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Matt Crook, Awani Upadhyay, Liyana J Ido, Wendy Hanna-Rose
Identification of pro-cell-survival signaling pathways has implications for cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease. We show that the Caenorhaditis elegans epidermal growth factor receptor LET-23 has a pro-survival function in counteracting excitotoxicity, and we identify novel molecular players required for this pro-survival signaling. uv1 sensory cells in the C. elegans uterus undergo excitotoxic death in response to activation of the OSM-9/OCR-4 TRPV channel by the endogenous agonist nicotinamide...
September 7, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Rajani Kanteti, Immanuel Dhanasingh, Essam El-Hashani, Jacob J Riehm, Thomas Stricker, Stanislav Nagy, Alexander Zaborin, Olga Zaborina, David Biron, John C Alverdy, Hae Kyung Im, Shahid Siddiqui, Pamela A Padilla, Ravi Salgia
We previously investigated MET and its oncogenic mutants relevant to lung cancer in C. elegans. The inactive orthlogues of the receptor tyrosine kinase Eph and MET, namely vab-1 and RB2088 respectively, the temperature sensitive constitutively active form of KRAS, SD551 (let-60; GA89) and the inactive c-CBL equivalent mutants in sli-1 (PS2728, PS1258, and MT13032) when subjected to chronic exposure of nicotine resulted in a significant loss in egg-laying capacity and fertility. While the vab-1 mutant revealed increased circular motion in response to nicotine, the other mutant strains failed to show any effect...
January 2, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
M Dávid Gyurkó, Péter Csermely, Csaba Sőti, Attila Steták
The Ras GTPase activating proteins (RasGAPs) are regulators of the conserved Ras/MAPK pathway. Various roles of some of the RasGAPs in learning and memory have been reported in different model systems, yet, there is no comprehensive study to characterize all gap genes in any organism. Here, using reverse genetics and neurobehavioural tests, we studied the role of all known genes of the rasgap family in C. elegans in associative learning and memory. We demonstrated that their proteins are implicated in different parts of the learning and memory processes...
2015: Scientific Reports
Eduardo G Yukihara, Brandon A Doull, Md Ahmed, Stephan Brons, Thomas Tessonnier, Oliver Jäkel, Steffen Greilich
The objective of this study was to characterize the time-resolved (TR) optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from Al2O3:C detectors and investigate methodologies to improve the accuracy of these detectors in ion beam therapy dosimetry, addressing the reduction in relative response to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles common to solid-state detectors. Al2O3:C OSL detectors (OSLDs) were exposed to proton, (4)He, (12)C and (16)O beams in 22 particle/energy combinations and read using a custom-built TR-OSL reader...
September 7, 2015: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Stephanie Schoeppe, Mitch J Duncan, Hannah M Badland, Stephanie Alley, Susan Williams, Amanda L Rebar, Corneel Vandelanotte
BACKGROUND: In developed countries, children's independent mobility levels are low. Built environmental factors and parental safety concerns are well-known to predict the level of independent mobility adults grant to children. In contrast, the influence of adults' socio-demographic characteristics and neighbourhood social cohesion on children's independent mobility is largely unexplored. This study investigated the influence of adults' socio-demographic factors and neighbourhood social cohesion on distances they would permit children for independent travel and outdoor play...
2015: BMC Public Health
Julia E Szymczak, Sarah Smathers, Cindy Hoegg, Sarah Klieger, Susan E Coffin, Julia S Sammons
IMPORTANCE: When clinicians work with symptoms of infection, they can put patients and colleagues at risk. Little is known about the reasons why attending physicians and advanced practice clinicians (APCs) work while sick. OBJECTIVE: To identify a comprehensive understanding of the reasons why attending physicians and APCs work while sick. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a mixed-methods analysis of a cross-sectional, anonymous survey administered from January 15 through March 20, 2014, in a large children's hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania...
September 2015: JAMA Pediatrics
James F Geary, Raquel Lovato, Samuel Wanji, Ron Guderian, Maeghan O'Neill, Sabine Specht, Nicole Madrill, Timothy G Geary, Charles D Mackenzie
BACKGROUND: Control and elimination of filarial pathogens is a central focus of major global health efforts directed at parasitic diseases of developing countries. Accomplishment of these goals would be markedly enhanced by the enhanced destruction of the adult stage of filariae. The identification of new, more quantitative biomarkers that correlate with mortality or chemotherapeutic damage to adult filariae, would greatly facilitate, for example, the development of new macrofilaricides...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
L Wootton, C Holmes, N Sahoo, S Beddar
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of using a commercial plastic scintillation detector, the Exradin W1, for precise, accurate entrance dosimetry in a passively scattered proton beam METHODS: Measurements of passively scattered proton beam entrance dose were performed using an Exradin W1 calibrated on a Cobalt-60 unit, and a calibrated parallel plane ion chamber at energies from 140 to 250 MeV. A fixed spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) width of 8 cm was used at all energies except 140 and 225 MeV, where selected SOBP widths spanning all those available were used...
June 2015: Medical Physics
F Therriault-Proulx, L Wootton, S Beddar
PURPOSE: To evaluate a measurement method that renders plastic scintillation detectors temperature independent and capable of recovering dose and temperature information simultaneously. METHODS: A novel approach was developed to account for the temperature dependence of plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) without prior knowledge of the temperature. To enable this, the optical response of the scintillating element is separated into two sub-components, one being the response at a given temperature and the other accounting for the change in the optical emission spectrum with temperature...
June 2015: Medical Physics
P Pater, G Backstrom, S Enger, F Villegas, A Ahnesjo, J Seuntjens, I El Naqa
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for protons and light ions, and the corresponding role of LET as a descriptor of radiation quality of hadron therapy. METHODS: Monte Carlo (MC) proton and light ion (He, Li, C) tracks with LET < 30 eV nm(-1) were generated in an event-by-event mode. They were overlaid on a cell nucleus model containing 6×10(9) nucleotide base pairs using an isotropic irradiation procedure that provides electronic equilibrium...
June 2015: Medical Physics
F Alsanea, L Wootton, R Kudchadker, M Usama, S Beddar
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of plastic scintillation detectors used for skin dosimetry of patients undergoing passive scatter proton therapy. METHODS: Following an IRB approved protocol, six patients undergoing passively scattered proton beam therapy for prostate cancer were selected for in vivo skin dosimetry using the Exradin W1 plastic scintillator. The detector was calibrated on a Cobalt-60 unit, and phantom measurements in the proton beam with the W1 and a calibrated parallel plate ion chamber were used to account for the under-response due to high LET at energies used for treatment...
June 2015: Medical Physics
M Yeh, Y Wang, H Weng
UNLABELLED: Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical...
June 2015: Medical Physics
K O Inozemtsev, V V Kushin, R V Tolochek, V A Shurshakov
The paper presents the results of measuring biologically significant characteristics of space radiation (spectra of linear energy transfer (LET), absorbed and equivalent doses and averaged quality factors) inside the descend capsule of biosatellite Bion-M1 in space experiment Bioradiation. Measurements combined the use of thermoluminescent detectors DTG-4 (TDL) and solid state nuclear track detectors CR-39 (Tastrak) (SSNTD). Differential and integral LET spectra of high-LET space radiation were determined in 4 points inside spacecraft using passive detectors assembles (PDA)...
2015: Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina, Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
Debbie Rand, Gabi Zeilig, Rachel Kizony
BACKGROUND: Impaired dexterity of the weaker upper extremity is common post stroke and it is recommended that these individuals practice many repetitions of movement to regain function. However, stroke rehabilitation methods do not achieve the required intensity to be effective. Touchscreen tablet technology may be used as a motivating tool for self-training impaired dexterity of the weaker upper extremity post stroke. METHODS/DESIGN: Rehab-let is a self-training protocol utilizing game apps on a touchscreen for practicing movement of the weaker upper extremity...
2015: Trials
Rui Peng, Handeng Liu, Huimin Peng, Ji Zhou, He Zha, Xin Chen, Luyu Zhang, Yan Sun, Pin Yin, Li Wen, Tianhui Wu, Zheng Zhang
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Recent researches show that DNA methylation plays a role in DN. However, the exact mechanism is not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that are involved in the regulation of the development of DN. We have previously demonstrated that let-7a was down-expressed in DN by microarray, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, let-7a-3 was found to be the only gene with the CpG island in the promoter region among the three let-7a members (let-7a-1, let-7a-2 and let-7a-3) by bioinformatic methods...
October 1, 2015: Gene
Burthia E Booker, Ryan S Clark, Samuel T Pellom, Samuel E Adunyah
Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a cytokine consisting of a 39kD homodimer, shown to be a ligand for both the Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF/CSF-1) receptor and the Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase-zeta (RPTP-ƺ). IL-34 has been shown to promote monocyte viability and proliferation as well as the differentiation of bone marrow cells into macrophage progenitors. Published work on IL-34 involves its effects on normal hematopoietic and osteoclast progenitors. However, it is not known whether IL-34 has biologic effects in cancer, including leukemia...
2015: International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Izaäk F Kodde, Laurens Kaas, Nick van Es, Paul G H Mulder, C Niek van Dijk, Denise Eygendaal
BACKGROUND: Radial head fractures are commonly interpreted as isolated injuries, and it is assumed that the energy transferred during trauma has its influence on the risk on associated ipsilateral upper limb injuries. However, relationships between Mason classification, mechanism of injury, and associated injuries have been reported only once before in a relatively small population. The purpose of this study was to define whether trauma mechanism and patient related factors are of influence on the type of radial head fracture and associated injuries to the ipsilateral upper limb in 440 patients...
2015: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Chen-Lu Zhang, Zhi Li, Yun-Peng Liu, Ying Wu, Xiu-Juan Qu
PURPOSE: The role of let-7 family members in cancer prognosis has been the subject of increasing interest; however, the correlation between let-7 expression and cancer prognosis remains unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the prognostic role of let-7 expression by performing a meta-analysis update of 31 studies. METHODS: All relevant studies were searched on PubMed and Web of Science. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and subgroup analysis was performed for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) to evaluate the relationship between high let-7 expression and cancer prognosis...
March 2015: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Alexandra V Litvinchuk, J Vachelová, A Michaelidesová, R Wagner, M Davídková
Micronuclei are small extranuclear bodies resulting from chromosome fragments or the whole chromosomes secluded from daughter nuclei during mitosis. The number of radiation-induced micronuclei reflects the level of chromosomal damage and relates to an absorbed dose and quality of incident ionizing radiation. The aim of the present study was to determine the micronucleus formation as a specific biological marker for acute radiation-induced DNA damage in normal human fibroblasts exposed to 30-MeV protons and Co-60 gamma radiation...
August 2015: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
L Q Shen, Y Z Xie, X F Qian, Z X Zhuang, Y Jiao, X F Qi
Lung cancer is a complex polygenic disease and many genetic factors are involved in the development of the disease. As one of the most important and widely studied families of microRNA, let-7 appears to play an important role in initiation and progression of lung cancer. Any small changes in miRNA level or its target point can cause significant changes in gene function. In this study, we examined whether a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the let-7 family (rs10877887) is associated with the susceptibility to and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma cancer...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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