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Katharina Meier, Stefan K Drexler, Franziska C Eberle, Karine Lefort, Amir S Yazdi
Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is an important adaptor protein for inflammasome activation, mediating the secretion of protumorigenic innate cytokines. However, ASC is also known to trigger apoptosis in tumor cells, acting as a tumor-suppressor gene, which is lost in several human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of ASC in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Initially, ASC expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in non-metastic and metastatic SCC...
2016: PloS One
Zhu Zeng, Rui Yu, Fanglei Zuo, Bo Zhang, Deju Peng, Huiqin Ma, Shangwu Chen
Exendin-4, a glucagon-like protein-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is an excellent therapeutic peptide drug for type 2 diabetes due to longer lasting biological activity compared to GLP-1. This study explored the feasibility of using probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei as an oral vector for recombinant exendin-4 peptide delivery, an alternative to costly chemical synthesis and inconvenient administration by injection. L. paracasei transformed with a plasmid encoding the exendin-4 gene (L. paracasei L14/pMG76e-exendin-4) with a constitutive promotor was successfully constructed and showed efficient secretion of exendin-4...
2016: PloS One
O Yu Bushueva, V P Ivanov, V N Ryzhaeva, I V Ponomarenko, M I Churnosov, A V Polonikov
AIM: To investigate whether the functionally relevant -844G>A promotor polymorphism in the catalase (CAT) gene is associated with the development of essential hypertension (EH). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigation enrolled 2,339 unrelated ethnic Russian people, including 1,269 EH patients and 770 apparently healthy individuals. Genotyping of CAT -844G>A (rs769214) polymorphism was performed using a TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: The -844A allele (odds ratio (OR)=1...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Fengxiang Zhu, Yahui Li, Zechao Wang, Xiao-Feng Wu
A novel procedure on the carbonylative synthesis of chromenones has been developed. With simple phenols and internal alkynes as the substrates, various chromenones were isolated in moderate to good yields with excellent regioselectivity and functional-group tolerance by using iridium as the catalyst and copper as the promotor at atmospheric pressure. Notably, this is the first example on carbonylative annulation of simple phenols and alkynes.
October 12, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Susanne Mommert, Lisanne Ratz, Kira Herwig, Maren Rost, Ralf Gutzmer, Thomas Werfel
Environmental triggers and genetic factors are supposed to lead to complex gene expression changes in psoriasis and interact in the manifestation of the disease. The histamine H4 receptor (HRH4) is functionally expressed on Th17 cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) which play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. On pDCs a higher basal expression level of the HRH4 in psoriasis patients compared to healthy controls has been detected. The functional relationship between predisposing genetic variations in the HRH4 gene and psoriasis is yet not known...
October 7, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Karen Beets, Michael W Staring, Nathan Criem, Elke Maas, Niels Schellinx, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Lieve Umans, An Zwijsen
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent. Phosphorylation of the BMP intracellular effectors, SMAD1/5/9, is routinely used to monitor BMP signalling activity. To better understand the in vivo context-dependency of BMP-SMAD signalling, we investigated differences in BMP-SMAD transcriptional activity in different vascular beds during mouse embryonic and postnatal stages...
October 10, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Venessa Eeckhaut, Jun Wang, Alexander Van Parys, Freddy Haesebrouck, Marie Joossens, Gwen Falony, Jeroen Raes, Richard Ducatelle, Filip Van Immerseel
Probiotics which do not result in the development and spread of microbial resistance are among the candidate replacements for antibiotics previously used as growth promotors. In this study the effect of in-feed supplementation of the butyrate producing Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum strain 25-3(T) on performance, intestinal microbiota and prevention of necrotic enteritis (NE), a disease caused by Clostridium perfringens was evaluated in broilers. For the performance study, day old Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated into two treatment groups and fed either a non-supplemented diet or a diet supplemented with 10(9) cfu lyophilized B...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Roy van den Berg, Gonzalo Prieto, Gerda Korpershoek, Lars I van der Wal, Arnoldus J van Bunningen, Susanne Lægsgaard-Jørgensen, Petra E de Jongh, Krijn P de Jong
For decades it has been debated whether the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol over copper catalysts is sensitive or insensitive to the structure of the copper surface. Here we have systematically investigated the effect of the copper particle size in the range where changes in surface structure occur, that is, below 10 nm, for catalysts with and without zinc promotor at industrially relevant conditions for methanol synthesis. Regardless of the presence or absence of a zinc promotor in the form of zinc oxide or zinc silicate, the surface-specific activity decreases significantly for copper particles smaller than 8 nm, thus revealing structure sensitivity...
October 5, 2016: Nature Communications
Anning Yang, Huiping Zhang, Yue Sun, Yanhua Wang, Xiaoming Yang, Xiaoling Yang, Hui Zhang, Wei Guo, Guangrong Zhu, Jue Tian, Yuexia Jia, Yideng Jiang
Inflammation and dysregulated lipid metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is known to regulate both inflammation and lipid metabolism. In the present study, we elucidated the role of FABP4 using in vitro and in vivo models of preclampsia. We found increased expression of FABP4 in the placenta of preeclamptic rats, which was further confirmed in HTR-8 cells, an extravillous trophoblast cell line, treated with L-NAME. Overexpression of FABP4 in HTR-8 cells resulted in upregulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, and increased lipid accumulation, suggesting that FABP4 plays a role in preeclampsia...
October 2016: Placenta
Krithiga Shridhar, Aastha Aggarwal, Gagandeep Kaur Walia, Smriti Gulati, A V Geetha, D Prabhakaran, Preet K Dhillon, Preetha Rajaraman
BACKGROUND: Oral cancers are preceded by oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). Understanding genetic susceptibility for OPMD risk could provide an opportunity for risk assessment of oral cancer through early disease course. We conducted a review of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies for OPMD risk. METHODS: We identified all relevant studies examining associations of SNPs with OPMD (leukoplakia, erythroplakia and oral sub-mucous fibrosis) conducted world-wide between January, 2000 and February, 2016 using a combined keyword search on PubMed...
October 2016: Oral Oncology
De Gui Wang, Mei-Jun Zhao, Yong-Qiang Liu, Xiang-Wen Liu, Hai-Tao Niu, Yan-Feng Song, Ying-Xia Tian
Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy is a promising strategy for bladder cancer treatment. However, the loss of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in bladder cancer cells decreases the infection efficiency of the therapeutic adenovirus. In this study, we constructed an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-modified adenovirus, RGDAd-UPII-TK, that carries a suicide gene called HSV-TK that is driven by a human UPII promoter. Then, we tested the bladder cancer specificity of the UPII promotor and the expression of the HSV-TK protein...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Swen Hülsmann, Guillaume Mesuret, Julia Dannenberg, Mauricio Arnoldt, Marcus Niebert
Mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene have been shown to manifest in a neurodevelopmental disorder that is called Rett syndrome. A typical problem that occurs during development is a disturbance of breathing. To address the role of inhibitory neurons, we generated a mouse line that restores MECP2 in inhibitory neurons in the brainstem by crossbreeding a mouse line that expresses the Cre-recombinase (Cre) in inhibitory neurons under the control of the glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2, slc6a5) promotor (GlyT2-Cre) with a mouse line that has a floxed-stop mutation of the Mecp2 gene (Mecp2 (stop/y))...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Maren Feist, Judith Kemper, Franziska Taruttis, Thorsten Rehberg, Julia C Engelmann, Wolfram Gronwald, Michael Hummel, Rainer Spang, Dieter Kube
A network of autocrine and paracrine signals defines B cell homeostasis and is thought to be involved in transformation processes. Investigating interactions of these microenvironmental factors and their relation to proto-oncogenes as c-Myc (MYC) is fundamental to understand the biology of B cell lymphoma. Therefore, B cells with conditional MYC expression were stimulated with CD40L, insulin-like growth factor 1, α-IgM, Interleukin-10 (IL10) and CpG alone or in combination. The impact of forty different interventions on cell proliferation was investigated in MYC deprived cells and calculated by linear regression...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Kang Li, Xi Zhang, Li Yang, Xin-Xing Wang, De-Hua Yang, Guo-Qing Cao, Shuai Li, Yong-Zhong Mao, Shao-Tao Tang
Biliary atresia (BA) is a pediatric inflammatory disease of the biliary system which leads to cirrhosis and the need for liver transplantation. Various cells types have been reported to participate in the pro-inflammatory response, including Th1, Th2, Th17, CD8(+) T cells, or NK cells. The suppressive Treg cells, on the contrary, were not functioning properly. The underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Focusing on why the suppressive function of Treg was impaired, we found out methylation status of CpG islands within the Foxp3 promotor of Tregs in BA patients and murine models were both increased...
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Radwa R El-Tahan, Ahmed M Ghoneim, Noha El-Mashad
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine with an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Its encoding gene is located in the short arm of chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex class III region. Most of the TNF-α gene polymorphisms are located in its promoter region and they are thought to affect the susceptibility and/or severity of different human diseases. This review summarizes the data related to the association between TNF-α gene and its receptor polymorphisms, and the development of autoimmune diseases...
2016: SpringerPlus
Dennis Nurjadi, Marlon Kain, Patrick Marcinek, Marika Gaile, Klaus Heeg, Philipp Zanger
BACKGROUND:  Nasal colonization has gained attention as effect modifier in S. aureus vaccine trials, suggesting interference of carriage with T-cell immunity. Likewise, T-cell signals may be involved in regulating effectors of epithelial innate defense. METHODS:  Whole blood of 43 persistent and 49 non-carriers was stimulated with viable S. aureus Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine expression was measured, compared between carrier groups, and linked with data on human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) mRNA in skin while adjusting for transcriptionally relevant promotor haplotypes...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Didi Bang, Siri Rytcher Andersen, Edita Vasiliauskienė, Erik Michael Rasmussen
The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) hampers infection control. To assess the performance of an extended rapid novel molecular analysis for the detection of resistance conferring mutations to fluoroquinolones (gyrA, gyrB genes) and aminoglycosides/cyclic peptides (16S rRNA rrs gene, eis promotor region) compared to phenotypic susceptibility and sequencing, 43 multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 10 susceptible clinical isolates were analyzed. Results were compared to a previous version...
August 31, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
T Rau
The pathogenesis of precursor lesions of gastrointestinal tumors is manifested in many ways. In the esophagus an aberrant genetic expression of intestinal transcription factors, such as CDX2 is initiated by local environment factors. During the subsequent dysplasia to carcinoma sequence, chromosomal gain and loss of genes occurs. A 4-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay can be applied in dysplasia as well as in Barrett's adenocarcinoma to define prognostic marker combinations. In the gastric carcinogenesis sequence the gene expression of CDX1 is regulatively dependent on an interplay between inflammation and promotor methylation...
September 14, 2016: Der Pathologe
Dorine Sichien, Charlotte L Scott, Liesbet Martens, Matthias Vanderkerken, Sofie Van Gassen, Maud Plantinga, Thorsten Joeris, Sofie De Prijck, Leen Vanhoutte, Manon Vanheerswynghels, Gert Van Isterdael, Wendy Toussaint, Filipe Branco Madeira, Karl Vergote, William W Agace, Björn E Clausen, Hamida Hammad, Marc Dalod, Yvan Saeys, Bart N Lambrecht, Martin Guilliams
Interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8) has been proposed to be essential for development of monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and type 1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1s) and remains highly expressed in differentiated DCs. Transcription factors that are required to maintain the identity of terminally differentiated cells are designated "terminal selectors." Using BM chimeras, conditional Irf8(fl/fl) mice and various promotors to target Cre recombinase to different stages of monocyte and DC development, we have identified IRF8 as a terminal selector of the cDC1 lineage controlling survival...
September 20, 2016: Immunity
Chang-Chao Huan, Hua-Xia Wang, Xiang-Xiang Sheng, Rui Wang, Xin Wang, Ying Liao, Qin-Fang Liu, Guang-Zhi Tong, Chan Ding, Hong-Jie Fan, Jia-Qiang Wu, Xiang Mao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea is a devastating swine enteric disease, which is caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. Our studies demonstrated that PEDV infection resulted in the up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Meanwhile, PEDV infection and overexpression of viral nucleoprotein resulted in the acetylation and release of high mobility group box 1 proteins in vitro, an important proinflammatory response mediator, which contributes to the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases...
September 13, 2016: Oncotarget
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