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Chemoprevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806079/pilot-in-vivo-structure-activity-relationship-of-dihydromethys-ticin-in-blocking-4-methylnitrosamino-1-3-pyridyl-1-butanone-induced-o6-methylguanine-and-lung-tumor-in-a-j-mice
#1
Manohar Puppala, Sreekanth C Narayanapillai, Pablo Leitzman, Haifeng Sun, Pramod Upadhyaya, M Gerard O'Sullivan, Stephen S Hecht, Chengguo Xing
(+)-Dihydromethysticin was recently identified as a promising lung cancer chemopreventive agent while (+)-dihydrokavain was completely ineffective. A pilot in vivo structure-activity relationship (SAR) was explored, evaluating the efficacy of its analogs in blocking 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced short-term O6-methylguanine and long-term adenoma formation in the lung tissues in A/J mice. Both results revealed cohesive SARs, demonstrating that the methylenedioxy functional group in DHM is essential while the lactone functional group tolerates modifications...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801714/parthenolide-attenuates-7-12-dimethylbenz-a-anthracene-induced-hamster-buccal-pouch-carcinogenesis
#2
Nagarethinam Baskaran, Govindan Sadasivam Selvam, Subramani Yuvaraj, Albert Abhishek
Over the decades, the survival rates for oral cancer have not improved despite development in novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the present study is aimed at investigating the chemopreventive potential of parthenolide in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. The hamsters were divided into 4 groups (n = 6/group). Group I was treated as control. Groups II and III were painted with a solution of 0.5% DMBA three times per week for 14 weeks on the left buccal pouches. In addition, group III were orally administrated with parthenolide 2 mg/kg b...
August 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799785/anthocyanins-anthocyanidins-and-colorectal-cancer-what-is-behind-the-scenes
#3
Luís Fernando de Sousa Moraes, Xiaofei Sun, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Mei-Jun Zhu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cause of cancer death. Phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins/anthocyanidins (A/A), have gathered attention of the scientific community owing to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cancer-inhibitory properties. In this review, we discussed the possible mechanisms whereby A/A exhibit intestinal anticarcinogenic characteristics. Anthocyanins/anthocyanidins inhibit the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway, attenuate Wnt signaling and suppress abnormal epithelial cell proliferation...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797263/measuring-the-impact-of-seasonal-malaria-chemoprevention-as-part-of-routine-malaria-control-in-kita-mali
#4
Fatou Diawara, Laura C Steinhardt, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Tiangoua Traore, Daouda T Kone, Halimatou Diawara, Beh Kamate, Diakalia Kone, Mouctar Diallo, Aboubacar Sadou, Jules Mihigo, Issaka Sagara, Abdoulaye A Djimde, Erin Eckert, Alassane Dicko
BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a new strategy recommended by WHO in areas of highly seasonal transmission in March 2012. Although randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown SMC to be highly effective, evidence and experience from routine implementation of SMC are limited. METHODS: A non-randomized pragmatic trial with pre-post design was used, with one intervention district (Kita), where four rounds of SMC with sulfadoxine + amodiaquine (SP + AQ) took place in August-November 2014, and one comparison district (Bafoulabe)...
August 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795024/chemopreventive-effect-of-artesunate-in-1-2-dimethylhydrazine-induced-rat-colon-carcinogenesis
#5
Sazal Patyar, Rakesh Raman Patyar, Bikash Medhi, Krishan Lal Khanduja
Artesunate (ART) is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin. Artemisinin and its derivatives have shown profound cytotoxicity and antitumor activity in addition to antimalarial activity in various studies. As the in vivo chemopreventive efficacy of ART in colon carcinogenesis has not been investigated so far, the aim of the current study was to study the chemopreventive effect of ART in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 6): Group I - vehicle (1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), Group II - DMH (20 mg/kg), Group III - DMH + 5-fluorouracil (81 mg/kg), Group IV - DMH + ART (6...
July 2017: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791695/use-of-antidepressants-and-risk-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#6
Lina S Mørch, Christian Dehlendorff, Louise Baandrup, Søren Friis, Susanne K Kjaer
Antidepressants are widely prescribed among women to treat depression and anxiety disorders, but studies of their effects on gynecological cancer risk are sparse. We assessed associations between various antidepressants and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. By using Danish nationwide registers, we identified all women (cases) aged 30 to 84 years with incident epithelial (serous, endometrioid, clear cell or mucinous) ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 (n= 4,103) and matched each case to 20 population controls (n=58,706) by risk-set matching...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791495/joint-relative-risks-for-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-from-a-clinical-model-polygenic-risk-score-and-sex-hormones
#7
Yiwey Shieh, Donglei Hu, Lin Ma, Scott Huntsman, Charlotte C Gard, Jessica W T Leung, Jeffrey A Tice, Elad Ziv, Karla Kerlikowske, Steven R Cummings
BACKGROUND: Models that predict the risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers may improve our ability to target chemoprevention. We investigated the contributions of sex hormones to the discrimination of the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model and a polygenic risk score comprised of 83 single nucleotide polymorphisms. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 110 women with ER-positive breast cancers and 214 matched controls within a mammography screening cohort...
August 8, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782952/biotransformation-of-chrysin-to-baicalein-selective-c6-hydroxylation-of-5-7-dihydroxyflavone-using-whole-yeast-cells-stably-expressing-human-cyp1a1-enzyme
#8
Ibidapo S Williams, Shifali Chib, Vijay J Nuthakki, Linda Gatchie, Prashant Joshi, Niteen A Narkhede, Ram A Vishwakarma, Sandip B Bharate, Saurabh Saran, Bhabatosh Chaudhuri
Naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds are of medicinal importance because of their unique antioxidant, anticancer, and chemopreventive properties. Baicalein, a naturally occurring polyhydroxy flavonoid possessing a diverse range of pharmacological activities, has been used in traditional medicines for treatment of various ailments. Apart from its isolation from natural sources, its synthesis has been reported via multistep chemical approaches. Here, we report a preparative-scale biotransformation, using whole yeast cells stably expressing human cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) enzyme that allows regioselective C6-hydroxylation of 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin) to form 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone (baicalein)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780474/protective-effect-of-p-coumaric-acid-against-1-2-dimethylhydrazine-induced-colonic-preneoplastic-lesions-in-experimental-rats
#9
Sharada H Sharma, David Raj Chellappan, Prabu Chinnaswamy, Sangeetha Nagarajan
Oxidative stress and gut microbial enzymes are intricately linked to the onset of colon carcinogenesis. Phytochemicals that modulate these two factors hold promise for the development of such agents as anticancer drugs. The present study evaluates the chemopreventive potential of p-coumaric acid (p-CA) - a phenolic acid in rats challenged with the colon specific procarcinogen DMH (1,2 di-methyl hydrazine). Rats were randomized into six groups (n=7/group). Group 1 (control); Group 2 (p-CA 200mg/kg b.w.); Group 3 (DMH 40mg/kg b...
August 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776080/repurposing-metformin-for-the-prevention-of-cancer-and-cancer-recurrence
#10
REVIEW
Brandy M Heckman-Stoddard, Andrea DeCensi, Vikrant V Sahasrabuddhe, Leslie G Ford
Multiple epidemiological studies have documented an association between metformin, used for treatment of type 2 diabetes, and reduced cancer incidence and mortality. Cell line models may not accurately reflect the effects of metformin in the clinical setting. Moreover, findings from animal model studies have been inconsistent, whilst those from more recent epidemiological studies have tempered the overall effect size. The purpose of this review is to examine metformin's chemopreventive potential by outlining relevant mechanisms of action, the most recent epidemiologic evidence, and recently completed and ongoing clinical trials...
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772225/an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-quantitation-of-chemopreventive-sphingadienes-in-food-products-and-biological-samples
#11
J H Suh, A M Makarova, J M Gomez, L A Paul, J D Saba
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality. Diet has a significant influence on colon cancer risk. Identifying chemopreventive agents, dietary constituents, practices and/or diet supplements that promote gut health and reduce the incidence of intestinal neoplasias and CRC could significantly impact public health. Sphingadienes (SDs) are dietary sphingolipids found in plant-based food products. SDs are cytotoxic to colon cancer cells and exhibit chemopreventive properties. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitive and robust ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for quantifying SDs in food products and biological samples...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771198/prevention-of-gastric-cancer-eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Tetsuya Tsukamoto, Mitsuru Nakagawa, Yuka Kiriyama, Takeshi Toyoda, Xueyuan Cao
Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770178/chemopreventive-and-chemotherapeutic-effects-of-fish-oil-derived-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-colon-carcinogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Ja Young Lee, Tae-Bu Sim, Jeong-Eun Lee, Hye-Kyung Na
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that there is an association between consumption of dietary fat and colon cancer risk. Not only the amount but also the type and the ratio of fatty acids comprising dietary fats consumed have been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of colon cancer. Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been known to inhibit development of colon cancer by downregulating the expression of genes involved in colon carcinogenesis and also by altering the membrane lipid composition...
July 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769987/anticancer-effects-of-sinocrassulosides-vi-vii-from-silene-viscidula-on-hela-cells
#14
Hang Chen, Qian Ma, Wei Xu, Wan-Ming Li, De-Zheng Yuan, Jia-Mei Wu, Yu-Shan Li, Jin Fang
Natural products are becoming increasingly important in chemoprevention and for cancer therapy. Silene viscidula (S. viscidula), a traditional Chinese herb, has long been used as an anti-inflammatory and neuroleptic agent. However, the anticancer activity of S. viscidula has remained unclear. In this study, 16 compounds were extracted from S. viscidula. Among those compounds, sinocrassulosides VI/VII, an inseparable isomer mixture, possess the strongest inhibitory activity on HeLa cells with the IC50 value of 2...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768836/s-equol-activates-camp-signaling-at-the-plasma-membrane-of-ins-1-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-protects-against-streptozotocin-induced-hyperglycemia-by-increasing-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-male-mice
#15
Hiroko Horiuchi, Atsuko Usami, Rie Shirai, Naoki Harada, Shinichi Ikushiro, Toshiyuki Sakaki, Yoshihisa Nakano, Hiroshi Inui, Ryoichi Yamaji
Background:S-equol, which is enantioselectively produced from daidzein by gut microbiota, has been suggested as a chemopreventive agent against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.Objective: We investigated the effects of S-equol on pancreatic β-cell function.Methods: β-Cell growth and insulin secretion were evaluated with male Institute of Cancer Research mice and isolated pancreatic islets from the mice, respectively. The mechanisms by which S-equol stimulated β-cell response were examined in INS-1 β-cells...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767463/can-the-sum-of-adenoma-diameters-adenoma-bulk-on-index-examination-predict-risk-of-metachronous-advanced-neoplasia
#16
Joseph C Anderson, Carolyn B Morris, Douglas J Robertson, Elizabeth L R Barry, Jane C Figueiredo, Marcia Cruz-Correa, Roberd M Bostick, Dennis J Ahnen, John A Baron
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that adenoma size and number are more important predictors of metachronous colorectal neoplasia than advanced histology. Furthermore, there is poor reproducibility in diagnosing advanced histology; high-grade dysplasia and villous histology. Therefore we developed a new metric, adenoma bulk, the sum of diameters of all baseline adenomas, regardless of advanced features. GOAL: Compare the predictive value for metachronous advanced neoplasia of adenoma bulk to conventional paradigm...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767162/protective-molecular-mechanisms-of-resveratrol-in-uvr-induced-skin-carcinogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Saba W Aziz, Moammir H Aziz
Skin cancer is a major health problem worldwide. It is the most common cancer in the United States and poses a significant healthcare burden. Excessive UVR exposure is the most common cause of skin cancer. Despite various precautionary measures to avoid direct UVR exposure, the incidence of skin cancer and mortality related to it remains high. Furthermore, the current treatment options are expensive and have side effects including toxicity to normal cells. Thus, a safe and effective approach is needed to prevent and treat skin cancer...
August 2, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766918/the-skin-microbiome-and-immune-system-potential-target-for-chemoprevention
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Asif Sherwani, Saba Tufail, Anum Fatima Muzaffar, Nabiha Yusuf
There has been increasing interest in understanding the role of the human microbiome in skin diseases. Microbiome studies are being utilized in skin cancer research in numerous ways. Commensal bacteria are being studied as a potential tool to judge the biggest environmental risk of skin cancer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Owing to the recognized link of skin microbes in the process of inflammation, there have been theories linking commensal bacteria to skin cancer. Viral metagenomics has also provided insight into virus linked forms of skin cancers...
August 2, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764905/comparison-of-short-and-long-term-exposure-effects-of-cruciferous-and-apiaceous-vegetables-on-carcinogen-metabolizing-enzymes-in-wistar-rats
#19
Jae Kyeom Kim, Noemia Strapazzon, Cynthia M Gallaher, Dwight R Stoll, William Thomas, Daniel D Gallaher, Sabrina P Trudo
Cruciferous and apiaceous vegetables may be chemopreventive due to their ability to modulate carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes but whether the effects on such enzymes are sustained over time is unknown. To examine the short- and long-term effects of the vegetables, rats were fed one of four diets for 7, 30, or 60 d: AIN-93G, CRU (21% cruciferous vegetables-fresh broccoli, green cabbage, watercress), API (9% apiaceous vegetables - fresh parsnips, celery), or API + CRU (10.5% CRU + 4.5% API). Although CRU increased activity and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2 after 7 d, only activity was sustained after 30 and 60 d...
July 29, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762014/beyond-cox-1-the-effects-of-aspirin-on-platelet-biology-and-potential-mechanisms-of-chemoprevention
#20
Argentina Ornelas, Niki Zacharias-Millward, David G Menter, Jennifer S Davis, Lenard Lichtenberger, David Hawke, Ernest Hawk, Eduardo Vilar, Pratip Bhattacharya, Steven Millward
After more than a century, aspirin remains one of the most commonly used drugs in western medicine. Although mainly used for its anti-thrombotic, anti-pyretic, and analgesic properties, a multitude of clinical studies have provided convincing evidence that regular, low-dose aspirin use dramatically lowers the risk of cancer. These observations coincide with recent studies showing a functional relationship between platelets and tumors, suggesting that aspirin's chemopreventive properties may result, in part, from direct modulation of platelet biology and biochemistry...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
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