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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938561/preventive-effects-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-tofogliflozin-on-diethylnitrosamine-induced-liver-tumorigenesis-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#1
Koki Obara, Yohei Shirakami, Akinori Maruta, Takayasu Ideta, Tsuneyuki Miyazaki, Takahiro Kochi, Hiroyasu Sakai, Takuji Tanaka, Mitsuru Seishima, Masahito Shimizu
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are expected to ameliorate the abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor tofogliflozin on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-related liver tumorigenesis in C57BL/KsJ-+Lepr (db) /+Lepr (db) obese and diabetic mice. The direct effects of tofogliflozin on human liver cancer cell proliferation were also evaluated...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935427/hesperidin-protects-against-chemically-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis-via-modulation-of-nrf2-are-ho-1-ppar%C3%AE-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-and-amelioration-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#2
Ayman M Mahmoud, Hanaa M Mohammed, Sally M Khadrawy, Sanaa R Galaly
Hesperidin is a plant-derived bioflavonoid with promising antitumor efficacy, though the underlying mechanisms of action remain poorly elucidated. Thus, we evaluated the in vivo chemopreventive effect of hesperidin against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. We demonstrated the modulatory effect of hesperidin on Nrf2/ARE/HO-1, PPARγ and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. Hepatocarcinogenesis was initiated with DEN and promoted with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). DEN/CCl4-induced rats were treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg hesperidin throughout the experiment...
September 18, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935150/mediterranean-diet-and-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Alberto Farinetti, Valeria Zurlo, Antonio Manenti, Francesca Coppi, Anna Vittoria Mattioli
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, especially in developed countries where an estimated 60% of all cases occur. There is evidence of a higher risk for CRC in Western society, where people tend to eat more red and processed meat than those living along the Mediterranean coast, who have a decreased overall cancer mortality, which is correlated to their eating habits, such as Mediterranean diet. The aim of this review was to evaluate the correlation between three components of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, red wine, and tomatoes) and incidence and progression of colorectal cancer...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935149/molecular-aspects-of-cancer-chemopreventive-and-therapeutic-efficacies-of-tea-and-tea-polyphenols
#4
REVIEW
Subhayan Sur, Chinmay Kumar Panda
The natural dietary product tea (Camellia sinensis) and its bioactive polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and theaflavin (TF) demonstrated potential anticancer effects in different preclinical and clinical studies. The aim of the present review was to understand the molecular mechanisms of the tea and tea polyphenol-mediated cancer prevention and therapy. In the setting of in vivo cancer prevention studies, administration of the tea and tea polyphenols at preinitiation stages only showed partial prevention, whereas continuous administration showed potential effect in restriction of carcinogenesis in the body's multiple organs at early premalignant stages throughout the experiment...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933753/recent-advances-in-plant-phenolics
#5
EDITORIAL
Daniel A Jacobo-Velázquez, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos
The scientific interest in plant phenolics as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against chronic and degenerative diseases has been increasing since the late 1990s, when the French paradox was associated with the high intake of phenolics present in red wine [1]. [...].
July 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933290/nutraceuticals-and-repurposed-drugs-of-phytochemical-origin-in-prevention-and-interception-of-chronic-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#6
Adriana Albini, Barbara Bassani, Denisa Baci, Katiuscia Dallaglio, Matteo Gallazzi, Paola Corradino, Antonino Bruno, Douglas M Noonan
Chronic, degenerative diseases are often characterized by inflammation and aberrant angiogenesis. For many of these pathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, current therapies have limited efficacy, thus the validation of novel (chemo)preventive and interceptive approaches, of new or repurposed agents, alone or in combination with registered drugs, are urgently required. Phytochemicals (triterpenoids, flavonoids, retinoids) and their derivatives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin) as well as biguanides (metformin and phenformin) originally developed from phytochemical backbones, are multi-target agents showing anti-angiogenic and anti-anti-inflammatory proprieties...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931879/longitudinal-analysis-of-colon-crypt-stem-cell-dynamics-in-sulindac-treated-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-patients
#7
Huiying Ma, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Sjoerd G Elias, Folkert H M Morsink, Isaac J Nijman, Linda M Hylind, Elizabeth A Montgomery, G Johan A Offerhaus, Francis M Giardiello, Wendy W J de Leng
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac decreases size and number of adenomas after 4-6 months of treatment for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. As stem cells are thought to be the tumor precursor cells, visualizing their behavior is crucial for monitoring tumor progression. Increased tag diversity in inactive genes is indicative of a protracted clonal evolution and consequently, increased risk for tumor formation. Therefore, the effect of sulindac on stem cell dynamics was studied...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927111/luteolin-reduces-migration-of-human-glioblastoma-cell-lines-via-inhibition-of-the-p-igf-1r-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#8
Qiang Wang, Handong Wang, Yue Jia, Hui Ding, Li Zhang, Hao Pan
Luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a common dietary flavonoid, which has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects in multiple cancer models. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of luteolin on glioblastoma cell metastasis remain poorly understood. The present study assessed the effects of luteolin in the U251MG and U87MG human glioblastoma cell lines. Luteolin treatment significantly inhibited glioblastoma cell migration, and this effect was associated with downregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and upregulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927103/lack-of-chemopreventive-efficacy-of-metformin-in-rodent-models-of-urinary-bladder-head-and-neck-and-colon-intestine-cancer
#9
Matthew D Thompson, Ronald A Lubet, David L Mccormick, Margie L Clapper, Ann M Bode, M Margaret Juliana, Fariba Moeinpour, Clinton J Grubbs
Metformin is a biguanide employed in treating type II diabetes. Its potential efficacy for treating cancer has been demonstrated epidemiologically (lower cancer incidence in metformin users compared with users of sulfonylureas or insulin) and mechanistically, primarily in cell culture. Metformin decreases the levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and secondarily inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway to exhibit anticancer effects. The current study examined its cancer preventive efficacy in multiple standard in situ arising cancer models...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926932/comparison-of-two-components-of-propolis-caffeic-acid-ca-and-caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-cape-induce-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-of-breast-cancer-cells-mda-mb-231
#10
Agata Kabała-Dzik, Anna Rzepecka-Stojko, Robert Kubina, Żaneta Jastrzębska-Stojko, Rafał Stojko, Robert Dariusz Wojtyczka, Jerzy Stojko
Studies show that caffeic acid (CA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) are compounds with potent chemopreventive effects. Breast cancer is a common form of aggressive cancer among women worldwide. This study shows a comparison of CA and CAPE activity on triple-negative human caucasian breast adenocarcinoma line cells (MDA-MB-231). MDA-MB-231 cells were treated by CA and CAPE with doses of from 10 to 100 µM, for periods of 24 h and 48 h. Cytotoxicity MTT tests, apoptosis by Annexin V, and cell cycle with Dead Cell Assays were performed...
September 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925507/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-ezh2-inhibitor-gsk343-have-similar-inhibitory-effects-and-mechanisms-of-action-on-colorectal-cancer-cells
#11
Le Ying, Feng Yan, Bryan R G Williams, Ping Xu, Xin Li, Yueling Zhao, Yiqun Hu, Yuefei Wang, Dakang Xu, Jing Dai
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a type of catechin. It exhibits excellent antioxidant effects and anti-tumor activities for cancer chemoprevention. The mechanism of anti-tumor effects of EGCG on different cancers has been studied for the past few decades, but remains controversial. To investigate the potential role that EGCG may play in the epigenetic regulation of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line, we integrated bioinformatics analysis with experimental validation. We found that levels of the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) were significantly higher in CRC tissues compared to normal adjacent tissues, based on the Genomic Data Commons (GDC) data portal...
September 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924285/chemoprevention-of-oral-cancer-in-leukoplakia-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Ayesha Xie, Jinzhong Liu
The systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to review the effectiveness of current chemopreventive agents in the treatment of oral leukoplakia lesions (OPLs) and prevention of their progression to oral cancer. Material was identified through a retrospective literature search of the electronic PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane Library between 2008 and 2016.Eight RCTs were included for systematic review. The pooled estimate showed a 14% greater chance of responding for those randomised to interventions compared with placebo (Risk Ratio [RR] 1...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924081/comparative-antileukemic-activity-of-a-tetranorditerpene-isolated-from-polyalthia-longifolia-leaves-and-the-derivative-against-human-leukemia-hl-60-cells
#13
Saheed Afolabi, Olufunke Olorundare, Masayuki Ninomiya, Abiola Babatunde, Hasan Mukhtar, Mamoru Koketsu
The discovery of potent cytotoxic isolates from botanicals provides an opportunity to explore this viable tool for cancer chemoprevention. The antileukemic potential of clerodane diterpene from Polyalthia longifolia leaves has already been established. However, in this present study, utilizing chromatographic techniques we report for the first time, the isolation of a rare tetranorditerpene (compound 1) from P. longifolia. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated and confirmed by spectrophotometric data. UPLC-MS analysis was conducted on the methanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and isolated tetranorditerpene showed that the tetranorditerpene is one of the major constituents of the plant with a retention time of 30...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923866/changing-antimalarial-drug-sensitivities-in-uganda
#14
Stephanie A Rasmussen, Frida G Ceja, Melissa D Conrad, Patrick K Tumwebaze, Oswald Byaruhanga, Thomas Katairo, Samuel L Nsobya, Philip J Rosenthal, Roland A Cooper
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) has demonstrated excellent efficacy for the treatment and prevention of malaria in Uganda. However, resistance to both components of this regimen has emerged in Southeast Asia. The efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen to treat malaria in Uganda, has also been excellent, but continued pressure may select for parasites with decreased sensitivity to lumefantrine. To gain insight into current drug sensitivity patterns, ex vivo sensitivities were assessed and genotypes previously associated with altered drug sensitivity were characterized for 58 isolates collected in Tororo, Uganda from subjects presenting in 2016 with malaria from the community or as part of a clinical trial comparing DP chemoprevention regimens...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923567/a-water-soluble-polysaccharide-from-the-roots-of-polygala-tenuifolia-suppresses-ovarian-tumor-growth-and-angiogenesis-in-vivo
#15
Hua Yao, Ping Cui, Dan Xu, Yunduo Liu, Qinghua Tian, Fubin Zhang
PTP, one polysaccharide extracted from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia, has displayed anti-cancer activity in several types of ovarian cancer cells. This study aims to elucidate the structure of PTP and investigate its anticancer effects against SKOV3 xenograft tumor growth in BALB/c mice, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved. GC-MS and NMR data indicate that PTP has a backbone composed of 1,4,6-linked-β-Galp, 1,4-linked-β-Galp and 1,4-linked-β-Glcp, with non-reducing terminal 1-linked-α-Glcp attached to O-6 of 1,4,6-linked-β-Galp...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923228/randomized-controlled-trials-in-hereditary-cancer-syndromes
#16
REVIEW
Chethan Ramamurthy, Yana Chertock, Michael J Hall
Conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with germline mutations in genes that predispose to adult-onset cancer is hampered by the rarity of these mutations, barriers to their identification, and challenges inherent to randomizing high-risk individuals as part of a clinical trial. Most of the clinically relevant RCTs have been conducted in 3 syndromes in only some of the high-risk genes for which clinical testing is currently available. This article reviews the surgical, screening, and chemoprevention RCTs in each of the syndromes in clinically relevant studies conducted in the past 10 years...
October 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915658/oxidative-stress-mediates-an-increased-formation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-human-hepatocarcinoma-cells-exposed-to-erlotinib
#17
Nataliya Rohr-Udilova, Florian Klinglmüller, Martha Seif, Hubert Hayden, Martin Bilban, Matthias Pinter, Klaus Stolze, Wolfgang Sieghart, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Michael Trauner
The tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib targets the receptor of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) involved in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although inefficient in established HCC, erlotinib has been recently proposed for HCC chemoprevention. Since Cyp3A4 and Cyp1A2 enzymes metabolize erlotinib in the liver, the insights into the mechanisms of erlotinib effects on liver cells with maintained drug metabolizing activity are needed. We applied erlotinib to both commercially available (SNU398, Huh7) and established in Austria HCC cell lines (HCC-1...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912973/clinical-characteristics-in-patients-with-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#18
Janet Yeh, Jennifer Chun, Shira Schwartz, Annie Wang, Elizabeth Kern, Amber A Guth, Deborah Axelrod, Richard Shapiro, Freya Schnabel
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the clinical characteristics of the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC patients, with a particular focus on genetic susceptibility and risk factors prior to diagnosis. METHODS: Our institutional database was queried for all patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between January 2010 and May 2016. RESULTS: Out of a total of 1964 patients, 190 (10%) patients had TNBC...
2017: International Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912152/distinct-effects-of-body-mass-index-and-waist-hip-ratio-on-risk-of-breast-cancer-by-joint-estrogen-and-progestogen-receptor-status-results-from-a-case-control-study-in-northern-and-eastern-china-and-implications-for-chemoprevention
#19
Fei Wang, Liyuan Liu, Shude Cui, Fuguo Tian, Zhimin Fan, Cuizhi Geng, Xuchen Cao, Zhenlin Yang, Xiang Wang, Hong Liang, Shu Wang, Hongchuan Jiang, Xuening Duan, Haibo Wang, Guolou Li, Qitang Wang, Jianguo Zhang, Feng Jin, Jinhai Tang, Liang Li, Shiguang Zhu, Wenshu Zuo, Zhongbing Ma, Fei Zhou, Lixiang Yu, Yujuan Xiang, Liang Li, Shuohao Shen, Zhigang Yu
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a consideration in the pharmacologic intervention for estrogen receptor (ER) positive (ER+) breast cancer risk. Body mass index (BMI) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) have demonstrated different effects on breast cancer risk in relation to estrogen receptor (ER) status, but the results have been inconsistent. Furthermore, the situation in Chinese women remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study including 1,439 breast cancer cases in Northern and Eastern China...
September 14, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912118/topically-applied-carvedilol-attenuates-solar-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-skin-carcinogenesis
#20
Kevin M Huang, Sherry Liang, Steven Yeung, Etuajie Oiyemhonlan, Kristan H Cleveland, Cyrus Parsa, Robert Orlando, Frank L Meyskens, Bradley T Andresen, Ying Huang
In previous studies, the β-blocker carvedilol inhibited EGF-induced epidermal cell transformation and chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin hyperplasia. As exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to skin cancer, the present study examined whether carvedilol can prevent UV-induced carcinogenesis. Carvedilol absorbs UV like a sunscreen; thus, to separate pharmacological from sunscreen effects, 4-hydroxycarbazole (4-OHC), which absorbs UV to the same degree as carvedilol, served as control. JB6 P(+) cells, an established epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, were used for evaluating the effect of carvedilol on UV-induced neoplastic transformation...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
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