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Joanne Kotsopoulos, Christian Singer, Steven A Narod
BRCA1 mutation carriers face a high lifetime risk of breast cancer, estimated at 60 % compared to 10 % in the general population. BRCA1 breast cancers typically have an aggressive course (i.e., high-grade, triple-negative) and are associated with a poor prognosis. At present, primary prevention is limited to prophylactic removal of the unaffected breasts. Effective chemopreventive strategies are not yet available. Emerging evidence suggests that BRCA1 mutation carriers have high circulating levels of progesterone which may play a role in their susceptibility to breast cancer...
October 25, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Rama I Mahran, Magda M Hagras, Duxin Sun, Dean E Brenner
Cancer is still a major cause of death all over the world. Its incidence and prevalence are increasing drastically. Cancer treatment imposes high socioeconomic burden with little impact especially on aggressive types of cancer. Reversing or delaying carcinogenesis "cancer chemoprevention" by purified or extracted natural products is a cost-effective alternative. Curcumin is widely available, inexpensive spice that has been used in ancient folk medicine for millennia, especially in India. Curcumin has the pharmacological properties that slow or reverse cellular proliferation and enhance apoptosis and differentiation associated with a diverse array of molecular effects...
October 25, 2016: AAPS Journal
Luai Al Rabadi, Raymond Bergan
As cells progress through carcinogenesis, the associated exponential expansion of genetic and molecular aberrations and resultant heterogeneity make therapeutic success increasingly unattainable. Therapeutic intervention at early stages of carcinogenesis that occur within the primary organ and in the face of a lower burden of molecular aberrations, constitutes a basic tenet of cancer chemoprevention, and provides a situation that favors a greater degree of therapeutic efficacy compared to that of advanced cancer...
October 25, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Rangel Moreira Silva, Luciane Dias Pereira, Jefferson Hollanda Véras, Camila Regina do Vale, Lee Chen-Chen, Suzana da Costa Santos
Ellagitannins are well-known antioxidants in medicinal plants, foods, and edible fruits, particularly in Myrciaria cauliflora (jabuticaba). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of jabuticaba seed extract (JSE) and pedunculagin using in vivo micronucleus test and comet assay in mouse bone marrow cells, in combination with cyclophosphamide (CP), a bioreductive alkylating agent. The ellagitannin composition of JSE was determined by HPLC/PDA, with castalagin, vescalagin, and pedunculagin as the main compounds (124...
November 1, 2016: Mutation Research
Kun-Ming Chan, Chang-Fu Kuo, Jun-Te Hsu, Meng-Jiun Chiou, Yu-Chao Wang, Tsung-Han Wu, Chen-Fang Lee, Ting-Jung Wu, Hong-Shiue Chou, Wei-Chen Lee
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence following liver resection remains a great concern. The study aims to examine the chemopreventive effect of metformin in patients undergoing liver resection for HCC from a population-based study. METHODS: All patients registered as having HCC between January 1995 and December 2011 in a nationwide database were retrospectively analysed. Outcomes related to liver resection and the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) were assessed...
October 24, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Ying Liu, Yang Qi, Zhi-Hui Bai, Chen-Xu Ni, Qi-Hui Ren, Wei-Heng Xu, Jing Xu, Hong-Gang Hu, Lei Qiu, Jian-Zhong Li, Zhi-Gao He, Jun-Ping Zhang
AIM: Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from a Chinese herb Sophora flavescens Ait, which has shown chemopreventive potential against various cancers. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer efficacy of a novel derivative of matrine, (6aS, 10S, 11aR, 11bR, 11cS)-10- methylamino-dodecahydro- 3a,7a-diaza-benzo (de) (MASM), against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and their corresponding sphere cells in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Human HCC cell lines (Hep3B and Huh7) were treated with MASM...
October 24, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Auraptene (7-geranyloxycoumarin) is the best known and most abundant prenyloxycoumarin present in nature. It is synthesized by various plant species, mainly those of the Rutaceae and Umbeliferae (Apiaceae) families, comprising many edible fruits and vegetables such as lemons, grapefruit and orange. Auraptene has shown a remarkable effect in the prevention of degenerative diseases, in particular it has been reported to be one the most promising known natural chemopreventive agents against several types of cancer...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jonathan Boyd, Alice Han
Deguelin is one of four major naturally occurring rotenoids isolated from root extracts and is best recognized as a NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) inhibitor, resulting in significant alterations in mitochondrial function. Deguelin has also been implicated as a regulator of apoptosis through signaling pathways, such as the (PI3K)/Akt pathway, as well as an initiator of cell cycle arrest. Consequently, this compound has accrued great interest as a potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic. Additionally, deguelin exposure has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ana Clara Aprotosoaie, Irina-Iuliana Costache, Anca Miron
Anethole is the main fragrance and bioactive compound of anise, fennel, and star anise spices and more than other 20 plant species. It is widely used as flavor agent in food industry and other industries, in cosmetics, perfumery, and pharmaceuticals. In the last few years, various studies have revealed multiple beneficial effects of anethole for human health, such as anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, or antithrombotic, that are mediated by the modulation of several cell signaling pathways, mainly NF-kB and TNF-α signaling, and various ion channels...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ziyou Wang, Hua Zhang, Jiahui Zhou, Xiangning Zhang, Liyong Chen, Kangxing Chen, Zunnan Huang
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a lethal cancer with high recurrence ratio and lacks effective therapeutics. In the past few years, it has been reported that increased intake of vegetables and fruits could reduce the cancer incidence, which suggests dietary agents might possess anticancer effects. Eriocitrin is a flavonoid isolated from lemon, which is known as a strong antioxidant agent. We here for the first time demonstrated that eriocitrin could inhibit the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines by arresting cell cycle in S phase through up-regulation of p53, cyclin A, cyclin D3 and CDK6...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
David Jarrard, Badrinath Konety, Wei Huang, Tracy Downs, Jill Kolesar, Kyung Mann Kim, Tom Havighurst, Joel Slaton, Margaret G House, Howard L Parnes, Howard H Bailey
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents an important target for chemoprevention given its prolonged natural history and high prevalence. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that vitamin D and genistein (soy isoflavone) may decrease PCa progression. The effect of vitamin D on prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation is well documented and genistein may augment this affect through inhibition of the CYP24 enzyme, which is responsible for intracellular vitamin D metabolism...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
J L NDiaye, B Cissé, E H Ba, J F Gomis, C T Ndour, J F Molez, F B Fall, C Sokhna, B Faye, E Kouevijdin, F K Niane, M Cairns, J F Trape, C Rogier, O Gaye, B M Greenwood, P J M Milligan
BACKGROUND: It is recommended that children aged 3 months to five years of age living in areas of seasonal transmission in the sub-Sahel should receive Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SPAQ) during the malaria transmission season. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of SMC with SPAQ in children when delivered by community health workers in three districts in Senegal where SMC was introduced over three years, in children from 3 months of age to five years of age in the first year, then in children up to 10 years of age...
2016: PloS One
Yunlong Shan, Zhonghong Wei, Li Tao, Siliang Wang, Feng Zhang, Cunsi Shen, Hongyan Wu, Zhaoguo Liu, Pingting Zhu, Aiyun Wang, Wenxing Chen, Yin Lu
Cancer prevention through intake of biologically active natural products appears to be an accessible way to reduce the risk of cancer. Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major garlic derivative, has exhibited potential role in cancer therapy. The study is aimed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of DADS in chemically induced mouse skin carcinogenesis and investigate the molecular targets mediated by DADS. Two-stage chemically induced carcinogenesis model by cutaneous application of DMBA and subsequent TPA was established to study the prophylactic effect of DADS...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Susan R Mallery, Daren Wang, Brian Santiago, Ping Pei, Steven Schwendeman, Kari Nieto, Richard Spinney, Meng Tong, George Koutras, Byungdo B Han, Andrew S Holpuch, James C Lang
Over 1/3 of patients who have undergone oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) surgical resections develop life-threatening and often untreatable recurrences. A variety of drugs, intended for management of recurrent or disseminated cancers, were designed to exploit cancer cells' reliance upon overexpressed receptors and gratuitous signaling. Despite their conceptual promise, clinical trials showed these agents lacked efficacy and were often toxic. These findings are consistent with evasion of pathway-targeted treatments via extensive signaling redundancies and compensatory mechanisms common to cancers...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Lise Paquet, Lisa Simmonds, Charles Yang, Shailendra Verma
OBJECTIVES: 1) To describe how women at high-risk for breast cancer (BC) perceive their at-risk status and the options available to manage this risk, before and after risk counselling; 2) to explore the contributions of pre-counselling demographic, clinical, cognitive and emotional factors to post-counselling risk management intentions. METHODS: 58 of 173 eligible patients (34%) enrolled and were asked to fill surveys including measures of 1) subjective risk, 2) illness (being at high-risk for BC) and 3) treatment (surveillance, lifestyle modifications, and chemoprevention) cognitions, 4) BC fear and 5) future risk management intentions, prior to and 3 months after risk consultation...
October 11, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Jiansong Ren, Gwen Murphy, Jinhu Fan, Sanford M Dawsey, Philip R Taylor, Jacob Selhub, Youlin Qiao, Christian C Abnet
B vitamins play an essential role in DNA synthesis and methylation, and may protect against oesophageal and gastric cancers. In this case-cohort study, subjects were enrolled from the General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial in Linxian, China. Subjects included 498 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), 255 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCAs), and an age- and sex-matched sub-cohort of 947 individuals. Baseline serum riboflavin, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), folate, vitamin B12, and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) were measured for all subjects...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Min Ji Bak, Van-Long Truong, Se-Yeon Ko, Xuan Ngan Giang Nguyen, Mira Jun, Soon-Gi Hong, Jong-Won Lee, Woo-Sik Jeong
BACKGROUND: The induction of cellular defensive genes such as phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes is a highly effective strategy for protection against carcinogenesis as well as slowing cancer development. Transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) is responsible for activation of phase II enzymes induced by natural chemopreventive compounds. METHODS: Red ginseng oil (RGO) was extracted using a supercritical CO2 extraction system and chemical profile of RGO was investigated by GC/MS...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Guglielmo Costa, Carlo Andreotti, Moreno Paolini
Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated...
October 11, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Gianandrea Traversi, Mario Fiore, Zulema Percario, Francesca Degrassi, Renata Cozzi
Natural compounds are extensively studied for their potential use in traditional and non-traditional medicine. Several natural and synthetic Resveratrol analogues have shown interesting biological activities in the field of cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, we have focused on the ability of Resveratrol and two methoxylated derivatives (Trimethoxystilbene and Pterostilbene) to inhibit human cancer cell growth particularly analyzing their ability to interfere with tubulin dynamics at mitosis. We show that Trimethoxystilbene, differently from Resveratrol and Pterostilbene, alters microtubule polymerization dynamics in HeLa cells specifically inducing multipolar spindles and mitotic arrest coupled to a reduction of cell growth and an increase in apoptotic death by mitotic catastrophe...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Ruth Heisey, June C Carroll
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the best evidence on strategies to identify and manage women with a family history of breast cancer. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A PubMed search was conducted using the search terms breast cancer, guidelines, risk, family history, management, and magnetic resonance imaging screening from 2000 to 2016. Most evidence is level II. MAIN MESSAGE: Taking a good family history is essential when assessing breast cancer risk in order to identify women suitable for referral to a genetic counselor for possible genetic testing...
October 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
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