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Kelsey Connelly, David Collister, Navdeep Tangri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of mineral bone disorder (MBD), osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple observational studies have shown that bone mineral density measurement using DEXA is equally predictive in CKD stages 1-3, as in the general population...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Pablo Antonio Ureña-Torres, Mario Cozzolino, Jordi Bover
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the most frequent and deleterious complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). SHPT is also one of the principal components of the now called CKD-mineral and bone disorders (MBD) syndrome. It is usually prevented and treated by vitamin D derivatives. However, the rationale for the prescription of vitamin D sterols in those patients is still a matter of hotly debates, mainly because of unsatisfactory results from numerous observational and not well-controlled studies...
March 12, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Penny Fang, Wen Jiang, Rajayogesh Davuluri, Cai Xu, Sunil Krishnan, Radhe Mohan, Albert C Koong, Charles C Hsu, Steven H Lin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) can reduce tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. We examined absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) nadir during nCRT for esophageal cancer (EC) and pathologic complete response (pCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with stage I-IVA EC (n = 313) treated 2007-2013 with nCRT followed by surgery were analyzed. ALC was obtained before, during/weekly, and one month after CRT. pCR was defined as no viable tumor cells at surgery...
March 9, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Hemant Gujar, Jane W Liang, Nicholas C Wong, Khyobeni Mozhui
The Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC provides an efficient platform for profiling DNA methylation in humans at over 850,000 CpGs. Model organisms such as mice do not currently benefit from an equivalent array. Here we used this array to measure DNA methylation in mice. We defined probes targeting conserved regions and performed differential methylation analysis and compared between the array-based assay and affinity-based DNA sequencing of methyl-CpGs (MBD-seq) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing...
2018: PloS One
Shensen Li, Jianping Mao, Mengjing Wang, Minmin Zhang, Li Ni, Ye Tao, Bihong Huang, Jing Chen
SHPT is one of the most common complications of CKD-MBD. Recent studies indicate that oxyphil cell proliferation is related to SHPT progression, while not inhibited by current treatments. The aim of this study was to analysis the correlation between oxyphil cell and clinical indicators in SHPT, further explore the protein expression differences of oxyphil cell. Among 33 MHD patients, 84.8% patients have one or more oxyphil dominant glands and the overall oxyphil cells proportion was 39.5 ± 16.3%. Univariate correlation and multivariable linear regression analyze showed that oral calcitriol dose and treatment duration were independent indicators of oxyphil cell ratio...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Antonio Bellasi, Luigi Morrone, Maria Cristina Mereu, Carlo Massimetti, Elena Pelizzaro, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Marzia Pasquali, Vincenzo Panuccio
We herein report on a nationwide survey conducted in Italy to investigate the use of parathyroidectomy (PTX). In spite of the availability of newer and more effective drugs to control chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) biochemical abnormalities, PTX still remains a resource for nephrologists to use. However, observational analyses suggest that in recent years there has been a constant decline in the number of patients undergoing PTX. The reasons are not clear, though the increasing age and number of comorbidities of dialysis patients may partly explain this trend...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Primploy Greeviroj, Thidarat Kitrungphaiboon, Pisut Katavetin, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Bertrand L Jaber, Paweena Susantitaphong
BACKGROUND: Cinacalcet could decrease serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in previous meta-analyses. However, the effect of cinacalcet on the new biomarkers such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), bone markers, and vascular calcification are still unestablished. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of cinacalcet on all laboratory and clinical spectrums of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trials...
March 7, 2018: Nephron
Jill N Fernandes, Imelda K Moise, Gina L Maranto, John C Beier
The global approach to mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) is in need of critical re-evaluation. Although there have been dramatic reductions in malaria incidence since 2000, malaria elimination from high-transmission settings remains problematic. At the same time, arbovirus outbreaks have increased in their frequency and impact. The 2015-2016 Zika virus epidemic exposed the dire state of MBD control in many countries, calling for united global action. Despite international resolve to prevent future epidemics, current practices in MBD control are mostly reactive and of limited efficacy...
February 27, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Marina Bolzoni, Denise Toscani, Paola Storti, Valentina Marchica, Federica Costa, Nicola Giuliani
Bone destruction is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM). About 80% of MM patients at diagnosis presents myeloma bone disease (MBD) leading to bone pain and pathological fractures, significantly affecting patients' quality of life. Bisphosphonates are the treatment of choice for MBD, but osteolytic lesions remain a critical issue in the current management of MM patients. Several studies clarified the mechanisms involved in MM-induced osteoclast formation and activation, leading to the identification of new possible targets and the development of better bone-directed therapies, that are discussed in this review...
March 2, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Lucas E Orth, Keliana L O'Mara
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) between preterm neonates first exposed to diuretics prior to 2 weeks of life versus those exposed after 2 weeks. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of premature neonates born at a tertiary care center between 2011 and 2015 who received either furosemide or chlorothiazide. The primary outcome was incidence of MBD. Secondary outcomes included growth, electrolyte disturbances, oxygen requirement, and length of stay...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Vesselina Goranova-Marinova, Marianna Yaneva, Tanya Deneva, Stefan Goranov, Dubravka Mužina Mišić
There is a small but well recognized group of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), characterized by multiple bone lesions and low tumor burden, the so-called macrofocal form of MM (MF-MM). The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence, clinical manifestation, therapeutic outcome and prognosis of patients with MF-MM treated with bortezomib-based therapy and radiotherapy, in comparison to classic MM. There were 148 MM patients treated with bortezomibbased regimens, with 15 (10.1%) of them meeting the criteria for MF-MM...
June 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Anssi Lipponen, Assam El-Osta, Antony Kaspi, Mark Ziemann, Ishant Khurana, Harikrishnan Kn, Vicente Navarro-Ferrandis, Noora Puhakka, Jussi Paananen, Asla Pitkänen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a wide variety of cellular and molecular changes that can continue for days to weeks to months, leading to functional impairments. Currently, there are no pharmacotherapies in clinical use that favorably modify the post-TBI outcome, due in part to limited understanding of the mechanisms of TBI-induced pathologies. Our system biology analysis tested the hypothesis that chronic transcriptomics changes induced by TBI are controlled by altered DNA-methylation in gene promoter areas or by transcription factors...
February 27, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Christian Lerch, Rukshana Shroff, Mandy Wan, Lesley Rees, Helen Aitkenhead, Ipek Kaplan Bulut, Daniela Thurn, Aysun Karabay Bayazit, Anna Niemirska, Nur Canpolat, Ali Duzova, Karolis Azukaitis, Ebru Yilmaz, Fatos Yalcinkaya, Jerome Harambat, Aysel Kiyak, Harika Alpay, Sandra Habbig, Ariane Zaloszyc, Oguz Soylemezoglu, Cengiz Candan, Alejandra Rosales, Anette Melk, Uwe Querfeld, Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Anja Sander, Franz Schaefer, Dieter Haffner
Background: We investigated the effects of nutritional vitamin D supplementation on markers of bone and mineral metabolism, i.e. serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), Klotho, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and sclerostin, in two cohorts with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: In all, 80 vitamin D-deficient children were selected: 40 with mild to moderate CKD from the ERGO study, a randomized trial of ergocalciferol supplementation [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 55 mL/min/1...
February 21, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Parisa Tehranifar, Carmen B Rodriguez, Ayana April-Sanders, Elise Desperito, Karen M Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is lower in many U.S ethnic minority and foreign-born population groups. Investigating whether migration and acculturation patterns in risk are reflected in disease biomarkers may help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We compared the distribution of breast cancer risk factors across U.S.-born white, African American and Hispanic women, and foreign-born Hispanic women (n=477, ages 40-64 years, 287 born in Caribbean countries)...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Amir Sternheim, Ornit Giladi, Yair Gortzak, Michael Drexler, Moshe Salai, Nir Trabelsi, Charles Milgrom, Zohar Yosibash
Physician recommendation for prophylactic surgical fixation of a femur with metastatic bone disease (MBD) is usually based on Mirels' criteria and clinical experience, both of which suffer from poor specificity. This may result in a significant number of these health compromised patients undergoing unnecessary surgery. CT-based finite element analyses (CTFEA) have been shown to accurately predict strength in femurs with metastatic tumors in an ex-vivo study. In order to assess the utility of CTFEA as a clinical tool to determine the need for fixation of patients with MBD of the femur, an ad hoc CTFEA was performed on a retrospective cohort of fifty patients...
February 20, 2018: Bone
Fengjuan Jiang, Hui Liu, Zhaoyun Liu, Siyang Yan, Jin Chen, Qing Shao, Lijuan Li, Jia Song, Guojin Wang, Zonghong Shao, Rong Fu
Recent research showed that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells take part in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. While the role of iNKT cells in myeloma bone disease (MBD) remains unclear. In our study, the quantity of iNKT cells and the levels of cytokines produced by them were measured by flow cytometry. iNKT cells and osteoclasts were induced from peripheral blood mononuclear cells after activation by α-GalCer or RANKL in vitro. Then, gene expressions and the levels of cytokines were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Chun-Yi Tsai, Po-Kai Huang, Poyin Huang
RATIONALE: Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare disease characterized by demyelination of the corpus callosum. It is most commonly seen in patients with chronic alcoholism. The clinical diagnosis of MBD can be difficult due to its nonspecific manifestation. Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) occurs mostly as a complication of severe and prolonged hyponatremia, especially when corrected too rapidly. However, CPM can be associated with chronic alcoholism and its clinical presentation can be heterogeneous...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Paola Gaio, Giovanna Verlato, Marco Daverio, Maria Elena Cavicchiolo, Daniel Nardo, Alessandra Pasinato, Francesca de Terlizzi, Eugenio Baraldi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Preterm infants are exposed to a higher risk of developing Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD) with an increased bone fragility, a higher fracture risk and a long-term reduced linear growth and childhood height. Monitoring bone growth has become mandatory in neonatology. Several risk factors have been identified among the population of extremely low birth weight infants, but we still do not know which is the real incidence of MBD since its evaluation is not routinely performed worldwide...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Markus Ketteler, Geoffrey A Block, Pieter Evenepoel, Masafumi Fukagawa, Charles A Herzog, Linda McCann, Sharon M Moe, Rukshana Shroff, Marcello A Tonelli, Nigel D Toussaint, Marc G Vervloet, Mary B Leonard
Description: The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) is a selective update of the prior CKD-MBD guideline published in 2009. The guideline update and the original publication are intended to assist practitioners caring for adults with CKD and those receiving long-term dialysis. Methods: Development of the guideline update followed an explicit process of evidence review and appraisal...
February 20, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Tatjana Kanjevac, Borivoj Bijelic, Denis Brajkovic, Miroslav Vasovic, Radojica Stolic
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a worldwide public health problem. It is estimated that nearly 90% of patients with chronic renal failure manifest some symptoms of oral disease. With advances in medical treatment, CKD patients are living longer and require oral care. Chronic kidney disease is often accompanied by disturbances in mineral metabolism which are classified as their own clinical entity known as CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). CKD-MBD affects all aspects of bone physiology: bone volume, bone turnover and bone mineralization...
2018: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
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