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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149836/are-there-different-kinds-of-aging
#1
Amalia Gabriela Diaconeasa
A critical analysis of the accelerated aging syndromes may explain what aging is, but also why some tissues and organs age at accelerated rates in comparison with aging rates of other tissues. Syndromes of accelerated aging are caused by mutations affecting the integrity of the genetic material. Among them, the most studied is Werner's syndrome, "adult progeria", caused by a recessive autosomal mutation with a frequency of 1 in 10 millions, which affects a helicase involved in DNA repair. In Werner syndrome, there is a loss of heterochromatin, though the stability of heterochromatin is also affected in "normal" aging...
November 16, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146355/gelatinized-wheat-starch-influences-crystallization-behaviour-and-structure-of-roll-in-shortenings-in-laminated-bakery-products
#2
Kristin D Mattice, Alejandro G Marangoni
One hydrogenated and one non-hydrogenated shortening were baked with isolated components of a croissant matrix, including crystalline wheat starch, gelatinized wheat starch, gluten, and formed gluten network. The impact of the matrix components on fat crystallization was analyzed for polymorphism using powder X-ray diffraction, solid fat content by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal behaviour by differential scanning calorimetry. When compared to results obtained from croissants prepared with the respective shortenings, samples containing gelatinized wheat starch displayed notably similar results: polymorphic conversion, from the β' to β form over storage, and visually broader peaks in the melting endotherms indicating a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142071/chromatin-histone-modifications-and-rigidity-affect-nuclear-morphology-independent-of-lamins
#3
Andrew D Stephens, Patrick Z Liu, Edward J Banigan, Luay M Almassalha, Vadim Backman, Stephen A Adam, Robert D Goldman, John F Marko
Nuclear shape and architecture influence gene localization, mechanotransduction, transcription, and cell function. Abnormal nuclear morphology and protrusions termed "blebs" are diagnostic markers for many human afflictions including heart disease, aging, progeria, and cancer. Nuclear blebs are associated with both lamin and chromatin alterations. A number of prior studies suggest that lamins dictate nuclear morphology, but the contributions of altered chromatin compaction remain unclear. We show that chromatin histone modification state dictates nuclear rigidity, and modulating it is sufficient to both induce and suppress nuclear blebs...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134302/nuclear-organization-during-in-vitro-differentiation-of-porcine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-into-adipocytes
#4
Joanna Stachecka, Agnieszka Walczak, Beata Kociucka, Błażej Ruszczycki, Grzegorz Wilczyński, Izabela Szczerbal
Differentiation of progenitor cells into adipocytes is accompanied by remarkable changes in cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and gene expression profile. Mature adipocytes are filled with a large lipid droplet and the nucleus tends to move to the cell periphery. It was hypothesized that the differentiation process is also associated with changes of nuclear organization. The aim of this study was to determine the number and distribution of selected components of nuclear architecture during porcine in vitro adipogenesis...
November 13, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128844/a-biodegradable-scaffold-enhances-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-a-thick-sheet-of-retinal-cells
#5
Deepti Singh, Shao-Bin Wang, Tina Xia, Laurel Tainsh, Maryam Ghiassi-Nejad, Tao Xu, Shaomin Peng, Ron A Adelman, Lawrence J Rizzolo
Retinal degeneration is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Stem cells can be differentiated into retinal organoids to study mechanisms of retinal degeneration, develop therapeutic agents, and potentially serve as replacement tissues. The spherical nature of these retinoids limits their utility, because the investigator lacks ready access to both sides of the neo-tissue. For tissue-replacement, spherical retinoids are unable to interact simultaneously with the host retinal pigment epithelium and remaining neurosensory retina...
October 31, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117318/lamin-cleavage-a-reliable-marker-for-studying-staurosporine-induced-apoptosis-in-corneal-tissue
#6
Siddharth Mahajan, Daniel Thieme, Marta Czugala, Friedrich E Kruse, Thomas A Fuchsluger
Purpose: The aims of this study were to identify a robust apoptosis marker suitable for both quantification and back-to-back analyses of programmed cell death and to define specific upstream targets for apoptosis in corneal cells. Methods: Apoptotic cleavage of initiator caspases and their downstream targets such as lamins and poly-ADP ribose polymerase was investigated in human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC-12), keratocytes (HCK), epithelial cells (HCEp), and full-thickness corneas using Western blotting and confocal microscopy following apoptosis induction with staurosporine...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115590/overexpression-of-lamin-b1-induces-mitotic-catastrophe-in-colon-cancer-lovo-cells-and-is-associated-with-worse-clinical-outcomes
#7
Magdalena Izdebska, Maciej Gagat, Alina Grzanka
Lamins are the major components of the nuclear lamina and play important roles in many cellular processes. The role of lamins in cancer development and progression is still unclear but it is known that reduced expression of lamin B1 has been observed in colon cancer. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of LMNB1 upregulation on colon cancer cell line after treatment with 5-FU. The results indicate, that overexpression of LMNB1 induced dose-dependent cell death mainly by mitotic catastrophe pathway...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112121/the-potential-of-ipscs-for-the-treatment-of-premature-aging-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Claudia Compagnucci, Enrico Bertini
Premature aging disorders including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and Werner syndrome, are a group of rare monogenic diseases leading to reduced lifespan of the patients. Importantly, these disorders mimic several features of physiological aging. Despite the interest on the study of these diseases, the underlying biological mechanisms remain unknown and no treatment is available. Recent studies on HGPS (due to mutations of the LMNA gene encoding for the nucleoskeletal proteins lamin A/C) have reported disruptions in cellular and molecular mechanisms modulating genomic stability and stem cell populations, thus giving the nuclear lamina a relevant function in nuclear organization, epigenetic regulation and in the maintenance of the stem cell pool...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103955/cell-cycle-proteins-control-production-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#9
Borko Amulic, Sebastian Lorenz Knackstedt, Ulrike Abu Abed, Nikolaus Deigendesch, Christopher J Harbort, Brian E Caffrey, Volker Brinkmann, Frank L Heppner, Philip W Hinds, Arturo Zychlinsky
Neutrophils are essential for immune defense and can respond to infection by releasing chromatin in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Here we show that NETs are induced by mitogens and accompanied by induction of cell-cycle markers, including phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and lamins, nuclear envelope breakdown, and duplication of centrosomes. We identify cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) as essential regulators of NETs and show that the response is inhibited by the cell-cycle inhibitor p21(Cip)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103143/dna-hypermethylation-enhanced-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-expression-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
Ken Takasawa, Yoshikazu Arai, Mayu Yamazaki-Inoue, Masashi Toyoda, Hidenori Akutsu, Akihiro Umezawa, Koichiro Nishino
During reprogramming into human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), several stem cell marker genes are induced, such as OCT-4, NANOG, SALL4, and TERT. OCT-4, NANOG, and SALL4 gene expression can be regulated by DNA methylation. Their promoters become hypomethylated in iPSCs during reprogramming, leading to their induced expression. However, epigenetic regulation of the TERT gene remains unclear. In this study, we focused on epigenetic regulation of the human TERT gene and identified a differentially methylated region (DMR) at a distal region in the TERT promoter between human iPSCs and their parental somatic cells...
November 4, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101875/dissecting-disease-entities-out-of-the-broad-spectrum-of-bipolar-disorders
#11
Joseph Levine, Lilach Toker, Galila Agam
The etiopathology of bipolar disorders is yet unraveled and new avenues should be pursued. One such avenue may be based on the assumption that the bipolar broad spectrum includes, among others, an array of rare medical disease entities. Towards this aim we propose a dissecting approach based on a search for rare medical diseases with known etiopathology which also exhibit bipolar disorders symptomatology. We further suggest that the etiopathologic mechanisms underlying such rare medical diseases may also underlie a rare variant of bipolar disorder...
November 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079971/characterization-of-the-lamin-analogue-nmcp2-in-the-monocot-allium-cepa
#12
Malgorzata Ciska, Kiyoshi Masuda, Susana Moreno Díaz de la Espina
Nuclear lamina organization is similar in metazoan and plants though the latter lack orthologs of lamins, the main components of the metazoan lamina. Current evidence suggests that Nuclear Matrix Constituent Proteins (NMCPs) are the lamin analogues in plants as these proteins share several key features: higher-order secondary structure and domain layout, subnuclear distribution, and involvement in the regulation of nuclear shape and size, as well as in higher-order chromatin organization. Previously, we studied the NMCP family in flowering plants (angiosperms), in which it comprises two phylogenetic groups: NMCP1 and NMCP2...
October 27, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043445/the-role-of-intermediate-filaments-in-maintaining-integrity-and-function-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-after-massive-bowel-resection-in-a-rat
#13
I Sukhotnik, Y Ben Shahar, Y Pollak, T Dorfman, H Kreizman Shefer, Z E Assi, N Mor-Vaknin, A G Coran
PURPOSE: Intermediate filaments (IFs) are a part of the cytoskeleton that extend throughout the cytoplasm of all cells and function in the maintenance of cell-shape by bearing tension and serving as structural components of the nuclear lamina. In normal intestine, IFs provide a tissue-specific three-dimensional scaffolding with unique context-dependent organizational features. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of IFs during intestinal adaptation in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS)...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033352/the-primate-specific-gene-tmem14b-marks-outer-radial-glia-cells-and-promotes-cortical-expansion-and-folding
#14
Jing Liu, Wensu Liu, Lu Yang, Qian Wu, Haofeng Zhang, Ai Fang, Long Li, Xiaohui Xu, Le Sun, Jun Zhang, Fuchou Tang, Xiaoqun Wang
Human brain evolution is associated with expansion and folding of the neocortex. Increased diversity in neural progenitor (NP) populations (such as basally located radial glia [RG], which reside in an enlarged outer subventricular zone [OSVZ]) likely contributes to this evolutionary expansion, although their characteristics and relative contributions are only partially understood. Through single-cell transcriptional profiling of sorted human NP subpopulations, we identified the primate-specific TMEM14B gene as a marker of basal RG...
November 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029073/clinical-genetics-and-outcome-of-left-ventricular-non-compaction-cardiomyopathy
#15
Farbod Sedaghat-Hamedani, Jan Haas, Feng Zhu, Christian Geier, Elham Kayvanpour, Martin Liss, Alan Lai, Karen Frese, Regina Pribe-Wolferts, Ali Amr, Daniel Tian Li, Omid Shirvani Samani, Avisha Carstensen, Diana Martins Bordalo, Marion Müller, Christine Fischer, Jing Shao, Jing Wang, Ming Nie, Li Yuan, Sabine Haßfeld, Christine Schwartz, Min Zhou, Zihua Zhou, Yanwen Shu, Min Wang, Kai Huang, Qiutang Zeng, Longxian Cheng, Tobias Fehlmann, Philipp Ehlermann, Andreas Keller, Christoph Dieterich, Katrin Streckfuß-Bömeke, Yuhua Liao, Michael Gotthardt, Hugo A Katus, Benjamin Meder
Aims: In this study, we aimed to clinically and genetically characterize LVNC patients and investigate the prevalence of variants in known and novel LVNC disease genes. Introduction: Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is an increasingly recognized cause of heart failure, arrhythmia, thromboembolism, and sudden cardiac death. We sought here to dissect its genetic causes, phenotypic presentation and outcome. Methods and results: In our registry with follow-up of in the median 61 months, we analysed 95 LVNC patients (68 unrelated index patients and 27 affected relatives; definite familial LVNC = 23...
October 6, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994747/a-perspective-on-the-experimental-techniques-for-studying-lamins
#16
REVIEW
Ilaria Pecorari, Daniele Borin, Orfeo Sbaizero
Lamins are type V intermediate filaments that collectively form a meshwork underneath the inner nuclear membrane, called nuclear lamina. Furthermore, they are also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are experiencing a growing interest, since a wide range of diseases are induced by mutations in the gene coding for A-type lamins, globally known as laminopathies. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that lamins are involved in other pathological conditions, like cancer. The role of lamins has been studied from several perspectives, exploiting different techniques and procedures...
October 10, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993479/lamin-b2-modulates-nucleolar-morphology-dynamics-and-function
#17
Ayantika Sen Gupta, Kundan Sengupta
The nucleolus is required for ribosome biogenesis. Human cells have 2-3 nucleoli associated with Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) bearing chromosomes. Increase in number and altered nucleolar morphology define cancer cells. However, the mechanisms that modulate nucleolar morphology and function are unclear. Here we show that in addition to the nuclear envelope, Lamin B2 localizes proximal to Nucleolin at the Granular Component (GC) of the nucleolus and associates with nucleolar proteins - Nucleolin and Nucleophosmin...
October 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968609/inhibition-of-prenylation-promotes-caspase-3-activation-lamin-b-degradation-and-loss-in-metabolic-cell-viability-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#18
Khadija G Syeda, Anjan Kowluru
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lamins are intermediate filament proteins that constitute the main components of the lamina underlying the inner-nuclear membrane and serve to organize chromatin. Lamins (e.g., lamin B) undergo posttranslational modifications (e.g., isoprenylation) at their C-terminal cysteine residues. Such modifications are thought to render optimal association of lamins with the nuclear envelop. Using human islets, rodent islets, and INS-1 832/13 cells, we recently reported significant metabolic defects under glucotoxic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions, including caspase 3 activation and lamin B degradation...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943325/lamin-like-proteins-negatively-regulate-plant-immunity-through-nac-with-transmembrane-motif1-like9-and-nonexpressor-of-pr-genes1-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Tongtong Guo, Xuegao Mao, Hui Zhang, Yu Zhang, Mengdi Fu, Zhenfei Sun, Peng Kuai, Yonggen Lou, Yuda Fang
Nuclear lamins are involved in multiple biological processes in metazoan cells. The proteins of the CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) family are considered lamin-like candidates in Arabidopsis, although the functions of these proteins are largely unknown. In this article we show that crwn1 crwn2 double mutant displays an enhanced resistance against virulent bacterial pathogens, and both virulent bacteria and salicylic acid (SA) induce transcription of CRWN1 gene as well as proteasome-mediated degradation of CRWN1 protein...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931598/coordinated-increase-of-nuclear-tension-and-lamin-a-with-matrix-stiffness-outcompetes-lamin-b-receptor-that-favors-soft-tissue-phenotypes
#20
Amnon Buxboim, Jerome Irianto, Joe Swift, Avathamsa Athirasala, Jae-Won Shin, Florian Rehfeldt, Dennis E Discher
Matrix stiffness that is sensed by a cell or measured by a purely physical probe reflects the intrinsic elasticity of the matrix and also how thick or thin the matrix is. Here, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their nuclei spread in response to thickness-corrected matrix microelasticity, with increases in nuclear tension and nuclear stiffness resulting from increases in myosin-II and lamin-A,C. Linearity between the widely varying projected area of a cell and its nucleus across many matrices, timescales, and myosin-II activity levels indicates a constant ratio of nucleus-to-cell volume, despite MSCs' lineage plasticity...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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