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Short term studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350853/impacts-of-120-years-of-fertilizer-addition-on-a-temperate-grassland-ecosystem
#1
Jonathan Kidd, Peter Manning, Janet Simkin, Simon Peacock, Elizabeth Stockdale
The widespread application of fertilizers has greatly influenced many processes and properties of agroecosystems, and agricultural fertilization is expected to increase even further in the future. To date, most research on fertilizer impacts has used short-term studies, which may be unrepresentative of long-term responses, thus hindering our capacity to predict long-term impacts. Here, we examined the effects of long-term fertilizer addition on key ecosystem properties in a long-term grassland experiment (Palace Leas Hay Meadow) in which farmyard manure (FYM) and inorganic fertilizer treatments have been applied consistently for 120 years in order to characterize the experimental site more fully and compare ecosystem responses with those observed at other long-term and short-term experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350744/usefulness-of-the-glasgow-blatchford-score-to-predict-1-week-mortality-in-patients-with-esophageal-variceal-bleeding
#2
Chikara Iino, Tadashi Shimoyama, Takasato Igarashi, Tomoyuki Aihara, Kentaro Ishii, Jyuichi Sakamoto, Hiroshi Tono, Shinsaku Fukuda
OBJECTIVES: Esophageal variceal bleeding is one of the most severe complications of liver cirrhosis, with high mortality. However, there is no established scoring system for short-term mortality in patients with esophageal variceal bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS), the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and the Child-Pugh score for predicting short-term and hospital mortality in patients with esophageal variceal bleeding...
May 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350638/short-term-impact-of-meaningful-use-stage-1-implementation-a-comparison-of-health-outcomes-in-2-primary-care-clinics
#3
Anna M Afonso, Susana Alfonso, Toyosi O Morgan
We studied a primary care clinic transitioning to Meaningful Use stage 1 and a comparison clinic within the same health system. In the 6 months following implementation, after adjusting for confounders, mean systolic blood pressure worsened (+3.3 mm Hg; P = .004) in the intervention clinic compared with the comparison clinic. We did not see a change in the mean or proportion of patients meeting target goals for diabetes (hemoglobin A1c) or obesity (body mass index). Our findings suggest that the worsening of systolic blood pressure associated with Meaningful Use implementation is likely due to distractions of system changes negatively impacting health outcomes...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Ambulatory Care Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350578/increasing-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-uptake-among-adult-men-in-tanzania
#4
Mwita Wambura, Hally Mahler, Jonathan M Grund, Natasha Larke, Gerry Mshana, Evodius Kuringe, Marya Plotkin, Gissenge Lija, Maende Makokha, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Richard J Hayes, John Changalucha, Helen A Weiss
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated a demand-creation intervention to increase voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) uptake among men aged 20-34 years in Tanzania, to maximise short-term impact on HIV incidence. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial stratified by region was conducted in 20 outreach sites in Njombe and Tabora regions. The sites were randomized 1 : 1 to receive either a demand-creation intervention package in addition to standard VMMC outreach, or standard VMMC outreach alone...
April 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346851/aquatic-therapy-for-people-with-lymphedema-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Wai Yeung, Adam I Semciw
BACKGROUND: Aquatic therapy has several proposed benefits for people with lymphedema. A systematic review of the evidence for aquatic therapy in lymphedema management has not been conducted. METHOD AND RESULTS: Systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Five electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of people with lymphedema, which compared aquatic therapy with other lymphedema interventions. Qualitative analysis was undertaken where quantitative analysis was not possible...
March 27, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346765/the-medial-temporal-memory-system-in-down-syndrome-translating-animal-models-of-hippocampal-compromise
#6
Caron A C Clark, Fabian Fernandez, Stella Sakhon, Goffredina Spanò, Jamie O Edgin
Recent studies have highlighted the dentate gyrus as a region of increased vulnerability in mouse models of Down syndrome (DS). It is unclear to what extent these findings are reflected in the memory profile of people with the condition. We developed a series of novel tasks to probe distinct medial temporal functions in children and young adults with DS, including object, spatial, and serial order memory. Relative to mental age-matched controls (n = 45), individuals with DS (n = 28) were unimpaired on subtests involving short-term object or configural recall that was divorced from spatial or temporal contexts...
March 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346394/engineered-resistant-starch-ers-diet-shapes-colon-microbiota-profile-in-parallel-with-the-retardation-of-tumor-growth-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pancreatic-cancer-models
#7
Concetta Panebianco, Kaarel Adamberg, Signe Adamberg, Chiara Saracino, Madis Jaagura, Kaia Kolk, Anna Grazia Di Chio, Paolo Graziano, Raivo Vilu, Valerio Pazienza
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. We have previously demonstrated that short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an engineered resistant-starch (ERS) mimicking diet on the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro, on the composition of fecal microbiota, and on tumor growth in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model...
March 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346343/lifetime-exposure-to-a-constant-environment-amplifies-the-impact-of-a-fructose-rich-diet-on-glucose-homeostasis-during-pregnancy
#8
Aleida Song, Stuart Astbury, Abha Hoedl, Brent Nielsen, Michael E Symonds, Rhonda C Bell
The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a short period of acclimation are investigated (Gen0). We demonstrate that female offspring (Gen1) show an exaggerated hyperinsulinemic response to pregnancy when fed a standard diet and with high fructose intake, which continues throughout pregnancy...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345961/the-short-term-efficacy-of-an-unguided-internet-based-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-a-six-month-nonrandomized-follow-up
#9
Susanne Hagatun, Øystein Vedaa, Tine Nordgreen, Otto R F Smith, Ståle Pallesen, Odd E Havik, Bjørn Bjorvatn, Frances P Thorndike, Lee M Ritterband, Børge Sivertsen
OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is a major health problem, and the need for effective and accessible treatment is urgent. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy of an unguided Internet-based cognitive-behavioral treatment program for insomnia (CBTi), called SHUTi (Sleep Healthy Using the Internet). METHODS: This study used a parallel arm randomized controlled trial in Norway. Participants were randomly allocated to the SHUTi condition or a Web-based patient education condition...
March 27, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345935/targeting-self-binding-peptides-as-a-novel-strategy-to-regulate-protein-activity-and-function-a-case-study-on-the-proto-oncogene-tyrosine-protein-kinase-c-src
#10
Zhengya Bai, Shasha Hou, Shilei Zhang, Zhongyan Li, Peng Zhou
Previously, we have reported a new biomolecular phenomenon spanning between protein folding and binding, termed as self-binding peptides (SBPs), where a short peptide segment in monomeric protein functions as molecular switch by dynamically binding to/unbinding from its cognate domain in the monomer (Yang C, Zhang S, He P, Wang C, Huang J, Zhou P. Self-binding peptides: folding or binding? J. Chem. Inf. MODEL: 2015, 55: 329-342). Here, we attempt to raise the SBP as a new class of druggable targets to regulate the biological activity and function of proteins...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345896/transcriptomics-and-lipidomics-of-the-environmental-strain-rhodococcus-ruber-point-out-consumption-pathways-and-potential-metabolic-bottlenecks-for-polyethylene-degradation
#11
Kevin Gravouil, Romain Ferru-Clement, Steven Colas, Reynald Helye, Linette Kadri, Ludivine Bourdeau, Bouziane Moumen, Anne Mercier, Thierry Ferreira
Polyethylene (PE), one of the most prominent synthetic polymer used worldwide, is very poorly biodegradable in the natural environment. Consequently, PE represents by itself more than half of all plastic wastes. PE biodegradation is achieved through the combination of abiotic and biotic processes. Several microorganisms have been shown to grow on the surface of PE materials, among which are the species of the Rhodococcus genus, suggesting a potent ability of these microorganisms to use, at least partly, PE as a potent carbon source...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345890/relationship-of-microbiota-and-cyanobacterial-secondary-metabolites-in-planktothricoides-dominated-bloom
#12
Shu Harn Te, Boon Fei Tan, Janelle Renee Thompson, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
Identification of phytoplankton species and microbial biodiversity is necessary to assess water ecosystem health and the quality of water resources. We investigated the short-term (2 days) vertical and diel variations in bacterial community structure and microbially-derived secondary metabolites during a cyanobacterial bloom that emerged in a highly urbanized tropical reservoir. The waterbody was largely dominated by the cyanobacteria Planktothricoides spp., together with the Synechococcus, Pseudanabaena, Prochlorothrix and Limnothrix...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345807/low-fodmap-in-2017-lessons-learned-from-clinical-trials-and-mechanistic-studies
#13
REVIEW
S Eswaran
Given the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the suboptimal response to most therapeutic approaches, there has been increasing interest in and adoption of dietary treatment strategies, such as the low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, & Mono-Saccharides and Polyols (FODMAP) diet. FODMAPs are a diverse group of carbohydrates that exert effects in the gastrointestinal tract not only via fermentation but likely via alterations in the microbiota, metabolome, permeability, and intestinal immunity as well. Clinical evidence for efficacy of this diet is mounting, but there are significant questions regarding short- and long-term safety and effects on the microbiota and nutrition that remain unanswered...
April 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345481/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-implementing-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-in-critical-care-units
#14
Jesus Ruiz-Ramos, Juan Frasquet, Eva Romá, Jose Luis Poveda-Andres, Miguel Salavert-Leti, Alvaro Catellanos, Paula Ramirez
AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programme implementation focused on critical care units based on assumptions for the Spanish setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A decision model comparing costs and outcomes of sepsis, community-acquired pneumonia, and nosocomial infections (including catheter-related bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia) in critical care units with or without an AS was designed...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345442/predicting-1-year-statin-adherence-among-prevalent-users-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Alexis A Krumme, Jessica M Franklin, Danielle L Isaman, Olga S Matlin, Angela Y Tong, Claire M Spettell, Troyen A Brennan, William H Shrank, Niteesh K Choudhry
BACKGROUND: Attempts to predict who is at risk of future nonadherence have largely focused on predictions at the time of therapy initiation; however, these users are only a small proportion of all patients on therapy at any point in time. Methods to predict nonadherence for established medication users, which have not been previously described in the literature, would be helpful to guide efforts to enhance the use of evidence-based therapies. OBJECTIVE: To test approaches for adherence prediction among prevalent statin users, namely the use of short-term filling behavior, investigator-specified predictors from medical and pharmacy administrative claims, and the empirical selection of potential predictors using the high-dimensional propensity score variable selection algorithm...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345364/anatomically-contoured-anterior-plating-for-isolated-tibiotalar-arthrodesis
#16
Nicholas Kusnezov, John C Dunn, Logan R Koehler, Justin D Orr
INTRODUCTION: We performed a systematic review of the published literature to characterize patient demographic, surgical techniques, and functional outcomes to elucidate the complication and revision rates following isolated tibiotalar arthrodesis with anatomically contoured anterior plating. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed studies in English, after 1990, at least 10 patients, and reporting clinical outcomes following contoured anterior plating and with follow-up of at least 80% and 1 year...
March 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345299/a-prospective-study-of-health-related-quality-of-life-of-boys-with-severe-haemophilia-a-in-china-comparing-on-demand-to-prophylaxis-treatment
#17
R Wu, J Sun, J Xiao, Y Liu, F Xue, H Wang, L Tang, Y Zhao, K Li, R Yang, Y Hu, K-H Luke, M-C Poon, V S Blanchette, K Usuba, N L Young
INTRODUCTION: Treatment for boys with haemophilia in China is rapidly improving; however, comprehensive outcomes have not been examined prospectively. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short-term full-dose prophylaxis compared to on-demand treatment, on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HR-QoL) of boys with severe haemophilia A (HA) in China. METHODS: Boys with severe HA (FVIII<1%) completed 3 months of on-demand treatment and 3 months of full-dose prophylaxis (25 FVIII IU per kg 3x per week)...
March 27, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345145/air-pollution-and-short-term-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#18
Min Woo Lee, Byoung Geol Choi, Suhng Wook Kim, Seung-Woon Rha, Min Suk Shim, Dae Jin Kim, Hong Seog Seo, Dong Joo Oh, Myung Ho Jeong
1.Ambient air pollution is well-known to be a serious risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and death. However, the association between air pollutants (AP) exposure and short-term clinical outcomes in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients (pts) is not well elucidated yet. 2.In the present study, 37,880 AMI pts were enrolled finally from October 2005 to December 2013 in a nationwide large-scale, prospective, multicenter Korea AMI registry (KAMIR registry; http://www.kamir.or.kr). We obtained data on AP (e...
March 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344963/comparison-of-sexual-function-between-sacrocolpopexy-and-sacrocervicopexy
#19
Yon Chu Ko, Eun-Hee Yoo, Gwan Hee Han, Young-Mi Kim
OBJECTIVE: To compare sexual function before and 12 months after between sacrocolpopexy and sacrocervicopexy. METHODS: This retrospective study examined a cohort of 55 sexually active women who underwent either supracervical hysterectomy with sacrocervicopexy (n=28) or total abdominal hysterectomy with sacrocolpopexy (n=27) for stage II to IV pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic floor support was measured with Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Quantification examination. Pelvic floor function was measured with the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-Short Form 20 and sexual function was measured with Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire-Short Form 12 (PISQ-12)...
March 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344958/perioperative-administration-of-propranolol-to-women-undergoing-ovarian-cancer-surgery-a-pilot-study
#20
Hye-In Jang, Soo-Hyun Lim, Yoo-Young Lee, Tae-Joong Kim, Chel Hun Choi, Jeong-Won Lee, Byoung-Gie Kim, Duk-Soo Bae
OBJECTIVE: This study was done to evaluate whether perioperative propranolol (ß-blocker) in ovarian cancer patients undergoing debulking surgery reduced perioperative tumor growth induced by surgical stress. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized single institution analysis. The primary objective was to compare the changes in CA 125 level (changes between preoperation day 2 and postoperative day 7). As a study arm, patients received a low dose of propranolol 40 mg/day (4×10 mg) starting two days before surgery and 40 mg twice daily for three days following surgery...
March 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
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