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Nuclear lamin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229933/nuclear-lamins-and-progerin-are-dispensable-for-antioxidant-nrf2-response-to-arsenic-and-cadmium
#1
Kazunori Hashimoto, Rima Majumdar, Yoshiaki Tsuji
Lamins are important constituents of the nuclear inner membrane and provide a platform for transcription factors and chromatin. Progerin, a C-terminal truncated lamin A mutant, causes premature aging termed Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS). Oxidative stress appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of HGPS, although the mechanistic role of progerin remains elusive. Here we examined whether nuclear lamins are important for a cellular antioxidant mechanism, and whether progerin compromises it. We investigated the activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) which regulates various antioxidant genes including heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), following exposure to sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride in lamin knockdown human cell lines and primary HGPS human fibroblasts...
February 14, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214269/immunohistochemistry-on-a-panel-of-emery-dreifuss-muscular-dystrophy-samples-reveals-nuclear-envelope-proteins-as-inconsistent-markers-for-pathology
#2
Phu Le Thanh, Peter Meinke, Nadia Korfali, Vlastimil Srsen, Michael I Robson, Manfred Wehnert, Benedikt Schoser, Caroline A Sewry, Eric C Schirmer
Reports of aberrant distribution for some nuclear envelope proteins in cells expressing a few Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy mutations raised the possibility that such protein redistribution could underlie pathology and/or be diagnostic. However, this disorder is linked to 8 different genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins, raising the question of whether a particular protein is most relevant. Therefore, myoblast/fibroblast cultures from biopsy and tissue sections from a panel of nine Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy patients (4 male, 5 female) including those carrying emerin and FHL1 (X-linked) and several lamin A (autosomal dominant) mutations were stained for the proteins linked to the disorder...
December 21, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168519/pcna-is-recruited-to-irradiated-chromatin-in-late-s-phase-and-is-most-pronounced-in-g2-phase-of-the-cell-cycle
#3
Eva Bártová, Jana Suchánková, Soňa Legartová, Barbora Malyšková, Matúš Hornáček, Magdalena Skalníková, Martin Mašata, Ivan Raška, Stanislav Kozubek
DNA repair is a complex process that prevents genomic instability. Many proteins play fundamental roles in regulating the optimal repair of DNA lesions. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a key factor that initiates recombination-associated DNA synthesis after injury. Here, in very early S-phase, we show that the fluorescence intensity of mCherry-tagged PCNA after local micro-irradiation was less than the fluorescence intensity of non-irradiated mCherry-PCNA-positive replication foci. However, PCNA protein accumulated at locally irradiated chromatin in very late S-phase of the cell cycle, and this effect was more pronounced in the following G2 phase...
January 20, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167501/comprehensive-characterization-of-neutrophil-genome-topology
#4
Yina Zhu, Ke Gong, Matthew Denholtz, Vivek Chandra, Mark P Kamps, Frank Alber, Cornelis Murre
Neutrophils are responsible for the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Their nuclei are uniquely structured as multiple lobes that establish a highly constrained nuclear environment. Here we found that neutrophil differentiation was not associated with large-scale changes in the number and sizes of topologically associating domains (TADs). However, neutrophil genomes were enriched for long-range genomic interactions that spanned multiple TADs. Population-based simulation of spherical and toroid genomes revealed declining radii of gyration for neutrophil chromosomes...
February 6, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157724/orchestration-of-late-events-in-erythropoiesis-by-klf1-eklf
#5
Merlin Nithya Gnanapragasam, James J Bieker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transcriptional regulators provide the molecular and biochemical basis for the cell specific properties and characteristics that follow from their central role in establishing tissue-restricted expression. Precise and sequential control of terminal cell divisions, nuclear condensation, and enucleation are defining characteristics within erythropoietic differentiation. This review is focused on KLF1, a central global regulator of this process. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in the past year have brought a number of proteins that are targets of KLF1 regulation into focus with respect to their roles in terminal erythroid differentiation...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155164/detection-of-endogenous-nuclear-proteins-in-plant-cells-localizing-nuclear-matrix-constituent-proteins-nmcps-the-plant-analogs-of-lamins
#6
Malgorzata Ciska, Susana Moreno Díaz de la Espina
At present, two complementary approaches are used for in situ protein visualization in plant nuclei. Imaging of transformed fluorescent proteins is the election tool for the analysis of protein movement and interaction. However, this methodology presents several drawbacks for the identification/localization of endogenous nuclear factors, such as over-expression or mislocalization of transformed proteins. In contrast, immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies represents a powerful tool for the localization of endogenous nuclear proteins at their "native" nuclear sub-compartments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148597/the-nucleoskeleton
#7
REVIEW
Stephen A Adam
SUMMARYThe nucleoskeleton is an important structural feature of the metazoan nucleus and is involved in the regulation of genome expression and maintenance. The nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that form a peripheral nucleoskeleton in concert with other lamin-associated proteins. Several other proteins normally found in the cytoskeleton have also been identified in the nucleus, but, as will be discussed here, their roles in forming a nucleoskeleton have not been elucidated. Nevertheless, mutations in lamins and lamin-associated proteins cause a spectrum of diseases, making them interesting targets for future research...
February 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145526/zp3-is-required-for-germinal-vesicle-breakdown-in-mouse-oocyte-meiosis
#8
Lei-Lei Gao, Chun-Xiang Zhou, Xiao-Lan Zhang, Peng Liu, Zhen Jin, Gang-Yi Zhu, Yang Ma, Jing Li, Zhi-Xia Yang, Dong Zhang
ZP3 is a principal component of the zona pellucida (ZP) of mammalian oocytes and is essential for normal fertility, and knockout of ZP3 causes complete infertility. ZP3 promotes fertilization by recognizing sperm binding and activating the acrosome reaction; however, additional cellular roles for ZP3 in mammalian oocytes have not been yet reported. In the current study, we found that ZP3 was strongly expressed in the nucleus during prophase and gradually translocated to the ZP. Knockdown of ZP3 by a specific siRNA dramatically inhibited germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) (marking the beginning of meiosis), significantly reducing the percentage of MII oocytes...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144580/-meniscal-scar-as-a-landmark-for-the-joint-line-in-revision-total-knee-replacement
#9
Wasim Sardar Khan, Jagmeet Bhamra, Rhodri Williams, Rhidian Morgan-Jones
AIM: To determine whether tissue identified at the joint line was actually remnant "meniscal" scar tissue or not. METHODS: Nine patients undergoing revision knee surgery following informed consent had meniscal scar tissue sent to the histology department for analyses. All revisions were performed where joint line had been raised or lowered at earlier surgery. Although preoperative radiographic evaluations suggested that the joint line had been altered, intraoperatively there was scar tissue at the level of the recreated joint line...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137286/chrom3d-three-dimensional-genome-modeling-from-hi-c-and-nuclear-lamin-genome-contacts
#10
Jonas Paulsen, Monika Sekelja, Anja R Oldenburg, Alice Barateau, Nolwenn Briand, Erwan Delbarre, Akshay Shah, Anita L Sørensen, Corinne Vigouroux, Brigitte Buendia, Philippe Collas
Current three-dimensional (3D) genome modeling platforms are limited by their inability to account for radial placement of loci in the nucleus. We present Chrom3D, a user-friendly whole-genome 3D computational modeling framework that simulates positions of topologically-associated domains (TADs) relative to each other and to the nuclear periphery. Chrom3D integrates chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) and lamin-associated domain (LAD) datasets to generate structure ensembles that recapitulate radial distributions of TADs detected in single cells...
January 30, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134781/implications-for-diverse-functions-of-the-linc-complexes-based-on-the-structure
#11
REVIEW
Miki Hieda
The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is composed of the outer and inner nuclear membrane protein families Klarsicht, Anc-1, and Syne homology (KASH), and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) homology domain proteins. Increasing evidence has pointed to diverse functions of the LINC complex, such as in nuclear migration, nuclear integrity, chromosome movement and pairing during meiosis, and mechanotransduction to the genome. In metazoan cells, the nuclear envelope possesses the nuclear lamina, which is a thin meshwork of intermediate filaments known as A-type and B-type lamins and lamin binding proteins...
January 26, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125586/a-novel-lamin-a-mutant-responsible-for-congenital-muscular-dystrophy-causes-distinct-abnormalities-of-the-cell-nucleus
#12
Alice Barateau, Nathalie Vadrot, Patrick Vicart, Ana Ferreiro, Michèle Mayer, Delphine Héron, Corinne Vigouroux, Brigitte Buendia
A-type lamins, the intermediate filament proteins participating in nuclear structure and function, are encoded by LMNA. LMNA mutations can lead to laminopathies such as lipodystrophies, premature aging syndromes (progeria) and muscular dystrophies. Here, we identified a novel heterozygous LMNA p.R388P de novo mutation in a patient with a non-previously described severe phenotype comprising congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD) and lipodystrophy. In culture, the patient's skin fibroblasts entered prematurely into senescence, and some nuclei showed a lamina honeycomb pattern...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125396/current-insights-into-lmna-cardiomyopathies-existing-models-and-missing-lincs
#13
Daniel Brayson, Catherine M Shanahan
The nuclear lamina is a critical structural domain for the maintenance of genomic stability and whole-cell mechanics. Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes nuclear A-type lamins lead to the disruption of these key cellular functions, resulting in a number of devastating diseases known as laminopathies. Cardiomyopathy is a common laminopathy and is highly penetrant with poor prognosis. To date, cell mechanical instability and dysregulation of gene expression have been proposed as the main mechanisms driving cardiac dysfunction, and indeed discoveries in these areas have provided some promising leads in terms of therapeutics...
January 2, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123761/clinical-disease-presentation-and-ecg-characteristics-of-lmna-mutation-carriers
#14
Laura Ollila, Kjell Nikus, Miia Holmström, Mikko Jalanko, Raija Jurkko, Maija Kaartinen, Juha Koskenvuo, Johanna Kuusisto, Satu Kärkkäinen, Eeva Palojoki, Eeva Reissell, Päivi Piirilä, Tiina Heliö
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C of the nuclear lamina are a frequent cause of cardiomyopathy accounting for 5-8% of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Our aim was to study disease onset, presentation and progression among LMNA mutation carriers. METHODS: Clinical follow-up data from 27 LMNA mutation carriers and 78 patients with idiopathic DCM without an LMNA mutation were collected. In addition, ECG data were collected and analysed systematically from 20 healthy controls...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118363/dynamics-and-structure-function-relationships-of-the-lamin-b-receptor-lbr
#15
Ioannis Giannios, Eleftheria Chatzantonaki, Spyros Georgatos
The lamin B receptor (LBR) is a multi-spanning membrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane that is often employed as a "reporter" of nuclear envelope dynamics. We show here that the diffusional mobility of full-length LBR exhibits significant regional variation along the nuclear envelope, consistent with the existence of discrete LBR microdomains and the occurrence of multiple, asymmetrically-spaced anastomoses along the nuclear envelope-endoplasmic reticulum interface. Interestingly, a commonly used fusion protein that contains the amino-terminal region and the first transmembrane domain of LBR exhibits reduced mobility at the nuclear envelope, but behaves similarly to full-length LBR in the endoplasmic reticulum...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115024/east-and-west-separation-of-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-mitochondrial-lineages-in-the-mediterranean-basin
#16
Sándor Hornok, Attila D Sándor, Snežana Tomanović, Relja Beck, Gianluca D'Amico, Jenő Kontschán, Nóra Takács, Tamás Görföl, Mohammed Lamine Bendjeddou, Gábor Földvári, Róbert Farkas
BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus sanguineus belongs to a complex of hard tick species with high veterinary-medical significance. Recently, new phylogenetic units have been discovered within R. sanguineus, which therefore needs taxonomic revision. The present study was initiated to provide new information on the phylogeography of relevant haplotypes from less studied regions of Europe and Africa. With this aim, molecular-phylogenetic analyses of two mitochondrial markers were performed on 50 ticks collected in Hungary, the Balkans, countries along the Mediterranean Sea, Kenya and Ivory Coast...
January 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112995/nuclear-membrane-stretch-and-its-role-in-mechanotransduction
#17
Balázs Enyedi, Philipp Niethammer
Most research in nuclear mechanotransduction has focused on the nuclear lamina and lamin binding proteins. These structures provide mechanical stability to the nucleus, establish a link between the cytoskeleton and chromatin, and can transmit mechanical signals. At the same time, mechanical perturbations to the nucleus also affect its phospholipid membranes. In this commentary, we discuss how changes in nuclear membrane tension can mediate mechanotransduction.
January 23, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102353/cofilin-regulates-nuclear-architecture-through-a-myosin-ii-dependent-mechanotransduction-module
#18
O'Neil Wiggan, Bryce Schroder, Diego Krapf, James R Bamburg, Jennifer G DeLuca
Structural features of the nucleus including shape, size and deformability impact its function affecting normal cellular processes such as cell differentiation and pathological conditions such as tumor cell migration. Despite the fact that abnormal nuclear morphology has long been a defining characteristic for diseases such as cancer relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control normal nuclear architecture. Mounting evidence suggests close coupling between F-actin cytoskeletal organization and nuclear morphology however, mechanisms regulating this coupling are lacking...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096465/sequences-within-the-c-terminus-of-the-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-mglur5-are-responsible-for-inner-nuclear-membrane-localization
#19
Ismail Sergin, Yuh-Jiin I Jong, Steven K Harmon, Vikas Kumar, Karen L O'Malley
Traditionally G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) are thought to be located on the cell surface where they transmit extracellular signals to the cytoplasm. However recent studies indicate that some GPCRs are also localized to various subcellular compartments such as the nucleus where they appear required for various biological functions. For example, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, mGluR5, is concentrated at the inner nuclear membrane (INM) where it mediates Ca2+ changes in the nucleoplasm by coupling with Gq/11...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088180/nuclear-envelope-structural-proteins-facilitate-nuclear-shape-changes-accompanying-embryonic-differentiation-and-fidelity-of-gene-expression
#20
Elizabeth R Smith, Yue Meng, Robert Moore, Jeffrey D Tse, Arn G Xu, Xiang-Xi Xu
BACKGROUND: Nuclear size and shape are specific to a cell type, function, and location, and can serve as indicators of disease and development. We previously found that lamin A/C and associated nuclear envelope structural proteins were upregulated when murine embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiated to primitive endoderm cells. Here we further investigated the morphological changes of nuclei that accompany this differentiation. RESULTS: The nuclei of undifferentiated wild type cells were found shaped as flattened, irregular ovals, whereas nuclei of Gata4-positive endoderm cells were more spherical, less flattened, and with a slightly reduced volume...
January 14, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
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