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Immunology oncological

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147628/trial-watch-adoptively-transferred-cells-for-anticancer-immunotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Carole Fournier, François Martin, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Lionel Apetoh
Immunotherapies aimed at strengthening immune effector responses against malignant cells are growing at exponential rates. Alongside, the impressive benefits obtained by patients with advanced melanoma who received adoptively transferred tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have encouraged the scientific community to pursue adoptive cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy. ACT involves autologous or allogenic effector lymphocytes that are generally obtained from the peripheral blood or resected tumors, expanded and activated ex vivo, and administered to lymphodepleted patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#2
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138137/the-next-frontier-head-and-neck-cancer-immunoprevention
#3
J Silvio Gutkind, Jack D Bui
Restoring T cell-mediated antitumor immunity by targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) results in immunomodulation and durable remissions. However, the overall response rate to these immunotherapies in HNSCC is only approximately 20%. This raises the possibility that immunologic intervention earlier in the HNSCC continuum, such as in oral premalignant lesions (OPL) could elicit an increased therapeutic response. New experimental studies suggest that immune therapies can be used for HNSCC prevention rather than therapy...
November 14, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136276/targeted-therapies-immunologic-effects-and-potential-applications-outside-of-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Anna E Kersh, Spencer Ng, Yun Min Chang, Maiko Sasaki, Susan N Thomas, Haydn T Kissick, Gregory B Lesinski, Ragini R Kudchadkar, Edmund K Waller, Brian P Pollack
Two pharmacologic approaches that are currently at the forefront of treating advanced cancer are those that center on disrupting critical growth/survival signaling pathways within tumor cells (commonly referred to as "targeted therapies") and those that center on enhancing the capacity of a patient's immune system to mount an antitumor response (immunotherapy). Maximizing responses to both of these approaches requires an understanding of the oncogenic events present in a given patient's tumor and the nature of the tumor-immune microenvironment...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126914/targeting-immuno-metabolism-to-improve-anti-cancer-therapies
#5
Kevin Beezhold, Craig A Byersdorfer
The immunology community has made significant strides in recent years in using the immune system to target and eliminate cancer. Therapies such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are the standard of care treatment for several malignancies, while therapies incorporating chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells or checkpoint molecule blockade have been revolutionary. However, these approaches are not optimal for all cancers and in some cases, have failed outright. The greatest obstacle to making these therapies more effective may be rooted in one of the most basic concepts of cell biology, metabolism...
November 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105511/the-fda-oncology-center-of-excellence-and-precision-medicine
#6
Kirsten B Goldberg, Gideon M Blumenthal, Amy E McKee, Richard Pazdur
In January 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) formally established the Oncology Center of Excellence (OCE) to streamline the development of cancer therapies by uniting experts from FDA product centers to conduct expedited review of drugs, biologics, and devices. In May 2017, the FDA approved a cancer treatment based on a biomarker, without regard to the tumor's site, by granting accelerated approval to pembrolizumab for patients with solid tumors that have the microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair deficient biomarker...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102683/meeting-summary-2nd-aegean-conference-on-cytokine-signaling-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Subburaj Ilangumaran, Bryan R G Williams, Dhan V Kalvakolanu
Cytokines and chemokines are intricately connected to cancer initiation, progression and metastasis as well as to innate and adaptive host defense mechanisms against transformed cells. The Aegean Conference on Cytokine Signaling in Cancer (ACCSC) aims to bring together researchers in this highly targeted area of cancer research in a lovely and relaxing Greek-Mediterranean backdrop to discuss latest developments. Being small in size with about one hundred participants, this conference fosters scientific and social interactions among established and emerging scientists in clinical and basic research in diverse fields of oncology, biochemistry, biophysics, genetics and immunology...
November 1, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078646/extended-thymectomy-by-a-cervical-incision-additional-to-bilateral-vats-approach
#8
Liang Xue, Xuguang Pang, Yongxing Zhang, Jianyong Ding
BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in thymectomy has shown safe and effective with many advantages in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with or without thymoma than transsternal approach. This video aims to show the procedure of extended thymectomy via a cervical incision additional to bilateral VATS approach in a MG patient with an early stage thymoma. METHODS: The patient was a 46-year-old male who had onset of symptoms of blurred vision, dysarthria and dysphagia for 10 months before administration...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063803/evaluation-of-chronic-stress-indicators-in-geriatric-and-oncologic-caregivers-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Sira Aguiló, Esther García, Adriana Arza, Jorge M Garzón-Rey, Jordi Aguiló
Caregiving induces chronic stress with physical and psychological impact on informal caregivers health. Therefore, subjective and objective indicators are needed for the early diagnosis of pathologic stress to prevent the risk of developing stress-related diseases in caregivers. Our aim was to assess the self-perceived stress, that is, how and how much the stressor affects the individual, through endocrine, metabolic, and immunologic biomarkers levels in geriatric and oncologic informal caregivers. Informal caregivers and non-caregivers were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study at the Clinic Hospital of Barcelona...
October 24, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061671/meiosis-like-functions-in-oncogenesis-a-new-view-of-cancer
#10
Ramsay J McFarlane, Jane A Wakeman
Cancer cells have many abnormal characteristics enabling tumors to grow, spread, and avoid immunologic and therapeutic destruction. Central to this is the innate ability of populations of cancer cells to rapidly evolve. One feature of many cancers is that they activate genes that are normally associated with distinct developmental states, including germ cell-specific genes. This has historically led to the proposal that tumors take on embryonal characteristics, the so called embryonal theory of cancer. However, one group of germline genes, not directly associated with embryonic somatic tissue genesis, is the one that encodes the specific factors to drive the unique reductional chromosome segregation of meiosis I, which also results in chromosomal exchanges...
October 23, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049212/comparison-of-oncological-outcomes-of-right-sided-colon-cancer-versus-left-sided-colon-cancer-after-curative-resection-which-side-is-better-outcome
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Dae Ro Lim, Jung Kul Kuk, Taehyung Kim, Eung Jin Shin
PROPOSE: There are embryological origins, anatomical, histological, genetic, and immunological differences between right-sided colon cancer (RCC) and left-sided colon cancer (LCC). Many studies have sought to determine the survival and prognosis according to tumor location. This study aimed to analyze outcomes between RCC and LCC. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Between January 2000 and December 2012, data on 414 patients who underwent curative resection for RCC and LCC were retrieved from a retrospective database...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037061/-the-role-of-steroids-in-oncological-practice
#12
Zsófia Küronya, Lajos Géczi, Fruzsina Gyergyay, Krisztina Bíró
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced and disengage in the adrenal cortex. Traditionally natural and synthetic corticosteroids are used for diagnosing and treating dysfunctions of the adrenal cortex and treating inflammatory and immunological diseases. Their use is also widespread in oncological practice. Corticosteroids are indispensable in palliative care, in certain urgent oncological cases, as premedication of some chemotherapies and last but not least they have a key role in the secondary hormonal manipulations of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024776/update-on-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-tils-in-breast-cancer-including-recommendations-to-assess-tils-in-residual-disease-after-neoadjuvant-therapy-and-in-carcinoma-in-situ-a-report-of-the-international-immuno-oncology-biomarker-working-group-on-breast-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Maria Vittoria Dieci, Nina Radosevic-Robin, Susan Fineberg, Gert van den Eynden, Nils Ternes, Frederique Penault-Llorca, Giancarlo Pruneri, Timothy M D'Alfonso, Sandra Demaria, Carlos Castaneda, Joselyn Sanchez, Sunil Badve, Stefan Michiels, Veerle Bossuyt, Federico Rojo, Baljit Singh, Torsten Nielsen, Giuseppe Viale, Seong-Rim Kim, Stephen Hewitt, Stephan Wienert, Sybille Loibl, David Rimm, Fraser Symmans, Carsten Denkert, Sylvia Adams, Sherene Loi, Roberto Salgado
Morphological evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer is gaining momentum as evidence strengthens the clinical relevance of this immunological biomarker. TILs in the post-neoadjuvant residual disease setting are acquiring increasing importance as a stratifying marker in clinical trials, considering the raising interest on immunotherapeutic strategies after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. TILs in ductal carcinoma in situ, with or without invasive carcinoma, represent an emerging area of clinical breast cancer research...
October 9, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973703/emerging-therapeutic-strategies-in-breast-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Kayla Cox, Brandon Alford, Hatem Soliman
The field of medical oncology is experiencing a period of rapid evolution owing to advances in the fields of genomics, tumor biology, and immunology. These disciplines have provided valuable insights into the heterogeneity between breast tumors, key oncogenic drivers, and the role of the immune system in the natural history of breast cancer. This knowledge is translating into many novel therapeutic strategies using personalized medicines, targeted drug delivery systems, and immunomodulatory agents in the treatment of both the early and metastatic stages of the disease...
October 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968173/modernizing-clinical-trial-eligibility-criteria-recommendations-of-the-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-friends-of-cancer-research-hiv-working-group
#15
Thomas S Uldrick, Gwynn Ison, Michelle A Rudek, Ariela Noy, Karl Schwartz, Suanna Bruinooge, Caroline Schenkel, Barry Miller, Kieron Dunleavy, Judy Wang, Jerome Zeldis, Richard F Little
Purpose People with HIV are living longer as a result of effective antiretroviral therapy. Cancer has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. However, studies of novel cancer therapeutics have historically excluded patients with HIV. Critical review of eligibility criteria related to HIV is required to accelerate development of and access to effective therapeutics for HIV-infected patients with cancer and make studies more generalizable to this patient population. Methods From January through April 2016, the HIV Working Group conducted a series of teleconferences; a review of 46 New Drug Applications from registration studies of unique agents studied in adults with cancer that led to the initial US Food and Drug Administration approval of that agent from 2011 to 2015; and a review of HIV-related eligibility criteria from National Cancer Institute-sponsored studies...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961664/cns-drug-development-lessons-learned-part-3-psychiatric-and-central-nervous-system-drugs-developed-over-the-last-decade-implications-for-the-field
#16
Sheldon H Preskorn
This column reviews the divergence between the approach to drug development in infectious disease, oncology, and immunology versus psychiatry. Between 2009 and 2016, 254 new drugs were approved. Of those, only 9 were for a psychiatric indication; another 5 were labeled to treat central nervous system disorders that are not considered psychiatric per se but are frequently found in individuals with psychiatric illnesses (eg, substantial weight gain). There were 2 additional new products for psychiatric indications that involved either a combination product (Contrave) or a prodrug for the production of aripiprazole (Aristada)...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938679/association-of-immunologic-markers-from-complete-blood-counts-with-the-response-to-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-and-prognosis-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#17
Sung Woo Jung, In Ja Park, Se Heon Oh, Seung-Seop Yeom, Jong Lyul Lee, Yong Sik Yoon, Chan Wook Kim, Seok-Byung Lim, Jung Bok Lee, Chang Sik Yu, Jin Cheon Kim
We investigated retrospectively whether immunologic markers from a complete blood count (CBC) are associated with the responsiveness to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) and oncologic outcomes in 984 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who also underwent radical surgery from 2005 to 2013. CBC parameters including the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were recorded. Pathologic responses to PCRT were evaluated in the resected specimens using the tumor regression grade system...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912369/customized-viral-immunotherapy-for-hpv-associated-cancer
#18
Matthew J Atherton, Kyle B Stephenson, Jonathan Pol, Fuan Wang, Charles Lefebvre, David F Stojdl, Jake K Nikota, Anna Dvorkin-Gheva, Andrew Nguyen, Lan Chen, Stephanie Johnson-Obaseki, Patrick J Villeneuve, Jean-Simon Diallo, Jim Dimitroulakos, Yonghong Wan, Brian D Lichty
The viral-transforming proteins E6 and E7 make human papillomavirus-positive (HPV(+)) malignancies an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. However, therapeutic vaccination exerts limited efficacy in the setting of advanced disease. We designed a strategy to induce substantial specific immune responses against multiple epitopes of E6 and E7 proteins based on an attenuated transgene from HPV serotypes 16 and 18 that is incorporated into MG1-Maraba virotherapy (MG1-E6E7). Mutations introduced to the transgene abrogate the ability of E6 and E7 to perturb p53 and retinoblastoma, respectively, while maintaining the ability to invoke tumor-specific, multifunctional CD8(+) T-cell responses...
October 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912090/immuno-oncology-and-its-opportunities-for-interventional-radiologists-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-and-potential-synergies-with-interventional-oncology%C3%A2-procedures
#19
REVIEW
Ryan M Hickey, Laura M Kulik, Halla Nimeiri, Aparna Kalyan, Sheetal Kircher, Kush Desai, Ahsun Riaz, Robert J Lewandowski, Riad Salem
Immunotherapy, specifically the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors, offers a new approach to fighting cancer. Although the results of treatment with immune checkpoint inhibition alone have been remarkable for certain cancers, these results are not universal. Preclinical and early clinical studies indicate the potential for synergistic effects when immune checkpoint inhibition is combined with immunogenic local therapies such as ablation and embolization. This review offers an overview of immunology as it relates to immune checkpoint inhibition and the possibilities for synergy when combined with interventional radiology treatments...
November 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903826/comparison-of-6-injectable-anesthetic-regimens-and-isoflurane-in-gray-short-tailed-opossums-monodelphis-domestica
#20
Grace J Barnett, Ian J Barnett, Steven R Wilson, Peter C Smith
Gray short-tailed opossums are used in a wide variety of research in the areas of developmental biology, oncology, immunology, and comparative biology. Despite many frequent experimental manipulations of these animals under anesthesia, few studies to date have characterized the effects of anesthesia in this species. Our aim was to identify safe and effective injectable anesthetic combinations using ketamine and xylazine or ketamine and dexmedetomidine at doses of 40 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg for ketamine, 5 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg for xylazine, and 0...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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