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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334739/hiv-treatment-as-prevention-implications-for-health-promotion
#1
Sean Slavin
Evidence has been accumulating in recent years that individuals with HIV who are effectively treated with antiretroviral drugs are highly unlikely to transmit the virus to their sexual partners. This approach has great potential to contribute to ongoing prevention efforts and has been termed 'treatment as prevention'. International political momentum has been building in recent years to attempt to significantly reduce new HIV infections globally and end the epidemic by 2030. In pursuit of such aims a number of local health authorities and communities have adopted intensified 'test and treat' strategies to quickly diagnose infections and reduce the risk of onward transmission through an immediate offer of treatment...
October 8, 2016: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330874/high-resolution-3d-nmr-structure-of-the-kras-proto-oncogene-promoter-reveals-key-features-of-a-g-quadruplex-involved-in-transcriptional-regulation
#2
Abdelaziz Kerkour, Julien Marquevielle, Stefaniia Ivashchenko, Liliya A Yatsunyk, Jean-Louis Mergny, Gilmar F Salgado
Non-canonical base pairing within guanine-rich DNA and RNA sequences can produce G-quartets, whose stacking leads to the formation of a G-quadruplex (G4). G4s can coexist with canonical duplex DNA in the human genome and have been suggested to suppress gene transcription, and much attention has therefore focused on studying G4s in promotor regions of disease-related genes. For example, the human KRAS proto-oncogene contains a nuclease-hypersensitive element (1) located upstream of the major transcription start site...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323677/transferable-training-modules-building-environmental-education-opportunities-with-and-for-mexican-community-health-workers-promotores-de-salud
#3
Denise Moreno Ramírez, Lourdes Vea, James A Field, Paul B Baker, A Jay Gandolfi, Raina M Maier
Community health workers (promotores de salud) have the ability to empower communities to mitigate negative health outcomes. Current training efforts in environmental topics are lacking. This project addressed this gap by developing 4 transferable training modules on environmental health. By applying a series of surveys, interviews, and trainings, we evaluated their relevance. Partners provided favorable feedback for 3 of the 4 modules. It was also learned that the development method could be improved by engaging technically trained promotores de salud in the role of co-creators...
March 20, 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319682/n-substituted-5-amino-1-hydroxymethyl-cyclopentanetriols-a-new-family-of-activity-promotors-for-a-gm1-gangliosidosis-related-human-lysosomal-%C3%AE-galactosidase-mutant
#4
Michael Schalli, Christina Tysoe, Roland Fischer, Bettina M Pabst, Martin Thonhofer, Eduard Paschke, Tanja Rappitsch, Arnold E Stütz, Marion Tschernutter, Werner Windischhofer, Stephen G Withers
From 1,2;3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-galactopyranose, a series of highly functionalized (hydroxymethyl)cyclopentanes was easily available. In line with reports by Reymond and Jäger on similar structures, these amine containing basic carbasugars are potent inhibitors of β-D-galactosidases and, for the first time, could be shown to act as pharmacological chaperones for GM1-gangliosidosis-associated lysosomal acid β-galactosidase mutant R201C, thus representing a new structural type of pharmacological chaperones for this lysosomal storage disease...
March 11, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302565/inhibition-of-prmt5-suppresses-osteoclast-differentiation-and-partially-protects-against-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-through-downregulation-of-cxcl10-and-rsad2
#5
Yonghui Dong, Chao Song, Yuting Wang, Zuowei Lei, Fei Xu, Hanfeng Guan, Anmin Chen, Feng Li
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an arginine methylation methyltransferase that regulates various physiological processes. Abnormal PRMT5 activity has been reported in inflammation and various types of cancers. Because osteoclast differentiation is characterized by the activation of inflammation-related pathways, we speculated that PRMT5 may play a role in this process. In the present study, we found that PRMT5 was upregulated during osteoclast differentiation. Knockdown of PRMT5 with siRNA in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMs) resulted in inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation...
March 14, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296593/protocatechuic-acid-enhances-osteogenesis-but-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-c3h10t1-2-and-3t3-l1-cells
#6
Adriana Rivera-Piza, Young Jae An, Do Kyung Kim, Sung-Hyen Lee, Jung-Bong Kim, Jung-Sook Choi, Sung-Joon Lee
Abnormal activation of adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and preadipocyte cells is associated with human metabolic disorders, such as osteoporosis and obesity. This study investigated the biological effects of protocatechuic acid (PCA) on the modulation of osteogenesis and adipogenesis in cultured cells. PCA stimulation of MSCs significantly increased intracellular mineralization during osteogenesis, but reduced lipid accumulation in both MSCs and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells during adipogenesis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses showed a dose-dependent upregulation of proosteogenic runt-related transcription factor 2 due to induction of β-catenin...
March 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287526/structural-information-from-single-molecule-fret-experiments-using-the-fast-nano-positioning-system
#7
Thilo Dörfler, Tobias Eilert, Carlheinz Röcker, Julia Nagy, Jens Michaelis
Single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) can be used to obtain structural information on biomolecular complexes in real-time. Thereby, multiple smFRET measurements are used to localize an unknown dye position inside a protein complex by means of trilateration. In order to obtain quantitative information, the Nano-Positioning System (NPS) uses probabilistic data analysis to combine structural information from X-ray crystallography with single-molecule fluorescence data to calculate not only the most probable position but the complete three-dimensional probability distribution, termed posterior, which indicates the experimental uncertainty...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259931/cd164-regulates-proliferation-and-apoptosis-by-targeting-pten-in-human-glioma
#8
Ming Tu, Lin Cai, Weiming Zheng, Zhipeng Su, Yong Chen, Songtao Qi
Cluster of differentiation 164 (CD164), a sialomucin, has been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and differentiation in multiple cancers. CD164 is regarded to be a potential promotor of tumor growth. However, the involvement of CD164 in human glioma proliferation and apoptosis remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and oncogenic function of CD164 in normal human astrocytes (NHA) and glioma cells in vitro and in vivo...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255357/stat3-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-regulated-lentiviral-tk-gcv-suicide-gene-therapy-for-cisplatin-resistant-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#9
Wei-Ying Kuo, Luen Hwu, Chun-Yi Wu, Jhih-Shian Lee, Chi-Wei Chang, Ren-Shyan Liu
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents approximately 20% of all breast cancers and appears resistance to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, demonstrating a particularly poor prognosis and a significantly worse clinical outcome than other types of cancer. Suicide gene therapy has been used for the in vivo treatment of various solid tumors in recent clinical trials. In tumor microenvironment, STAT3/NF-κB pathways are constitutively activated in stromal cells as well as in cancer stem cells (CSCs)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245789/mechanisms-of-groucho-mediated-repression-revealed-by-genome-wide-analysis-of-groucho-binding-and-activity
#10
Michael Chambers, Wiam Turki-Judeh, Min Woo Kim, Kenny Chen, Sean D Gallaher, Albert J Courey
BACKGROUND: The transcriptional corepressor Groucho (Gro) is required for the function of many developmentally regulated DNA binding repressors, thus helping to define the gene expression profile of each cell during development. The ability of Gro to repress transcription at a distance together with its ability to oligomerize and bind to histones has led to the suggestion that Gro may spread along chromatin. However, much is unknown about the mechanism of Gro-mediated repression and about the dynamics of Gro targeting...
February 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231341/identification-of-the-er-resident-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf145-as-a-novel-lxr-regulated-gene
#11
Emma C L Cook, Jessica K Nelson, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Duco Koenis, Martina Moeton, Saskia Scheij, Roelof Ottenhoff, Boris Bleijlevens, Anke Loregger, Noam Zelcer
Cellular cholesterol metabolism is subject to tight regulation to maintain adequate levels of this central lipid molecule. Herein, the sterol-responsive Liver X Receptors (LXRs) play an important role owing to their ability to reduce cellular cholesterol load. In this context, identifying the full set of LXR-regulated genes will contribute to our understanding of their role in cholesterol metabolism. Using global transcriptional analysis we report here the identification of RNF145 as an LXR-regulated target gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230381/organic-monolayers-by-b-c6f5-3-catalyzed-siloxanation-of-oxidized-silicon-surfaces
#12
Jorge Escorihuela, Sidharam P Pujari, Han Zuilhof
Inspired by the homogeneous catalyst tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane [B(C6F5)3], which acts as a promotor of Si-H bond activation, we developed and studied a method of modifying silicon oxide surfaces using hydrosilanes with B(C6F5)3 as the catalyst. This dedihydrosiloxanation reaction yields complete surface coverage within 10 min at room temperature. Organic monolayers derived from hydrosilanes with varying carbon chain lengths (C8-C18) were prepared on oxidized Si(111) surfaces, and the thermal and hydrolytic stabilities of the obtained monolayers were investigated in acidic (pH 3) medium, basic (pH 11) medium, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and deionized water (neutral conditions) for up to 30 days...
March 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224663/loss-of-mlh1-sensitizes-colon-cancer-cells-to-dna-pkcs-inhibitor-ku60648
#13
Inga Hinrichsen, Anne Ackermann, Tonja Düding, Annika Graband, Natalie Filmann, Guido Plotz, Stefan Zeuzem, Angela Brieger
Germline mutations of MLH1 are responsible for tumor generation in nearly 50% of patients with Lynch Syndrome, and around 15% of sporadic colorectal cancers show MLH1-deficiency due to promotor hypermethylation. Although these tumors are of lower aggressiveness the benefit for these patients from standard chemotherapy is still under discussion. Recently, it was shown that the sensitivity to the DNA-PKcs inhibitor KU60648 is linked to loss of the MMR protein MSH3. However, loss of MSH3 is rather secondary, as a consequence of MMR-deficiency, and frequently detectable in MLH1-deficient tumors...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223944/il-1%C3%AE-induced-downregulation-of-the-multifunctional-pdz-adaptor-pdzk1-is-attenuated-by-erk-inhibition-rxr%C3%AE-or-ppar%C3%AE-stimulation-in-enterocytes
#14
Min Luo, Sunil Yeruva, Yongjian Liu, Giriprakash Chodisetti, Brigitte Riederer, Manoj B Menon, Keisuke Tachibana, Takefumi Doi, Ursula E Seidler
Background: The PDZ adaptor protein PDZK1 modulates the membrane expression and function of a variety of intestinal receptors and ion/nutrient transporters. Its expression is strongly decreased in inflamed intestinal mucosa of mice and IBD patients. Aim and Methods: We investigated whether the inflammation-associated PDZK1 downregulation is a direct consequence of proinflammatory cytokine release by treating intestinal Caco-2BBE cells with TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β, and analysing PDZK1 promotor activity, mRNA and protein expression...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221784/development-of-a-biosensor-concept-to-detect-the-production-of-cluster-specific-secondary-metabolites
#15
Yi-Qian Sun, Tobias Busche, Christian Rückert, Constanze Paulus, Yuriy Rebets, Renata Novakova, Joern Kalinowski, Andriy Luzhetskyy, Jan Kormanec, Olga N Sekurova, Sergey B Zotchev
Genome mining of actinomycete bacteria aims at the discovery of novel bioactive secondary metabolites that can be developed into drugs. A new repressor-based biosensor to detect activated secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in Streptomyces was developed. Biosynthetic gene clusters for undecylprodigiosin and coelimycin in the genome of Streptomyces lividans TK24, which encoded TetR-like repressors and appeared to be almost "silent" based on the RNA-seq data were chosen for the proof-of-principle studies...
February 21, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215381/intervention-effects-on-latinas-physical-activity-and-other-health-indicators
#16
Guadalupe X Ayala, Marisa Molina, Hala Madanat, Jeanne F Nichols, Thomas L McKenzie, Ming Ji, Margarita Holguin, Lisa Cuestas, Caryn Sumek, Carolina Labarca, Sandra Elvira, Elva M Arredondo, John P Elder
INTRODUCTION: U.S. Latinas do not engage in sufficient leisure-time physical activity. This study examined whether adding promotor-facilitated healthy lifestyle classes to an exercise intervention would promote exercise session attendance and improve health indicators. METHODS: The Familias Sanas y Activas II (Healthy and Active Families II) study used a within-subjects, longitudinal design, with measures at baseline and at 6 and 12 months post-baseline. The intervention was developed by the San Diego Prevention Research Center and implemented between May 2011 and June 2014 in South San Diego County...
March 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212656/using-a-vector-pool-containing-variable-strength-promoters-to-optimize-protein-production-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#17
Rémi Dulermo, François Brunel, Thierry Dulermo, Rodrigo Ledesma-Amaro, Jérémy Vion, Marion Trassaert, Stéphane Thomas, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Christophe Leplat
BACKGROUND: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is an increasingly common biofactory. To enhance protein expression, several promoters have been developed, including the constitutive TEF promoter, the inducible POX2 promotor, and the hybrid hp4d promoter. Recently, new hp4d-inspired promoters have been created that couple various numbers of UAS1 tandem elements with the minimal LEU2 promoter or the TEF promoter. Three different protein-secretion signaling sequences can be used: preLip2, preXpr2, and preSuc2...
February 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210208/promoter-specific-expression-and-genomic-structure-of-iglon-family-genes-in-mouse
#18
Taavi Vanaveski, Katyayani Singh, Jane Narvik, Kattri-Liis Eskla, Tanel Visnapuu, Indrek Heinla, Mohan Jayaram, Jürgen Innos, Kersti Lilleväli, Mari-Anne Philips, Eero Vasar
IgLON family is composed of five genes: Lsamp, Ntm, Opcml, Negr1, and Iglon5; encoding for five highly homologous neural adhesion proteins that regulate neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. In the current study we performed in silico analysis revealing that Ntm and Opcml display similar genomic structure as previously reported for Lsamp, characterized by two alternative promotors 1a and 1b. Negr1 and Iglon5 transcripts have uniform 5' region, suggesting single promoter. Iglon5, the recently characterized family member, shares high level of conservation and structural qualities characteristic to IgLON family such as N-terminal signal peptide, three Ig domains, and GPI anchor binding site...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208742/aav-vector-mediated-gene-delivery-to-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons-implications-for-gene-therapy-and-disease-models
#19
REVIEW
Katrina Albert, Merja H Voutilainen, Andrii Domanskyi, Mikko Airavaara
Gene delivery using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is a widely used method to transduce neurons in the brain, especially due to its safety, efficacy, and long-lasting expression. In addition, by varying AAV serotype, promotor, and titer, it is possible to affect the cell specificity of expression or the expression levels of the protein of interest. Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum, comprising the nigrostriatal pathway, are involved in movement control and degenerate in Parkinson's disease...
February 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#20
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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