-study
#8
Neha Taneja, Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan, Shailaja Daral, Mrinmoy Adhikary, Timiresh Kumar Das
INTRODUCTION: Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) has emerged as a significant public health problem in India. The prolonged treatment duration in MDR TB is a challenge in achieving treatment completion and poses a threat to TB control in the country. Home based care is an approach accepted by patients because it helps in ameliorating their understanding of TB, improving the compliance and reducing stigma in the community. AIM: To assess the outcome of Home-Based Care (HC) versus No Home-Based Care (NHC) on the treatment of MDR TB patients registered at two chest clinics in Eastern Delhi...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968017/-diagnostic-accuracy-of-three-technologies-for-the-diagnosis-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#9
Nelson José Alvis-Zakzuk, María De Los Ángeles Carrasquilla, Verónica Jhajaira Gómez, Jaime Robledo, Nelson Rafael Alvis-Guzmán, José Mauricio Hernández
INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) tuberculoses are a global public health problem. Their timely detection might reduce the burden of the disease and the economic impact on health systems worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review of the diagnostic accuracy of three molecular tests to detect multi-drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review following Cochrane methodology was carried out to study the diagnostic accuracy of three molecular tests to detect MDR-TB and XDR-TB in previous studies among immunocompetent population...
September 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960029/submillisievert-computed-tomography-of-the-chest-in-contact-investigation-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#10
Seung Chul Lee, Soon Ho Yoon, Jin Mo Goo, Jae Joon Yim, Chang Ki Kim
Close contacts with infectious tuberculosis (TB) are persons at high risk for developing active disease. We preliminarily introduced submillisievert chest computed tomography (CT) scan (effective dose, 0.19-0.25 millisievert) in a contact investigation of multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB. Baseline CT scan showed minimal nodules or branching opacities in two of six contacts. A two-month follow-up examination revealed a radiologic progression in contact 1, subsequently having the microbiologic diagnosis of MDR-TB at an asymptomatic early stage, whereas nodules transiently increased after 3 months in contact 2, followed by a decrease after one year...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951954/evolution-of-structural-fitness-and-multifunctional-aspects-of-mycobacterial-rnd-family-transporters
#11
REVIEW
Padmani Sandhu, Yusuf Akhter
Drug resistance is a major concern due to the evolution and emergence of pathogenic bacterial strains with novel strategies to resist the antibiotics in use. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of such pathogens with reported strains, which are not treatable with any of the available anti-TB drugs. This scenario has led to the need to look for some novel drug targets in Mtb, which may be exploited to design effective treatment strategies against the infection. The goal of this review is to discuss one such class of emerging drug targets in Mtb...
September 26, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945771/trends-in-prevalence-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Baba Maiyaki Musa, Aishatu L Adamu, Najibah A Galadanci, Bashir Zubayr, Chisom N Odoh, Muktar H Aliyu
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is an emerging public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study aims to determine the trends in prevalence of MDR-TB among new TB cases in sub-Saharan Africa over two decades. METHODS: We searched electronic data bases and accessed all prevalence studies of MDR-TB within SSA between 2007 and 2017. We determined pooled prevalence estimates using random effects models and determined trends using meta-regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942172/antigen-85-complex-as-a-powerful-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-immunogene-biology-immune-pathogenicity-applications-in-diagnosis-and-vaccine-design
#13
REVIEW
Mohsen Karbalaei Zadeh Babaki, Saman Soleimanpour, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most life-threatening mycobacterial species which is increasing the death rate due to emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Concerned health authorities worldwide are interested in developing an effective vaccine to prevent the spread of Mtb. After years of research, including successful identification of many Mtb immunogenic molecules, effective therapeutic agents or a vaccine have yet to be found. However, among the identified Mtb immunogenes, antigen 85 (Ag85) complex (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) is receiving attention from scientists as it allows bacteria to evade the host immune response by preventing formation of phagolysosomes for eradication of infection...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941852/predictors-of-adverse-outcome-in-patients-of-tuberculous-meningitis-in-a-multi-centric-study-from-india
#14
Renu Gupta, Suman Kushwaha, Rajeev Thakur, Nupur Jalan, Pumanshi Rawat, Piyush Gupta, Amitesh Aggarwal, Meena Gupta, Vikas Manchanda
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the factors which may predict mortality and neurological disability at one year follow up in patients of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in India. METHODOLOGY: Patients with TBM were prospectively enrolled from July 2012 to September 2014 from four tertiary care hospitals of Delhi. The demographic characteristics, clinical features and laboratory findings were collected and patients were followed up till 1 year. These were analyzed by univariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of adverse patient outcome at 1 year follow up...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941848/drug-development-against-tuberculosis-past-present-and-future
#15
REVIEW
Mahesh S Vasava, Manoj N Bhoi, Sanjay K Rathwa, Mayuri A Borad, Sneha G Nair, Hitesh D Patel
Infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was observed as early as 5000 years ago with evidence, which is a primeval enemy of the humanoid race. MTB is the pathogen which is responsible for causing the infectious disease tuberculosis; it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in poor low-income countries as well as in developing countries because of non-availability of reliable laboratory facilities. The current treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is lengthy, complex, and connected with severe harmful side effects and poor outcomes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926571/whole-genome-sequencing-illuminates-the-evolution-and-spread-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-southwest-nigeria
#16
Madikay Senghore, Jacob Otu, Adam Witney, Florian Gehre, Emma L Doughty, Gemma L Kay, Phillip Butcher, Kayode Salako, Aderemi Kehinde, Nneka Onyejepu, Emmanuel Idigbe, Tumani Corrah, Bouke de Jong, Mark J Pallen, Martin Antonio
Nigeria has an emerging problem with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whole-genome sequencing was used to understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis and genetics of multi-drug resistance among patients from two tertiary referral centers in Southwest Nigeria. In line with previous molecular epidemiology studies, most isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from this dataset belonged to the Cameroon clade within the Euro-American lineage. Phylogenetic analysis showed this clade was undergoing clonal expansion in this region, and suggests that it was involved in community transmission of sensitive and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919150/in-vitro-anti-tuberculosis-activity-of-azole-drugs-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates
#17
Belén R Imperiale, Ángel A Cataldi, Nora S Morcillo
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis has been associated with the persistence of dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the organism of infected individuals, who are reservoirs of the bacilli and the source for spreading the disease in the community. New active anti-TB drugs exerting their metabolic action at different stages and on latent/dormant bacilli are urgently required to avoid endogenous reactivations and to be part of treatments of multi- and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB)...
September 14, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904562/proceedings-from-the-cih-lmu-5th-infectious-diseases-symposium-2016-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-old-disease-new-challenge
#18
Celso Khosa, Krutarth Patel, Karlygash Abdiyeva, Nurkeldi Turebekov, Bettina Prüller, Norbert Heinrich
The 5th CIH(LMU) Infectious Disease Symposium, Munich, Germany, March 12, 2016 brought together Tuberculosis Experts from developed and low middle-income countries to discuss the control of drug resistance Tuberculosis. The meeting featured 9 presentations: Tuberculosis history and current scenario, Tuberculosis and migration - current scenario in Germany, Mechanism of Tuberculosis resistance development, Epidemiology of resistance - transmission vs. new generation of resistance, The impact of diagnostic in patients beyond - sensitivity and specificity, The Bangladesh regimen - new hope trough old drugs, New drugs and regimens - an overview on studies and Multi and Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis from Europe...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904183/the-tb-portals-an-open-access-web-based-platform-for-global-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-data-sharing-and-analysis
#19
Alex Rosenthal, Andrei Gabrielian, Eric Engle, Darrell E Hurt, Sofia Alexandru, Valeriu Crudu, Eugene Sergueev, Valery Kirichenko, Vladzimir Lapitskii, Eduard Snezhko, Vassili Kovalev, Andrei Astrovko, Alena Skrahina, Jessica Taaffe, Michael Harris, Alyssa Long, Kurt Wollenberg, Irada Akhundova, Sharafat Ismayilova, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Elcan Mammadbayov, Hagigat Gadirova, Rafik Abuzarov, Mehriban Seyfaddinova, Zaza Avaliani, Irina Strambu, Dragos Zaharia, Alexandru Muntean, Eugenia Ghita, Miron Bogdan, Roxana Mindru, Victor Spinu, Alexandra Sora, Catalina Ene, Sergo Vashakidze, Natalia Shubladze, Ucha Nanava, Alexander Tuzikov, Michael Tartakovsky
The TB Portals Program is an international consortium of physicians, radiologists, and microbiologists from countries with a heavy burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis working with data scientists and IT professionals. Together, we have built the TB Portals, a repository of socioeconomic/geographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and genomic data from patient cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis and backed by shareable, physical samples. Currently, there are 1,299 total cases from five country sites (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, and Romania), of which 976 (75...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903800/predicting-treatment-failure-death-and-drug-resistance-using-a-computed-risk-score-among-newly-diagnosed-tb-patients-in-tamaulipas-mexico
#20
B E Abdelbary, M Garcia-Viveros, H Ramirez-Oropesa, M H Rahbar, B I Restrepo
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk for TB adverse events in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Surveillance data between 2006 and 2013 (8431 subjects) was used to develop risk scores based on predictive modelling. The final models revealed that TB patients failing their treatment regimen were more likely to have at most a primary school education, multi-drug resistance (MDR)-TB, and few to moderate bacilli on acid-fast bacilli smear. TB patients who died were more likely to be older males with MDR-TB, HIV, malnutrition, and reporting excessive alcohol use...
October 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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