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Immunology oncological

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335888/second-and-third-generation-drugs-for-immuno-oncology-treatment-the-more-the-better
#1
REVIEW
Wolfram C M Dempke, Klaus Fenchel, Peter Uciechowski, Stephen P Dale
Recent success in cancer immunotherapy (anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD1/PD-L1) has confirmed the hypothesis that the immune system can control many cancers across various histologies, in some cases producing durable responses in a way not seen with many small-molecule drugs. However, only less than 25% of all patients do respond to immuno-oncology drugs and several resistance mechanisms have been identified (e.g. T-cell exhaustion, overexpression of caspase-8 and β-catenin, PD-1/PD-L1 gene amplification, MHC-I/II mutations)...
March 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324748/influenza-vaccination-in-adult-patients-with-solid-tumours-treated-with-chemotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Albert Vollaard, Imke Schreuder, Lizzy Slok-Raijmakers, Wim Opstelten, Guus Rimmelzwaan, Hans Gelderblom
Patients with solid tumours receiving chemotherapy are at risk for influenza complications. Yearly influenza vaccination is recommended to patients treated with chemotherapy. However, adherence to vaccination is low, most likely due to lack of data on efficacy, optimal timing and safety of vaccination. There is scarce evidence for the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in adult patients with solid tumours and chemotherapy on reduction of pneumonia, decreased mortality and fewer interruptions of oncological treatment...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318556/natural-killer-cells-in-placentation-and-cancer-implications-for-hypertension-during-pregnancy
#3
Heather Yvonne Small, Denise C Cornelius, Tomasz J Guzik, Christian Delles
Hypertension during pregnancy is the most common medical condition encountered during gestation. Despite this, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the disease and the development of new therapies are limited. Hypertension during pregnancy and some forms of cancer confer an increased risk to the development of cardiovascular disease later in life; one mechanism which may link these conditions is the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells. Whilst immunology and immunotherapy are well-developed areas in oncology; the complex mechanisms of the immune system in health and disease at the maternal-fetal interface are less well-defined...
March 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318010/ataxia-telangiectasia-recommendations-for-multidisciplinary-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Nienke J H van Os, Charlotte A Haaxma, Michiel van der Flier, Peter J F M Merkus, Marcel van Deuren, Imelda J M de Groot, Jan Loeffen, Bart P C van de Warrenburg, Michèl A A P Willemsen
Ataxia-telangiectasia is a rare, neurodegenerative, and multisystem disease, characterized by cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, progressive respiratory failure, and an increased risk of malignancies. It demands specialized care tailored to the individual patient's needs. Besides the classic ataxia-telangiectasia phenotype, a variant phenotype exists with partly overlapping but some distinctive disease characteristics. This guideline summarizes frequently encountered medical problems in the disease course of patients with classic and variant ataxia-telangiectasia, in the domains of neurology, immunology and infectious diseases, pulmonology, anaesthetic and perioperative risk, oncology, endocrinology, and nutrition...
March 20, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314176/metronomic-and-metronomic-like-therapies-in-neuroendocrine-tumors-rationale-and-clinical-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Ioana Lambrescu, Simona Fica, Diana Martins, Francesca Spada, Chiara Cella, Emilio Bertani, Manila Rubino, Bianca Gibelli, Chiara Grana, Guido Bonomo, Luigi Funicelli, Davide Ravizza, Eleonora Pisa, Dario Zerini, Antonio Ungaro, Nicola Fazio
Metronomic therapy is characterized by the administration of regular low doses of certain drugs with very low toxicity. There have been numerous debates over the empirical approach of this regimen, but fewest side effects are always something to consider in order to improve patients' quality of life. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare malignancies relatively slow-growing; therefore their treatment is often chronic, involving several different therapies for tumor growth control. Knowing that these tumors are highly vascularized, the anti-angiogenic aspect is highly regarded as something to be targeted in all patients harboring NETs...
February 24, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294139/imaging-to-study-solid-tumour-origin-and-progression-lessons-from-research-and-clinical-oncology
#6
REVIEW
Stefania Raimondo, Giovanni Zito
Biomedical imaging in recent decades has clarified our understanding of normal and pathological cellular processes in vivo. In particular, this approach recently provided insights into processes occurring at a molecular or genetic level rather than at the anatomical level. The evolution of this discipline by engineering have led to its integration into biomedical research to (1) increase sensitivity and resolution imaging and to (2) improve tissue and cell specificity. Currently, imaging approaches are used in three different biomedical areas: (a) identification of cellular processes in physiological and disease state, (b) in vivo single cell imaging, and (c) identification of new prognostic and therapeutical strategies...
March 15, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289089/molecular-pathways-oncologic-pathways-and-their-role-in-t-cell-exclusion-and-immune-evasion-a-new-role-for-the-axl-receptor-tyrosine-kinase
#7
Todd A Aguilera, Amato J Giaccia
With the clinical impact of CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint therapies, widespread interest in cancer immunotherapy has been ignited. However, the rate and extent of clinical responses to approved therapies are limited and often non-existent in many solid tumors. This is partially because immune checkpoint therapies are most effective against T-cell inflamed tumors, and non-T-cell inflamed or T-cell excluded tumors remain a significant barrier. New strategies are needed to overcome immune resistance mechanisms that arise during tumor development which result in T-cell exclusion...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287240/in-memoriam-prof-andrzej-krzysztof-tarkowski-1933-2016
#8
Ewa Borsuk, Małgorzata Waksmundzka, Katarzyna Szczepańska, Anna Ajduk, Marek Maleszewski, Aneta Suwińska, Monika Humięcka, Katarzyna Bożyk, Marcin Szpila, Renata Czołowska, Teresa Rogulska, Wacław Ożdżeński, Jacek A Modliński, Jacek Z Kubiak, Maria A Ciemerych
Professor Andrzej Krzysztof Tarkowski passed away last September (2016) at the age of 83. His findings, have become indispensable tools for immunological, genetic, and oncological studies, as well as for generating transgenic animals which are instrumental for studying gene function in living animals. His work and discoveries provided a tremendous input to the contemporary developmental biology of mammals.
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255687/identification-of-the-orsellinic-acid-synthase-pks63787-for-the-biosynthesis-of-antroquinonols-in-antrodia-cinnamomea
#9
Po-Wei Yu, Ting-Yu Cho, Ruey-Fen Liou, Shean-Shong Tzean, Tzong-Huei Lee
Antrodia cinnamomea, an endemic basidiomycete used as a health food in Taiwan, is known to synthesize antroquinonols, which were reported to have notable medicinal potential in oncology and immunology. However, the biosynthetic pathway of these compounds is currently unclear. Our previous study showed that a pks63787 knockout mutant of A. cinnamomea (∆pks63787) is deficient in the biosynthesis of several aromatic metabolites. In this study, we pointed by phylogenetic analysis that pks63787 likely encodes an orsellinic acid synthase...
March 2, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253468/variation-in-outpatient-consultant-physician-fees-in-australia-by-specialty-and-state-and-territory
#10
Gary L Freed, Amy R Allen
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mean, median and 10th and 90th percentile levels of fees and out-of-pocket costs to the patient for an initial consultation with a consultant physician; to determine any differences in fees and bulk-billing rates between specialties and between states and territories. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Analysis of 2015 Medicare claims data for an initial outpatient appointment with a consultant physician (Item 110) in 11 medical specialties representative of common adult non-surgical medical care (cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, geriatric medicine, haematology, immunology/allergy, medical oncology, nephrology, neurology, respiratory medicine and rheumatology)...
March 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241093/phase-1-2-study-of-immunotherapy-with-dendritic-cells-pulsed-with-autologous-tumor-lysate-in-patients-with-refractory-bone-and-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#11
Shinji Miwa, Hideji Nishida, Yoshikazu Tanzawa, Akihiko Takeuchi, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Norio Yamamoto, Eishiro Mizukoshi, Yasunari Nakamoto, Shuichi Kaneko, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: There are limited options for the curative treatment of refractory bone and soft tissue sarcomas. The purpose of this phase 1/2 study was to assess the immunological and clinical effects of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with autologous tumor lysate (TL) in patients with advanced bone and soft tissue sarcomas. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with metastatic or recurrent sarcomas were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from the patients were suspended in media containing interleukin 4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...
February 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220395/single-cell-sequencing-a-distinct-new-field
#12
REVIEW
Jian Wang, Yuanlin Song
Single cell sequencing (SCS) has become a new approach to study biological heterogeneity. The advancement in technologies for single cell isolation, amplification of genome/transcriptome and next-generation sequencing enables SCS to reveal the inherent properties of a single cell from the large scale of the genome, transcriptome or epigenome at high resolution. Recently, SCS has been widely applied in various clinical and research fields, such as cancer biology and oncology, immunology, microbiology, neurobiology and prenatal diagnosis...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214182/opportunistic-autoimmunity-secondary-to-cancer-immunotherapy-oasi-an-emerging-challenge
#13
M Kostine, L Chiche, E Lazaro, P Halfon, C Charpin, D Arniaud, F Retornaz, P Blanco, N Jourde-Chiche, C Richez, C Stavris
With "checkpoint inhibitors" targeting PD1/PD-1-ligands or CTLA-4/CD28 pathways, immunotherapy has profoundly modified therapeutic strategies in oncology. First approved in refractory metastatic neoplasms (melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma), it is now being tested broadly in other cancers and/or as adjuvant treatment. For a significant proportion of patients, immunotherapy is responsible for "immunological" events, identified as Immune-Related Adverse Events (irAEs). Owing to the increasing number of prescriptions, identification and management of specific immunological side effects is crucial and requires close collaboration between oncologists and internists and/or other organ specialists...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173966/nutrition-interventions-in-patients-with-gynecological-cancers-requiring-surgery
#14
REVIEW
Andreas Obermair, Marko Simunovic, Liz Isenring, Monika Janda
OBJECTIVE: Including developing countries, between 20 and 88% of gynecological oncology patients may present with at least mild malnutrition at diagnosis. Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to malnutrition. Here we reviewed randomized clinical trials of nutritional interventions used to achieve early return to oral diet, enhance recovery from surgery and reduce adverse events in gynecological cancer patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: Ebscohost (CINAHL+Medline+PsycINFO), Cochrane, Embase, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for articles published from 2000 onwards...
February 4, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138915/evaluation-of-internet-based-patient-education-materials-from-internal-medicine-subspecialty-organizations-will-patients-understand-them
#15
David R Hansberry, Nitin Agarwal, Elizabeth S John, Ann M John, Prateek Agarwal, James C Reynolds, Stephen R Baker
The majority of Americans use the Internet daily, if not more often, and many search online for health information to better understand a diagnosis they have been given or to research treatment options. The average American reads at an eighth-grade level. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the readability of online patient education materials on the websites of 14 professional organizations representing the major internal medicine subspecialties. We used ten well-established quantitative readability scales to assess written text from patient education materials published on the websites of the major professional organizations representing the following subspecialty groups: allergy and immunology, cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, geriatrics, hematology, hospice and palliative care, infectious disease, nephrology, oncology, pulmonology and critical care, rheumatology, sleep medicine, and sports medicine...
January 30, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127584/ovarian-cancer-and-the-immune-system
#16
Thaïs Baert, Ignace Vergote, An Coosemans
Short communication in response to the review of Turner et al. entitled "Ovarian cancer and the immune system - the role of targeted therapies" published in Gynecological Oncology. We believe systemic immune parameters might be a good alternative to tumor biopsy to gain insight in the immunological background of ovarian cancer.
February 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056827/strain-specific-transmission-in-an-outbreak-of-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-hemato-oncology-care-unit-a-cohort-study
#17
Makiko Uemura, Osamu Imataki, Shumpei Uchida, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Yukiko Ohue, Harumi Matsuka, Hatsune Mori, Hiroaki Dobashi, Tomomi Kuwahara, Norimitsu Kadowaki
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are resistant to several types of antibiotics excluding carbapenems. A transmissibility of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae would be depending on each bacterial property, however, that has not been elucidated in clinical setting. In this study, we attempted to identify the source of an outbreak of ESBL-producing bacteria in a medical oncology and immunology care unit. METHODS: An ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) outbreak observed between July 2012 and August 2012 in Kagawa University Hospital was surveyed using various molecular microbiology techniques...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032353/allergooncology-the-impact-of-allergy-in-oncology-eaaci-position-paper
#18
E Jensen-Jarolim, H J Bax, R Bianchini, M Capron, C Corrigan, M Castells, D Dombrowicz, T R Daniels-Wells, J Fazekas, E Fiebiger, S Gatault, H J Gould, J Janda, D H Josephs, P Karagiannis, F Levi-Schaffer, A Meshcheryakova, D Mechtcheriakova, Y Mekori, F Mungenast, E A Nigro, M L Penichet, F Redegeld, L Saul, J Singer, J F Spicer, A G Siccardi, E Spillner, M C Turner, E Untersmayr, L Vangelista, S N Karagiannis
Th2 immunity and allergic immune surveillance play critical roles in host responses to pathogens, parasites and allergens. Numerous studies have reported significant links between Th2 responses and cancer, including insights into the functions of IgE antibodies and associated effector cells in both antitumour immune surveillance and therapy. The interdisciplinary field of AllergoOncology was given Task Force status by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in 2014. Affiliated expert groups focus on the interface between allergic responses and cancer, applied to immune surveillance, immunomodulation and the functions of IgE-mediated immune responses against cancer, to derive novel insights into more effective treatments...
December 29, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998802/janus-kinase-inhibition-for-immunosuppression-in-solid-organ-transplantation-is-there-a-role-in-complex-immunologic-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Cody A Moore, Carlo J Iasella, Raman Venkataramanan, Fadi G Lakkis, Randall B Smith, John F McDyer, Adriana Zeevi, Christopher R Ensor
Inhibition of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway for immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation is appealing due to its specificity for immune cell function, particularly for JAK3. This is due to its unique association with only the common gamma chain (γc). The γc is an appealing immunosuppression target in transplantation because of the critically important lymphokines that act at it, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21. Tofacitinib was initially purported to selectively inhibit solely JAK3, but subsequent analyses have also demonstrated its activity at the other members of the JAK family...
February 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980779/distinct-immunological-activation-profiles-of-dslim%C3%A2-and-promune%C3%A2-depend-on-their-different-structural-context
#20
Kerstin Kapp, Jacqueline Schneider, Lisa Schneider, Nadine Gollinge, Stefanie Jänsch, Matthias Schroff, Burghardt Wittig, Christiane Kleuss
INTRODUCTION: DNA-based TLR9 agonists are potent activators of the immune system. ProMune® and dSLIM® belong to different families of TLR9 agonists and both have been established as cancer immunotherapeutics in clinical proof-of-concept studies. Unfortunately, ProMune® failed in pivotal oncological trials. dSLIM®, the active ingredient of Lefitolimod (MGN1703), successfully finished a double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase II study in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, exhibiting improved progression-free survival and durable disease control...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
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