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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528108/matrix-effects-on-the-crystallization-behaviour-of-butter-and-roll-in-shortening-in-laminated-bakery-products
#1
Kristin D Mattice, Alejandro G Marangoni
Two hydrogenated roll-in shortenings (A & B), one non-hydrogenated roll-in shortening and butter were used to prepare croissants. The impact of the laminated dough matrix on fat crystallization was then investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fat contained within a croissant matrix has never before been analyzed using these techniques. In each case, XRD revealed that the polymorphism of a roll-in fat will be different when baked within the dough matrix than when simply heated and cooled on its own...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485113/optomechanical-measurement-of-the-role-of-lamins-in-whole-cell-deformability
#2
Thorsten Kolb, Julia Kraxner, Kai Skodzek, Michael Haug, Dean Crawford, Kendra K Maaß, Katerina E Aifantis, Graeme Whyte
There is mounting evidence that the nuclear envelope, and particularly the lamina, plays a critical role in the mechanical and regulation properties of the cell and changes to the lamina can have implications for the physical properties of the whole cell. In this study we demonstrate that the optical stretcher can measure changes in the time-dependent mechanical properties of living cells with different levels of A-type lamin expression. Results from the optical stretcher shows a decrease in the deformability of cells as the levels of lamin A increases, for cells which grow both adherently and in suspension...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483909/progerin-induced-replication-stress-facilitates-premature-senescence-in-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome
#3
Keith Wheaton, Denise Campuzano, Weili Ma, Michal Sheinis, Brandon Ho, Grant W Brown, Samuel Benchimol
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by a mutation in LMNA that produces an aberrant lamin A protein, progerin. The accumulation of progerin in HGPS cells leads to an aberrant nuclear morphology, genetic instability and p53-dependent premature senescence. How p53 is activated in response to progerin production is unknown. Here, we show that young, cycling HGPS fibroblasts, exhibit chronic DNA damage primarily in S phase as well as delayed replication fork progression. We demonstrate that progerin binds to PCNA altering its distribution away from replicating DNA in HGPS cells leading to γH2AX formation, ATR activation and RPA Ser33 phosphorylation...
May 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477268/expression-of-progerin-does-not-result-in-an-increased-mutation-rate
#4
Emmanuelle Deniaud, Charlene Lemaître, Shelagh Boyle, Wendy A Bickmore
In the premature ageing disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), the underlying genetic defect in the lamin A gene leads to accumulation at the nuclear lamina of progerin-a mutant form of lamin A that cannot be correctly processed. This has been reported to result in defects in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair, leading to the hypothesis that, as in normal ageing and in other progeroid syndromes caused by mutation of genes of the DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways, increased DNA damage may be responsible for the premature ageing phenotypes in HGPS patients...
May 6, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464412/heart-specific-expression-of-laminopathic-mutations-in-transgenic-zebrafish
#5
Ajay D Verma, Veena K Parnaik
Lamins are key determinants of nuclear organization and function in the metazoan nucleus. Mutations in human lamin A cause a spectrum of genetic diseases that affect cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle as well as other tissues. A few laminopathies have been modeled using the mouse. As zebrafish is a well established model for the study of cardiac development and disease, we have investigated the effects of heart-specific lamin A mutations in transgenic zebrafish. We have developed transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing conserved lamin A mutations that cause cardiac dysfunction in humans...
May 2, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449239/the-role-of-the-nuclear-envelope-protein-man1-in-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation
#6
Sandra Bermeo, Ahmed Al-Saedi, Moustapha Kassem, Christopher Vidal, Gustavo Duque
Mutations in MAN1, a protein of the nuclear envelope, cause bone phenotypes characterized by hyperostosis. The mechanism of this pro-osteogenic phenotype remains unknown. We increased and decreased MAN1 expression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) upon which standard osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were performed. MAN1 knockdown increased osteogenesis and mineralization. In contrast, osteogenesis remained stable upon MAN1 overexpression. Regarding a mechanism, we found that low levels of MAN1 facilitated the nuclear accumulation of regulatory smads and smads-related complexes, with a concurrently high expression of nuclear β-Catenin...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448008/a-protocol-for-using-f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer-fret-force-biosensors-to-measure-mechanical-forces-across-the-nuclear-linc-complex
#7
Paul T Arsenovic, Kranthidhar Bathula, Daniel E Conway
The LINC complex has been hypothesized to be the critical structure that mediates the transfer of mechanical forces from the cytoskeleton to the nucleus. Nesprin-2G is a key component of the LINC complex that connects the actin cytoskeleton to membrane proteins (SUN domain proteins) in the perinuclear space. These membrane proteins connect to lamins inside the nucleus. Recently, a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-force probe was cloned into mini-Nesprin-2G (Nesprin-TS (tension sensor)) and used to measure tension across Nesprin-2G in live NIH3T3 fibroblasts...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441765/distinct-fiber-type-signature-in-mouse-muscles-expressing-a-mutant-lamin-a-responsible-for-congenital-muscular-dystrophy-in-a-patient
#8
Alice Barateau, Nathalie Vadrot, Onnik Agbulut, Patrick Vicart, Sabrina Batonnet-Pichon, Brigitte Buendia
Specific mutations in LMNA, which encodes nuclear intermediate filament proteins lamins A/C, affect skeletal muscle tissues. Early-onset LMNA myopathies reveal different alterations of muscle fibers, including fiber type disproportion or prominent dystrophic and/or inflammatory changes. Recently, we identified the p.R388P LMNA mutation as responsible for congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD) and lipodystrophy. Here, we asked whether viral-mediated expression of mutant lamin A in murine skeletal muscles would be a pertinent model to reveal specific muscle alterations...
April 24, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430006/evolutionary-changes-in-lamin-expression-in-the-vertebrate-lineage
#9
Reimer Stick, Annette Peter
The nuclear lamina is involved in fundamental nuclear functions and provides mechanical stability to the nucleus. Lamin filaments form a meshwork closely apposed to the inner nuclear membrane and a small fraction of lamins exist in the nuclear interior. Mutations in lamin genes cause severe hereditary diseases, the laminopathies. During vertebrate evolution the lamin protein family has expanded. While most vertebrate genomes contain 4 lamin genes, encoding the lamins A, B1, B2, and LIII, the majority of non-vertebrate genomes harbor only a single lamin gene...
April 21, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428255/nucleosome-nucleosome-interactions-via-histone-tails-and-linker-dna-regulate-nuclear-rigidity
#10
Yuta Shimamoto, Sachiko Tamura, Hiroshi Masumoto, Kazuhiro Maeshima
Cells, as well as the nuclei inside them, experience significant mechanical stress in diverse biological processes including contraction, migration, and adhesion. The structural stability of nuclei must therefore be maintained in order to protect genome integrity. Despite extensive knowledge on nuclear architecture and components, however, the underlying physical and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. We addressed this in the present study by subjecting isolated human cell nuclei to microneedle-based quantitative micromanipulation with a series of biochemical perturbations of the chromatin...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425486/lamin-b1-is-required-for-mature-neuron-specific-gene-expression-during-olfactory-sensory-neuron-differentiation
#11
Crystal M Gigante, Michele Dibattista, Frederick N Dong, Xiaobin Zheng, Sibiao Yue, Stephen G Young, Johannes Reisert, Yixian Zheng, Haiqing Zhao
B-type lamins are major constituents of the nuclear lamina in all metazoan cells, yet have specific roles in the development of certain cell types. Although they are speculated to regulate gene expression in developmental contexts, a direct link between B-type lamins and developmental gene expression in an in vivo system is currently lacking. Here, we identify lamin B1 as a key regulator of gene expression required for the formation of functional olfactory sensory neurons. By using targeted knockout in olfactory epithelial stem cells in adult mice, we show that lamin B1 deficient neurons exhibit attenuated response to odour stimulation...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424353/constrained-release-of-lamina-associated-enhancers-and-genes-from-the-nuclear-envelope-during-t-cell-activation-facilitates-their-association-in-chromosome-compartments
#12
Michael I Robson, Jose I de Las Heras, Rafal Czapiewski, Aishwarya Sivakumar, Alastair R W Kerr, Eric Schirmer
The 3D organization of the genome changes concomitantly with expression changes during hematopoiesis and immune activation. Studies have focused either on lamina-associated domains (LADs) or on topologically-associated domains (TADs), defined by preferential local chromatin interactions, and chromosome compartments, defined as higher-order interactions between TADs sharing functionally similar states. However, few studies have investigated how these affect one another. To address this, we mapped LADs using Lamin B1-DamID during Jurkat T-cell activation, finding significant genome re-organization at the nuclear periphery dominated by release of loci frequently important for T-cell function...
April 19, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422997/promoter-hypermethylation-as-a-mechanism-for-lamin-a-c-silencing-in-a-subset-of-neuroblastoma-cells
#13
Ines Rauschert, Fabian Aldunate, Jens Preussner, Miguel Arocena-Sutz, Vanina Peraza, Mario Looso, Juan C Benech, Ruben Agrelo
Nuclear lamins support the nuclear envelope and provide anchorage sites for chromatin. They are involved in DNA synthesis, transcription, and replication. It has previously been reported that the lack of Lamin A/C expression in lymphoma and leukaemia is due to CpG island promoter hypermethylation. Here, we provide evidence that Lamin A/C is silenced via this mechanism in a subset of neuroblastoma cells. Moreover, Lamin A/C expression can be restored with a demethylating agent. Importantly, Lamin A/C reintroduction reduced cell growth kinetics and impaired migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent cell growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416576/pathways-involved-in-formation-of-mammary-organoid-architecture-have-keys-to-understanding-drug-resistance-and-to-discovery-of-druggable-targets
#14
Saori Furuta, Mina J Bissell
Signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) are received at the cell surface receptor, transmitted to the cytoskeletons, and transferred to the nucleus and chromatin for tissue- and context-specific gene expression. Cells, in return, modulate the cell shape and ECM, allowing for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis as well as for coevolution and adaptation to the environmental signals. We postulated the existence of dynamic and reciprocal interactions between the ECM and the nucleus more than three decades ago, but now these pathways have been proven experimentally thanks to the advances in imaging and cell/molecular biology techniques...
April 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402889/unbiased-high-precision-cell-mechanical-measurements-with-microconstrictions
#15
Janina R Lange, Claus Metzner, Sebastian Richter, Werner Schneider, Monika Spermann, Thorsten Kolb, Graeme Whyte, Ben Fabry
We describe a quantitative, high-precision, high-throughput method for measuring the mechanical properties of cells in suspension with a microfluidic device, and for relating cell mechanical responses to protein expression levels. Using a high-speed (750 fps) charge-coupled device camera, we measure the driving pressure Δp, maximum cell deformation εmax, and entry time tentry of cells in an array of microconstrictions. From these measurements, we estimate population averages of elastic modulus E and fluidity β (the power-law exponent of the cell deformation in response to a step change in pressure)...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398466/novel-nesprin-1-mutations-associated-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy-cause-nuclear-envelope-disruption-and-defects-in-myogenesis
#16
Can Zhou, Chen Li, Bin Zhou, Huaqin Sun, Victoria Koullourou, Ian Holt, Megan J Puckelwartz, Derek T Warren, Robert Hayward, Ziyuan Lin, Lin Zhang, Glenn E Morris, Elizabeth M McNally, Sue Shackleton, Li Rao, Catherine M Shanahan, Qiuping Zhang
Nesprins-1 and -2 are highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle and together with SUN (Sad1p/UNC84)-domain containing proteins and lamin A/C form the LInker of Nucleoskeleton-and-Cytoskeleton (LINC) bridging complex at the nuclear envelope (NE). Mutations in nesprin-1/2 have previously been found in patients with autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) as well as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In this study, three novel rare variants (R8272Q, S8381C and N8406K) in the C-terminus of the SYNE1 gene (nesprin-1) were identified in seven DCM patients by mutation screening...
April 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392353/decreased-nuclear-stiffness-via-fak-erk1-2-signaling-is-necessary-for-osteopontin-promoted-migration-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Lingling Liu, Qing Luo, Jinghui Sun, Aoli Wang, Yisong Shi, Yang Ju, Yasuyuki Morita, Guanbin Song
Migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, including wound healing. During the migration of BMSCs through interstitial tissues, the movement of the nucleus must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics, which in turn affects the cell migration efficiency. Our previous study indicated that osteopontin (OPN) significantly promotes the migration of rat BMSCs. However, the nuclear behaviors and involved molecular mechanisms in OPN-mediated BMSC migration are largely unclear...
April 6, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387711/descriptive-analysis-of-lap1-distribution-and-that-of-associated-proteins-throughout-spermatogenesis
#18
Joana B Serrano, Filipa Martins, João C Sousa, Cátia D Pereira, Ans M M van Pelt, Sandra Rebelo, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
Spermatogenesis comprises highly complex differentiation processes. Nuclear envelope (NE) proteins have been associated with these processes, including lamins, lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP) 2 and the lamin B-receptor. LAP1 is an important NE protein whose function has not been fully elucidated, but several binding partners allow predicting putative LAP1 functions. To date, LAP1 had not been associated with spermatogenesis. In this study, LAP1 expression and cellular/subcellular localization during spermatogenesis in human and mouse testes is established for the first time...
April 7, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385710/non-random-domain-organization-of-the-arabidopsis-genome-at-the-nuclear-periphery
#19
Xiuli Bi, Yingjuan Cheng, Bo Hu, Xiaoli Ma, Rui Wu, Jiawei Wang, Chang Liu
The nuclear space is not a homogeneous biochemical environment. Many studies have demonstrated that the transcriptional activity of a gene is linked to its positioning within the nuclear space. Following the discovery of lamin-associated domains (LADs), which are transcriptionally repressed chromatin regions, the non-random positioning of chromatin at the nuclear periphery and its biological relevance have been studied extensively in animals. However, it remains unknown whether comparable chromatin organizations exist in plants...
April 6, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374669/dynamics-of-lamins-b-and-a-c-and-nucleoporin-nup160-during-meiotic-maturation-in-mouse-oocytes
#20
V Nikolova, S Delimitreva, I Chakarova, R Zhivkova, V Hadzhinesheva, M Markova
This study was aimed at elucidating the fate of three important nuclear envelope components - lamins B and A/C and nucleoporin Nup160, during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. These proteins were localized by epifluorescence and confocal microscopy using specific antibodies in oocytes at different stages from prophase I (germinal vesicle) to metaphase II. In immature germinal vesicle oocytes, all three proteins were detected at the nuclear periphery. In metaphase I and metaphase II, lamin B co-localized with the meiotic spindle, lamin A/C was found in a diffuse halo surrounding the spindle and to a lesser degree throughout the cytoplasm, and Nup160 was concentrated to the spindle poles...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
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