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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443128/physiological-and-molecular-characterization-of-hydroxyphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase-hppd-inhibitor-resistance-in-palmer-amaranth-amaranthus-palmeri-s-wats
#1
Sridevi Nakka, Amar S Godar, Prashant S Wani, Curtis R Thompson, Dallas E Peterson, Jeroen Roelofs, Mithila Jugulam
Herbicides that inhibit hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) such as mesotrione are widely used to control a broad spectrum of weeds in agriculture. Amaranthus palmeri is an economically troublesome weed throughout the United States. The first case of evolution of resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides in A. palmeri was documented in Kansas (KS) and later in Nebraska (NE). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechansim of HPPD-inhibitor (mesotrione) resistance in A. palmeri. Dose response analysis revealed that this population (KSR) was 10-18 times more resistant than their sensitive counterparts (MSS or KSS)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401100/generation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-using-a-defined-stepwise-serum-free-and-serum-replacement-free-monolayer-culture-method
#2
So-Jung Kim, Ji-Won Jung, Hye-Yeong Ha, Soo Kyung Koo, Eung-Gook Kim, Jung-Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be expanded infinitely in vitro and have the potential to differentiate into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); thus, they are considered a useful source of cells for HSC production. Although several technical in vitro methods for engineering HSCs from pluripotent stem cells have been developed, clinical application of HSCs engineered from pluripotent stem cells is restricted because of the possibility of xenogeneic contamination resulting from the use of murine materials...
March 2017: Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398669/evaluation-of-culture-time-and-media-in-an-in-vitro-testis-organ-culture-system
#3
Noriko Nakamura, Gwenn E Merry, Amy L Inselman, Daniel T Sloper, Pedro L Del Valle, Takuya Sato, Takehiko Ogawa, Deborah K Hansen
BACKGROUND: The complexity of spermatogenesis makes development of appropriate in vitro testis models challenging. A novel in vitro mouse testis culture system has been reported but not yet evaluated as an alternative model for male reproductive toxicity testing. We assessed the effects of media composition on sperm differentiation and testis morphology of cultured mouse testis fragments. METHODS: Testes from postnatal day 5 B6:CBA-Tg(Acrv1-EGFP)2727Redd/J male mice were cultured in knockout serum replacement (KSR) or Albumax I (Albumax) medium...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397607/sex-reversal-and-analyses-of-possible-involvement-of-sex-steroids-in-scallop-gonadal-development-in-newly-established-organ-culture-systems
#4
Ayano Otani, Tadaaki Nakajima, Tomomi Okumura, Shiro Fujii, Yasuhiro Tomooka
Many molluscs perform sex reversal, and sex hormones may be involved in the process. In adult scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, gonadotropin releasing hormone and 17β-estradiol (E2) are involved in male sexual maturation, however, little is known about the effects of E2 and testosterone (T) on the gonadal differentiation in young scallops. In the present study, scallop gonadal development was analyzed to determine the sex reversal stage in Funka bay, and effects of E2 and T were examined. In Funka bay, almost all scallops were male at month 12...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365113/associations-between-pathogen-specific-cases-of-subclinical-mastitis-and-milk-yield-quality-protein-composition-and-cheese-making-traits-in-dairy-cows
#5
T Bobbo, P L Ruegg, G Stocco, E Fiore, M Gianesella, M Morgante, D Pasotto, G Bittante, A Cecchinato
The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341048/genetic-analysis-of-coagulation-properties-curd-firming-modeling-milk-yield-composition-and-acidity-in-sarda-dairy-sheep
#6
G Bittante, C Cipolat-Gotet, M Pazzola, M L Dettori, G M Vacca, A Cecchinato
Sheep milk is an important source of food, especially in Mediterranean countries, and is used in large part for cheese production. Milk technological traits are important for the sheep dairy industry, but research is lacking into the genetic variation of such traits. Therefore the aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of traditional milk coagulation properties and curd firmness modeled on time t (CFt) parameters, and their genetic relationships with test-day milk yield, composition (fat, protein, and casein content), and acidity in Sarda dairy sheep...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333549/ksr-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-ras-dependent-cancers
#7
Beth K Neilsen, Danielle E Frodyma, Robert E Lewis, Kurt W Fisher
Targeting downstream effectors required for oncogenic Ras signaling is a potential alternative or complement to the development of more direct approaches targeting Ras in the treatment of Ras-dependent cancers. Areas covered: Here we review literature pertaining to the molecular scaffold Kinase Suppressor of Ras (KSR) and its role in promoting signals critical to tumor maintenance. We summarize the phenotypes in knockout models, describe the role of KSR in cancer, and outline the structure and function of the KSR1 and KSR2 proteins...
April 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176872/genotoxic-effects-of-culture-media-on-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Megha Prakash Bangalore, Syama Adhikarla, Odity Mukherjee, Mitradas M Panicker
Culture conditions play an important role in regulating the genomic integrity of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (HPSCs). We report that HPSCs cultured in Essential 8 (E8) and mTeSR, two widely used media for feeder-free culturing of HPSCs, had many fold higher levels of ROS and higher mitochondrial potential than cells cultured in Knockout Serum Replacement containing media (KSR). HPSCs also exhibited increased levels of 8-hydroxyguanosine, phospho-histone-H2a.X and p53, as well as increased sensitivity to γ-irradiation in these two media...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069069/arresting-kinase-suppressor-of-ras-in-an-inactive-state
#9
EDITORIAL
Syed Lal Badshah, Yahia Mabkhot
Ras protein signaling pathways are important in controlling the plight of different types of cancer. Here we discussed the paper entitled "Small molecule stabilization of the KSR inactive state antagonizes oncogenic Ras signalling" published in Nature journal on inactivating the kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) protein using a small molecule as an inhibitor by Dhawan et al. A biphenyl ether analogue of a quinazoline binds in one of the binding pockets of KSR and results in stabilization of its inactive state...
January 9, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003362/phosphorylation-of-rap1-by-camp-dependent-protein-kinase-pka-creates-a-binding-site-for-ksr-to-sustain-erk-activation-by-camp
#10
Maho Takahashi, Yanping Li, Tara J Dillon, Philip J S Stork
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important mediator of hormonal stimulation of cell growth and differentiation through its activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Two small G proteins, Ras and Rap1 have been proposed to mediate this activation. Using HEK293 cells as a model system, we have recently shown that both Ras and Rap1 are required for cAMP signaling to ERKs. However, cAMP-dependent Ras signaling to ERKs is transient and rapidly terminated by PKA phosphorylation of the Raf isoforms C-Raf and B-Raf...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988128/pathway-based-genome-wide-association-analysis-of-milk-coagulation-properties-curd-firmness-cheese-yield-and-curd-nutrient-recovery-in-dairy-cattle
#11
C Dadousis, S Pegolo, G J M Rosa, D Gianola, G Bittante, A Cecchinato
It is becoming common to complement genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with gene-set enrichment analysis to deepen the understanding of the biological pathways affecting quantitative traits. Our objective was to conduct a gene ontology and pathway-based analysis to identify possible biological mechanisms involved in the regulation of bovine milk technological traits: coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, individual cheese yield (CY), and milk nutrient recovery into the curd (REC) or whey loss traits...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934825/molecular-analysis-of-rv0679c-and-rv0180c-genes-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-clinical-isolates-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#12
L Rupa, A Srikantam, S S Lakshmana Rao, U Devi, Ksr Sivasai
CONTEXT: Two novel proteins/genes Rv0679c and Rv0180c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv were classified as a hypothetical membrane and transmembrane proteins which might have a role in the invasion. Molecular analysis of these genes in human clinical isolates of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients was not well characterised. AIMS: To assess the molecular diversity of Rv0679c and Rv0180c genes of MTB from clinical isolates of PTB patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: DNA from 97 clinical isolates was extracted and subjected to amplification using selective primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818241/poly-vinyl-acetate-and-ammonio-methacrylate-copolymer-as-unconventional-polymer-blends-increase-the-mechanical-robustness-of-hpmc-matrix-tablets
#13
R Ali, A Dashevsky, R Bodmeier
The objective was to investigate poly vinyl acetate (Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D) and ammonio methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit(®) RL 30 D) blends as coatings to increase the mechanical robustness of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrix tablets. Poly vinyl acetate (Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D - KSR) was selected for its flexibility and ammonio methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit(®) RL 30 D - ERL) because of its high permeability. Films based on KSR:ERL blends were prepared by casting or spraying aqueous dispersions of these polymers and were characterized by water uptake, dry mass loss and mechanical properties...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633838/chemically-defined-serum-free-conditions-for-cartilage-regeneration-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Dandan Yang, Shubin Chen, Changzhao Gao, Xiaobo Liu, Yulai Zhou, Pengfei Liu, Jinglei Cai
AIMS: The aim of this study was to improve a method that induce cartilage differentiation of human embryoid stem cells (hESCs) in vitro, and test the effect of in vivo environments on the further maturation of hESCs derived cells. MAIN METHODS: Embryoid bodies (EBs) formed from hESCs, with serum-free KSR-based medium and mesodermal specification related factors, CHIR, and Noggin for first 8days. Then cells were digested and cultured as micropellets in serum-free KSR-based chondrogenic medium that was supplemented with PDGF-BB, TGF β3, BMP4 in sequence for 24days...
November 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591198/ksr-mutations-guide-development-of-ras-pathway-antagonists
#15
(no author information available yet)
The small molecule APS-2-79 stabilizes an inactive form of the MAPK scaffold KSR to repress RAS signaling.
October 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566699/abiraterone-acetate-for-the-treatment-of-chemotherapy-na%C3%A3-ve-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-an-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#16
REVIEW
Bram L T Ramaekers, Rob Riemsma, Florian Tomini, Thea van Asselt, Sohan Deshpande, Steven Duffy, Nigel Armstrong, Johan L Severens, Jos Kleijnen, Manuela A Joore
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Janssen, the company manufacturing abiraterone acetate (AA; tradename Zytiga(®)), to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of AA in combination with prednisone/prednisolone (AAP) compared with watchful waiting (i.e. best supportive care [BSC]) for chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd (KSR), in collaboration with Maastricht University Medical Center, was commissioned as the Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
February 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556948/small-molecule-stabilization-of-the-ksr-inactive-state-antagonizes-oncogenic-ras-signalling
#17
Neil S Dhawan, Alex P Scopton, Arvin C Dar
Deregulation of the Ras-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is an early event in many different cancers and a key driver of resistance to targeted therapies. Sustained signalling through this pathway is caused most often by mutations in K-Ras, which biochemically favours the stabilization of active RAF signalling complexes. Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a MAPK scaffold that is subject to allosteric regulation through dimerization with RAF. Direct targeting of KSR could have important therapeutic implications for cancer; however, testing this hypothesis has been difficult owing to a lack of small-molecule antagonists of KSR function...
September 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514953/presence-of-viable-mycobacterium-leprae-in-environmental-specimens-around-houses-of-leprosy-patients
#18
R P Turankar, M Lavania, M Singh, U Sengupta, Ksr Siva Sai, R S Jadhav
PURPOSE: Leprosy is a chronic systemic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, one of the first organisms to be established as the cause for disease in humans. Because of high prevalence pockets of leprosy in the endemic regions, it is necessary to identify the possible sources of M. leprae in the environment and its mode of transmission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Slit skin smears (SSSs) from lesions were collected in 70% ethanol from 50 leprosy cases staying in the leprosy resettlement village and hospital from a high endemic area...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422710/phosphoproteomics-reveals-mapk-inhibitors-enhance-met-and-egfr-driven-akt-signaling-in-kras-mutant-lung-cancer
#19
Jae-Young Kim, Eric A Welsh, Bin Fang, Yun Bai, Fumi Kinose, Steven A Eschrich, John M Koomen, Eric B Haura
Pathway inhibition of the RAS-driven MAPK pathway using small-molecule kinase inhibitors has been a key focus for treating cancers driven by oncogenic RAS, yet significant clinical responses are lacking. Feedback reactivation of ERK driven by drug-induced RAF activity has been suggested as one of the major drug resistance mechanisms, especially in the context of oncogenic RAS. To determine whether additional adaptive resistance mechanisms may coexist, we characterized global phosphoproteomic changes after MEK inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244) treatment in KRAS-mutant A427 and A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines employing mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics...
October 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368419/stabilization-of-c-raf-ksr1-complex-by-diras3-reduces-availability-of-c-raf-for-dimerization-with-b-raf
#20
Angela Baljuls, Maciej Dobrzyński, Jens Rauch, Nora Rauch, Walter Kolch
RAF family kinases are central components of the Ras-RAF-MEK-ERK cascade. Dimerization is a key mechanism of RAF activation in response to physiological, pathological and pharmacological signals. It is mediated by a dimer interface region in the RAF kinase domain that is also conserved in KSR, a scaffolding protein that binds RAF, MEK and ERK. The regulation of RAF dimerization is incompletely understood. Especially little is known about the molecular mechanism involved in the selection of the dimerization partner...
October 2016: Cellular Signalling
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