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Myocardial infarction

Angele A A Mattoso, Jeane M Tsutsui, Ingrid Kowatsch, Vitória Y L Cruz, João C N Sbano, Henrique B Ribeiro, Roberto Kalil Filho, Thomas R Porter, Wilson Mathias
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the prognostic value of qualitative and quantitative analysis obtained by real-time myocardial perfusion echocardiography (RTMPE) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND: Quantification of myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) in patients with CAD using RTMPE has been demonstrated to further improve accuracy over the analysis of wall motion (WM) and qualitative analysis of myocardial perfusion (QMP)...
2017: PloS One
Shi-Zheng Wu, Ying-Lan Li, Wei Huang, Wen-Feng Cai, Jialiang Liang, Christian Paul, Lin Jiang, Zhi-Chao Wu, Meifeng Xu, Ping Zhu, Yigang Wang
It has been reported that CXCR4-overexpressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC(CX4) ) can repair heart tissue post myocardial infarction. This study aims to investigate the MSCCX4-derived paracrine cardio-protective signaling in the presence of myocardial infarction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were divided into 3 groups: MSC only, MSC(CX4) , and CXCR4 gene-specific siRNA-transduced MSC. Mesenchymal stem cells were exposed to hypoxia, and then MSCs-conditioned culture medium was incubated with neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes, respectively...
February 23, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
C Liebetrau, C W Hamm
Acute coronary syndrome without persistent ST-segment elevation (non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and instable angina pectoris NSTEMI-ACS) is common and is associated with a high mortality. In addition to 12-channel echocardiograph (ECG) assessment, measurement of cardiac troponins I and T are important for risk stratification and diagnosis. The introduction of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays and their implementation into clinical practice has influenced risk stratification and treatment of these patients...
February 23, 2017: Herz
Jeremy Pivetal, Filipa M Pereira, Ana I Barbosa, Ana P Castanheira, Nuno M Reis, Alexander D Edwards
This study reports for the first time the sensitive colorimetric and fluorescence detection of clinically relevant protein biomarkers by sandwich immunoassays using the covalent immobilisation of antibodies onto the fluoropolymer surface inside Teflon®-FEP microfluidic devices. Teflon®-FEP has outstanding optical transparency ideal for high-sensitivity colorimetric and fluorescence bioassays, however this thermoplastic is regarded as chemically inert and very hydrophobic. Covalent immobilisation can offer benefits over passive adsorption to plastic surfaces by allowing better control over antibody density, orientation and analyte binding capacity, and so we tested a range of different and novel covalent immobilisation strategies...
February 24, 2017: Analyst
Dror Luger, Michael J Lipinski, Peter C Westman, David K Glover, Julien Dimastromatteo, Juan C Frias, M T Albelda, Sergey Sikora, Alex Kharazi, Grigory Vertelov, Ron Waksman, Stephen E Epstein
Rationale: Virtually all mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) studies assume therapeutic effects accrue from local myocardial effects of engrafted MSCs. Since few intravenously-administered MSCs engraft in the myocardium, studies have mainly utilized direct myocardial delivery. We adopted a different paradigm. Objective: To test whether intravenously-administered MSCs reduce LV dysfunction both post-AMI and in ischemic cardiomyopathy, and that these effects are caused, at least partly, by systemic anti-inflammatory activities...
February 23, 2017: Circulation Research
Katrina K Poppe, Rob N Doughty, Sue Wells, Dudley Gentles, Harry Hemingway, Rod Jackson, Andrew J Kerr
OBJECTIVE: Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) vary significantly in their risk of future CVD events; yet few clinical scores are available to aid assessment of risk. We sought to develop a score for use in primary care that estimates short-term CVD risk in these patients. METHODS: Adults aged <80 years with prior CVD were identified from a New Zealand primary care cohort study (PREDICT), and linked to national mortality, hospitalisation and dispensing databases...
February 23, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Maame Yaa A B Yiadom, Christopher W Baugh, Conor M McWade, Xulei Liu, Kyoung Jun Song, Brian W Patterson, Cathy A Jenkins, Mary Tanski, Angela M Mills, Gilberto Salazar, Thomas J Wang, Robert S Dittus, Dandan Liu, Alan B Storrow
BACKGROUND: Timely diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the emergency department (ED) is made solely by ECG. Obtaining this test within 10 minutes of ED arrival is critical to achieving the best outcomes. We investigated variability in the timely identification of STEMI across institutions and whether performance variation was associated with the ED characteristics, the comprehensiveness of screening criteria, and the STEMI screening processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined STEMI screening performance in 7 EDs, with the missed case rate (MCR) as our primary end point...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Maryam S Daneshpour, Mohammad-Sadegh Fallah, Bahareh Sedaghati-Khayat, Kamran Guity, Davood Khalili, Mehdi Hedayati, Ahmad Ebrahimi, Farhad Hajsheikholeslami, Parvin Mirmiran, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Amir-Abbas Momenan, Arash Ghanbarian, Atieh Amouzegar, Parisa Amiri, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic risk factors comprise cardiovascular diseases and/or diabetes, and need to be evaluated in different fields. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the Tehran Cardiometabolic Genetic Study (TCGS) is to create a comprehensive genome-wide database of at least 16,000 Tehranians, who are participants of the ongoing Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) cohort. METHODS: TCGS was designed in collaboration with the Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences and the genetic company deCODE...
February 23, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
Marianne Parent, Igor Clarot, Sébastien Gibot, Marc Derive, Philippe Maincent, Pierre Leroy, Ariane Boudier
The LR12 peptide has been reported to reduce the size of infarct and improve both cardiac function and survival in myocardial infarction in murine models, after daily repeated intraperitoneal injections. In order to protect peptide from degrading and to prolong its release, in situ implants based on biocompatible biodegradable polymers were prepared and both in vitro and in vivo releases were evaluated after subcutaneous administration to Wistar rats. A progressive and complete release was obtained in vitro in 3 weeks...
February 19, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Chen Yanan, Li Haifeng, Li Meifeng, Niu Shubin, Wang Jiaxin, Shao Hongwei, Li Ting, Wang Hui
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (SMP) is one of the most important components in the water extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which has been mainly applied for the prevention or treatment of ischemic encephalopathy and cardiac diseases including myocardial infarction and coronary heart diseases in clinical practice. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our object is to investigate the immune regulation effects of SMP, specifically on the proliferation and cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes through MAPK and NF-κB pathway in peripheral blood of cancer patients...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Koon K Teo, Hisham Dokainish
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors, which are major health burdens in high-income countries, are a growing problem in developing or lower-income countries, where the vast majority of CVD now occurs. Two case-control studies, INTERHEART and INTERSTROKE, which included a majority of patients from developing countries, were seminal in identifying common risk factors explaining the vast majority of risk for acute myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively. The population-based Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, which included > 150,000 participants, also with a majority from developing countries, found that although high-income countries were at highest cardiovascular (CV) risk, they had the lowest incidence of CVD and associated case-fatality rates, whereas patients in low-income countries had the lowest CV risk and yet the highest CVD and case-fatality rates...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Benoit Laffont, Katey J Rayner
MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs, expressed in humans and involved in sequence-specific post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. They have emerged as key players in a wide array of biological processes, and changes in their expression and/or function have been associated with plethora of human diseases. Atherosclerosis and its related clinical complications, such as myocardial infarction or stroke, represent the leading cause of death in the Western world. Accumulating experimental evidence has revealed a key role for microRNAs in regulating cellular and molecular processes related to atherosclerosis development, ranging from risk factors, to plaque initiation and progression, up to atherosclerotic plaque rupture...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Erin A Bohula, David A Morrow, Robert P Giugliano, Michael A Blazing, Ping He, Jeong-Gun Park, Sabina A Murphy, Jennifer A White, Y Antero Kesaniemi, Terje R Pedersen, Adrian J Brady, Yale Mitchel, Christopher P Cannon, Eugene Braunwald
BACKGROUND: Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients stabilized after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) when added to statin therapy. After ACS, patients vary considerably in their risk for recurrent CV events. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that atherothrombotic risk stratification may be useful to identify post-ACS patients who have the greatest potential for benefit from the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy. METHODS: The TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) Risk Score for Secondary Prevention (TRS 2°P) is a simple 9-point risk stratification tool, previously developed in a large population with atherothrombosis to predict CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemic stroke (CV death/MI/ischemic cerebrovascular accident [iCVA])...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Islam Y Elgendy, Ahmed N Mahmoud, Dharam J Kumbhani, Deepak L Bhatt, Anthony A Bavry
OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to compare the effectiveness of the different revascularization strategies in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with multivessel coronary artery disease undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Recent randomized trials have suggested that multivessel complete revascularization at the time of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with better outcomes, however; the optimum timing for nonculprit PCI is unknown...
February 27, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
H K Awada, D W Long, Z Wang, M P Hwang, K Kim, Y Wang
After myocardial infarction (MI), the heart undergoes fibrotic pathological remodeling instead of repair and regeneration. With multiple pathologies developing after MI, treatment using several proteins is expected to address this range of pathologies more effectively than a single-agent therapy. A factorial design of experiments study guided us to combine three complementary factors in one injection: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) was embedded in a fibrin gel for signaling in the initial phase of the treatment, while basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and stromal cell-derived factor 1-alpha (SDF-1α) were embedded in heparin-based coacervates for sustained release and distributed within the same fibrin gel to exert their effects over a longer period...
February 17, 2017: Biomaterials
Jadee L Neff, Peter T Lin
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a nontraumatic, nondrowning death of an individual with epilepsy in which an autopsy with appropriate ancillary studies does not identify a cause of death. The mechanism of death in SUDEP is unknown, but is thought to involve cardiac and/or respiratory mechanisms. Research in SUDEP is hindered by a lack of consensus regarding required components of a death investigation before a cause of death may be certified as SUDEP. Histopathologic examination of the cardiac conduction system is not routinely performed in SUDEP death investigations...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Ying Wang, Liangjie Zhong, Xinhua Liu, Yi Zhun Zhu
Nox-dependent signaling plays critical roles in the development of heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy, and myocardial infarction. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) as a major source of oxidative stress in the heart offers a new therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. In the present work, a novel flavonoid was isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Its structure was elucidated as Quercetin-3-O-(6''-O-α-l-rhamnopyransoyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (ZYZ-772) for the first time. ZYZ-772 exhibited significant cardio-protective property against CoCl₂ induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte cells injury...
February 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Francesco Franchi, Fabiana Rollini, Dominick J Angiolillo
Antithrombotic therapy, including antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents, is the cornerstone of pharmacological treatment to optimize clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Intravenous anticoagulant drugs available for PPCI include the indirect thrombin inhibitors unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin, and the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin. Intravenous antiplatelet drugs mainly include glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and the P2Y12-receptor inhibitor cangrelor...
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Yan Ren, Jiao Jia, Jian Sa, Li-Xia Qiu, Yue-Hua Cui, Yue-An Zhang, Hong Yang, Gui-Fen Liu
BACKGROUND: While depression and certain cardiac biomarkers are associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the relationship between them remains largely unexplored. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and biomarkers in patients with AMI. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 103 patients with AMI between March 2013 and September 2014. The levels of depression, N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and troponin I (TnI) were measured at baseline...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
Daniel Juneau, Fernanda Erthal, Owen Clarkin, Atif Alzahrani, Ali Alenazy, Alomgir Hossain, Joao R Inacio, Girish Dwivedi, Alexander J Dick, Frank J Rybicki, Benjamin J W Chow
BACKGROUND: The adoption of prospectively ECG-triggered acquisition coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has resulted in the inability to measure left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction. However other prognostic measures such as LV mass and LV mid-diastolic volume (LVMDV) can still be assessed. The objective of this study is to establish normal reference values for LVMDV and LV mass. METHODS: Left ventricular mid-diastolic volumes and LV mass were prospectively measured in 2647 consecutive 'normal' patients undergoing prospectively ECG-triggered coronary CTA...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
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