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Yi Zhou, Ran Wei, Liu Zhang, Yongjiang Chen, Suying Lu, Chen Liang, Yujiao Wang, Lirong Xiao, Junjun Zhang, Rod Bremner, Danian Chen
Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) promotes cell cycle exit, survival, differentiation, and tumor suppression in the retina. Here, we show it is also essential for vascularization and lamination. Despite minimal effects on Hif1a target expression, intraretinal vascular plexi did not form in the Rb-/- murine retina. Deleting adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor 3 (E2f3), which rescues starburst amacrine cell differentiation, or E2f2, had no effect, but deleting E2f1, which promotes neuronal cell cycle exit and survival, restored retinal vasculature...
March 6, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Bina Eftekharsadat, Arash Babaei-Ghazani, Vahideh Zeinolabedinzadeh
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effects of dry needling on chronic heel pain due to plantar fasciitis. METHODS: During this single-blinded clinical trial, 20 eligible patients were randomized into two groups: A case group treated with dry needling and a control group. Patients' plantar pain severity, (using modified visual analog scale [VAS] scoring system), range of motion of ankle joint in dorsiflexion [ROMDF] and plantar extension[ROMPE] and foot function index (using standard questionnaires of SEM5 and MDC7) were assessed at baseline, four weeks after intervention and four weeks after withdrawing treatment...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Feng Li, Xiang-Yun Zeng, Yun-Jun Yu, Chang-Hua Wu, Ge Mai, Wei-Wei Song, Yan-Mao Wen, Zhi-Peng Duan, Jia-Yu Yang
Acid volatile sulfide (AVS) has been regarded as an important factor controlling metal bioavailability in anoxic sediments, but its effect on metal accumulation under natural conditions is poorly understood. Here, a field study of the influence of AVS on metal accumulation by Limnodrilus sp. in a heavily polluted river is provided. Most of the study area was subject to anaerobic and strongly reducing conditions, and the concentration of trace metals in surface sediments was high, as were the concentration of AVS and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM; average AVS = 20...
August 2014: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xiao-Bing Liu, Yan-Mao Wen, Feng Li, Chang-Hua Wu, Zhi-Peng Duan
Sediment and overlying water samples were collected at 10 sampling stations at Xinan Creek, a tidal river in Pearl River Delta, and analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics as well as microbial incicators, in order to reveal the main factors dominating the spatial distribution of acid volatile sulfide (AVS). The effects of Eh, SRB OC and TS on the spatial distribution of AVS were investigated and the impact of AVS on the toxicity of heavy metals in the studied area was evaluated. The results showed that the range of AVS was 0...
July 2012: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Josephine C Ferreon, James B Hamburger, Vincent J Hilser
Quantitative characterization of the stability of highly dynamic regions in proteins is a significant goal because it represents a cornerstone to an understanding of the role of dynamics in function. Due to experimental constraints, however, monitoring the local stability of highly dynamic regions using standard hydrogen exchange (HX) methods is not a viable approach. Here, an experimental strategy is outlined that takes advantage of the coupling between stability as monitored by HX and binding affinity as monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry...
October 13, 2004: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Maria J Macias, Silke Wiesner, Marius Sudol
WW domains are small protein modules composed of approximately 40 amino acids. These domains fold as a stable, triple stranded beta-sheet and recognize proline-containing ligands. WW domains are found in many different signaling and structural proteins, often localized in the cytoplasm as well as in the cell nucleus. Based on analyses of seven structures of WW domains, we discuss their diverse binding preferences and sequence conservation patterns. While modeling WW domains for which structures have not been determined we uncovered a case of potential molecular and functional convergence between WW and SH3 domains...
February 20, 2002: FEBS Letters
K Sjölander
This work focuses on the inference of evolutionary relationships in protein superfamilies, and the uses of these relationships to identify key positions in the structure, to infer attributes on the basis of evolutionary distance, and to identify potential errors in sequence annotations. Relative entropy, a distance metric from information theory, is used in combination with Dirichlet mixture priors to estimate a phylogenetic tree for a set of proteins. This method infers key structural or functional positions in the molecule, and guides the tree topology to preserve these important positions within subtrees...
1998: Proceedings
M Benito, A M Valverde, M Lorenzo
The main source of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) postnatally is the liver, under growth hormone stimulation, although IGF-I is already present in embryonic tissues and in fetal serum, when its expression is independent of growth hormone. The extracellular alpha-subunit of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) contains an IGF-I binding domain, and the beta-subunit possesses tyrosine kinase activity, which is greatly enhanced when IGF-I binds to the alpha-subunit and leads to its autophosphorylation. Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is the most well characterized cellular substrate for IGF-I, containing at least 20 potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites...
May 1996: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
B D'souza, J Taylor-Papadimitriou
Overexpression of the ERBB2 receptor in transfectants of a human mammary epithelial cell line (MTSV1-7) is associated with a reduced ability to undergo morphogenesis in vitro and with a decreased level of expression of the E-cadherin and alpha 2 integrin genes. The inhibition of expression of the adhesion molecules has been shown to be at the level of transcription by using nuclear run-on assays and by following transcription of a reporter gene fused to 5' sequences of the E-cadherin gene. To relate the effects on gene transcription to a functional ERBB2 protein, signaling from the receptor was inhibited by the antibody 4D5, which blocks phosphorylation of ERBB2 on tyrosine residues and association of the protein with the GRB2/Sem5 protein...
July 19, 1994: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Z Songyang, S E Shoelson, J McGlade, P Olivier, T Pawson, X R Bustelo, M Barbacid, H Sabe, H Hanafusa, T Yi
Src homology 2 (SH2) domains provide specificity to intracellular signaling by binding to specific phosphotyrosine (phospho-Tyr)-containing sequences. We recently developed a technique using a degenerate phosphopeptide library to predict the specificity of individual SH2 domains (src family members, Abl, Nck, Sem5, phospholipase C-gamma, p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and SHPTP2 (Z. Songyang, S. E. Shoelson, M. Chaudhuri, G. Gish, T. Pawson, W. G. Haser, F. King, T. Roberts, S. Ratnofsky, R. J...
April 1994: Molecular and Cellular Biology
M F O'Rourke, A P Avolio, W W Nichols
In experiments in 14 anaesthetised kangaroos, 10 developed unexpected ventricular fibrillation and died. In seeking a cause for this, similarities were noted with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) in man. Like patients with this condition, kangaroos have unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy and are known to be susceptible to sudden death with excitement and exertion. Retrospective analysis of all data showed other features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: unusually rapid left ventricular pressure development in systole (peak dP/dt: kangaroo 3602 (SEM472); HC 1947(SEM172) mmHg X s-1), unusually slow left ventricular relaxation (exponential time constant: kangaroo 54(SEM7); HC 63 (SEM5) ms; relaxation time: kangaroo 128(SEM7); HC 112(SEM7) ms), and inappropriately long duration of mechanical systole in relation to ventricular depolarisation (393(SEM21) ms and 214(SEM15) ms respectively)...
June 1986: Cardiovascular Research
M Rozakis-Adcock, J McGlade, G Mbamalu, G Pelicci, R Daly, W Li, A Batzer, S Thomas, J Brugge, P G Pelicci, J Schlessinger, T Pawson
The mammalian shc gene encodes two overlapping, widely expressed proteins of 46 and 52K, with a carboxy-terminal SH2 domain that binds activated growth factor receptors, and a more amino-terminal glycine/proline-rich region. These shc gene products (Shc) are transforming when overexpressed in fibroblasts. Shc proteins become phosphorylated on tyrosine in cells stimulated with a variety of growth factors, and in cells transformed by v-src (ref. 2), suggesting that they are tyrosine kinase targets that control a mitogenic signalling pathway...
December 17, 1992: Nature
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