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Short term studies

Chang-Gui Pan, You-Sheng Liu, Guang-Guo Ying
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs...
October 19, 2016: Water Research
Xiaobing Zhou, Hilda Smith, Ana Giraldo Silva, Jayne Belnap, Ferran Garcia-Pichel
N2 fixation and ammonia oxidation (AO) are the two most important processes in the nitrogen (N) cycle of biological soil crusts (BSCs). We studied the short-term response of acetylene reduction assay (ARA) rates, an indicator of potential N2 fixation, and AO rates to temperature (T, -5°C to 35°C) in BSC of different successional stages along the BSC ecological succession and geographic origin (hot Chihuahuan and cooler Great Basin deserts). ARA in all BSCs increased with T until saturation occurred between 15 and 20°C, and declined at 30-35°C...
2016: PloS One
Titia F Beek, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Walter P Bouman, Annelou L C de Vries, Thomas D Steensma, Gemma L Witcomb, Jon Arcelus, Christina Richards, Els Elaut, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels
The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently updating the tenth version of their diagnostic tool, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, WHO, 1992). Changes have been proposed for the diagnosis of Transsexualism (ICD-10) with regard to terminology, placement and content. The aim of this study was to gather the opinions of transgender individuals (and their relatives/partners) and clinicians in the Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium) and the United Kingdom regarding the proposed changes and the clinical applicability and utility of the ICD-11 criteria of 'Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood' (GIAA)...
2016: PloS One
José Alcaraz-Quiles, Esther Titos, Mireia Casulleras, Marco Pavesi, Cristina López-Vicario, Bibiana Rius, Aritz Lopategi, Andrea de Gottardi, Ivo Graziadei, Henning Gronbaek, Pere Ginès, Mauro Bernardi, Vicente Arroyo, Joan Clària
: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in cirrhosis is an increasingly recognized syndrome characterized by acute decompensation, organ failure(s) and high short-term mortality. Recent findings suggest that an over-exuberant systemic inflammation plays a primary role in ACLF progression. In this study, we examined whether genetic factors shape systemic immune responses in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammation-related genes (IL-1β: rs1143623, IL-1ra: rs4251961, IL-10: rs1800871, SOCS3: rs4969170, NOD2: rs3135500 and CMKLR1: rs1878022) were genotyped in 279 cirrhotic patients with (n=178) and without (n=101) ACLF from the CANONIC study of the CLIF consortium...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Minji Yang, GilJae Lee, Jiyeon Si, Sung-Joon Lee, Hyun Ju You, GwangPyo Ko
Phytochemicals provide environmentally friendly and relatively inexpensive natural products, which could potentially benefit public health by controlling human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. In this study, 18 different phytochemicals were evaluated for antiviral effects against norovirus using murine norovirus (MNV) as a model for norovirus biology. Among these phytochemicals, curcumin (CCM) was the most potent anti-noroviral phytochemical, followed by resveratrol (RVT). In a cell culture infection model, exposure to CCM or RVT for 3 days reduced infectivity of norovirus by 91% and 80%, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Dong Qian, Bei Wang, Yun Qing, Tao Zhang, Yu Zhang, Xing Wang, Masatoshi Nakamura
Daytime short nap involves physiological processes, such as alertness, drowsiness and sleep. The study of the relationship between drowsiness and nap based on physiological signals is a great way to have a better understanding of the periodical rhymes of physiological states. A model of Bayesian nonnegative CP decomposition (BNCPD) was proposed to extract common multiway features from the group-level electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. As an extension of the nonnegative CP decomposition, the BNCPD model involves prior distributions of factor matrices, while the underlying CP rank could be determined automatically based on a Bayesian nonparametric approach...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Nancy M Heddle, Richard J Cook, Donald M Arnold, Yang Liu, Rebecca Barty, Mark A Crowther, P J Devereaux, Jack Hirsh, Theodore E Warkentin, Kathryn E Webert, David Roxby, Magdalena Sobieraj-Teague, Andrea Kurz, Daniel I Sessler, Priscilla Figueroa, Martin Ellis, John W Eikelboom
Background Randomized, controlled trials have suggested that the transfusion of blood after prolonged storage does not increase the risk of adverse outcomes among patients, although most of these trials were restricted to high-risk populations and were not powered to detect small but clinically important differences in mortality. We sought to find out whether the duration of blood storage would have an effect on mortality after transfusion in a general population of hospitalized patients. Methods In this pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial conducted at six hospitals in four countries, we randomly assigned patients who required a red-cell transfusion to receive blood that had been stored for the shortest duration (short-term storage group) or the longest duration (long-term storage group) in a 1:2 ratio...
October 24, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Audrey-Elodie Mercier, Emmanuel Ribeiro, Jean-François Korobelnik, Marie-Noëlle Delyfer, Marie-Bénédicte Rougier
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of anti-TNF alpha (TNF-α) therapy in patients with non-infectious uveitis. METHODS: This was a monocentric observational study of 21 patients with non-infectious uveitis treated with anti-TNF-alpha. The primary endpoint was the control of ocular inflammation. The secondary endpoints included the study of macular thickness and visual acuity, changes in other treatments, and adverse effects. RESULTS: The etiologies of uveitis were Behçet disease (33...
October 24, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Sarah Carter Narendorf, Michelle R Munson, Micki Washburn, Nicole Fedoravicius, Richard Wagner, Sara K Flores
Young adults have low rates of outpatient service utilization and higher rates of emergency service use compared to older adults. This study explored pathways to crisis service use for uninsured young adults who accessed emergency psychiatric treatment. Participants were 55 young adults (ages 18-25) who were on an inpatient short-term stabilization unit and had qualifying diagnoses for outpatient services (bipolar, major depression, or schizophrenia). Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted to understand decision-making and the events that led to service use...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Jalie A Tucker, JeeWon Cheong, Susan D Chandler, Brice H Lambert, Brittney Pietrzak, Heather Kwok, Susan L Davies
BACKGROUND: As interventions have expanded beyond clinical treatment to include brief interventions for persons with less severe alcohol problems, predicting who can achieve stable moderation drinking has gained importance. Recent behavioral economic (BE) research on natural recovery has shown that active problem drinkers who allocate their monetary expenditures on alcohol and saving for the future over longer time horizons tend to have better subsequent recovery outcomes, including maintenance of stable moderation drinking...
October 24, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Anita S Iyer, Malika Bouhenia, John Rumunu, Abdinasir Abubakar, Randon J Gruninger, Jane Pita, Richard Lako Lino, Lul L Deng, Joseph F Wamala, Edward T Ryan, Stephen Martin, Dominique Legros, Justin Lessler, David A Sack, Francisco J Luquero, Daniel T Leung, Andrew S Azman
Despite recent large-scale cholera outbreaks, little is known about the immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines (OCV) in African populations, particularly among those at highest cholera risk. During a 2015 preemptive OCV campaign among internally displaced persons in South Sudan, a year after a large cholera outbreak, we enrolled 37 young children (1-5 years old), 67 older children (6-17 years old) and 101 adults (≥18 years old), who received two doses of OCV (Shanchol) spaced approximately 3 weeks apart...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Geoffrey Blondelle, Mathieu Hainselin, Yannick Gounden, Laurent Heurley, Hélène Voisin, Olga Megalakaki, Estelle Bressous, Véronique Quaglino
BACKGROUND: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18-30), 16 intermediate adults (40-55), and 25 older adults (65-80)...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
Zhaowei Kong, Shengyan Sun, Min Liu, Qingde Shi
This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
J Graham Thomas, Andrew Seiden, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Warren K Bickel, Rena R Wing
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine how sensitivity to short-term reward and long-term goal perseverance are related to body mass index (BMI; kg m(2)) in a large sample of men and women with and without obesity. METHODS: A total of 450 participants (56.2% male; 73.1% non-Hispanic White) with mean ± standard deviation age of 30.7 ± 10.4 years and BMI of 29.3 ± 8.2 completed online versions of the Delayed Reward Discounting task to measure sensitivity to short-term reward and the Grit Scale to measure long-term goal perseverance...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
Jia Zhao, Jiangang Liu, Xin Jiang, Guifei Zhou, Guowei Chen, Xiao P Ding, Genyue Fu, Kang Lee
Executive function (EF) plays vital roles in our everyday adaptation to the ever-changing environment. However, limited existing studies have linked EF to the resting-state brain activity. The functional connectivity in the resting state between the sub-regions of the brain can reveal the intrinsic neural mechanisms involved in cognitive processing of EF without disturbance from external stimuli. The present study investigated the relations between the behavioral executive function (EF) scores and the resting-state functional network topological properties in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Katja Kettler, Christina Giannakou, Wim H de Jong, A Jan Hendriks, Petra Krystek
Human health risks by silver nanoparticle (AgNP) exposure are likely to increase due to the increasing number of NP-containing products and demonstrated adverse effects in various cell lines. Unfortunately, results from (toxicity) studies are often based on exposure dose and are often measured only at a fixed time point. NP uptake kinetics and the time-dependent internal cellular concentration are often not considered. Macrophages are the first line of defense against invading foreign agents including NPs. How macrophages deal with the particles is essential for potential toxicity of the NPs...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
J R Ryder, A Kaizer, K D Rudser, A Gross, A S Kelly, C K Fox
Phentermine is the most widely prescribed obesity medication in adults, yet studies of its use in the pediatric population are limited. We conducted a retrospective chart review of adolescents with obesity treated in a pediatric weight management clinic to examine the weight loss effectiveness of phentermine added to standard of care lifestyle modification therapy (SOC) versus SOC alone. All patients receiving phentermine plus SOC (n=25) were matched with a comparison group receiving only SOC (n=274). Differences at 1, 3, and 6 months were evaluated using generalized estimated equations adjusting for age, sex, and baseline body mass index (BMI) and robust variance standard error estimates for confidence intervals and P-values...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ken M Kunisaki, Dennis E Niewoehner, Gary Collins, Bitten Aagaard, Nafisah B Atako, Elzbieta Bakowska, Amanda Clarke, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Ernest Ekong, Sean Emery, Elizabeth B Finley, Eric Florence, Rosa M Infante, Cissy M Kityo, Juan Sierra Madero, Daniel E Nixon, Ellen Tedaldi, Jørgen Vestbo, Robin Wood, John E Connett
BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Ahmad Reza Bagheri, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Arash Asfaram, Ali Akbar Bazrafshan, Ramin Jannesar
The present study the ultrasound assisted adsorption of dyes in single system onto Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Fe3O4-MNPs-AC) was described following characterization and identification of this adsorbent by conventional techniques likes field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, particle-size distribution, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A central composite design in conjunction with a response surface methodology according to f-test and t-test for recognition and judgment about significant term led to construction of quadratic model which represent relation among responses and effective terms...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Giovanna Squintani, Francesco Donato, Mara Turri, Luciano Deotto, Francesco Teatini, Giuseppe Moretto, Roberto Erro
BACKGROUND: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®) has been recently approved for the management of treatment-resistant multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity. Although the symptomatic relief of Sativex® on MS-spasticity has been consistently demonstrated, the pathogenetic implications remain unclear and the few electrophysiological studies performed to address this topic yielded controversial results. We therefore aimed to investigate the mechanisms underpinning the modulation of spastic hypertonia by Sativex®, at both central and spinal levels, through an extensive neurophysiological battery in patients with MS...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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