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Immunology oncological

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781999/preparation-of-murine-submandibular-salivary-gland-for-upright-intravital-microscopy
#1
Xenia Ficht, Flavian Thelen, Bettina Stolp, Jens V Stein
The submandibular salivary gland (SMG) is one of the three major salivary glands, and is of interest for many different fields of biological research, including cell biology, oncology, dentistry, and immunology. The SMG is an exocrine gland comprised of secretory epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, nerves, and extracellular matrix. Dynamic cellular processes in the rat and mouse SMG have previously been imaged, mostly using inverted multi-photon microscope systems. Here, we describe a straightforward protocol for the surgical preparation and stabilization of the murine SMG in anesthetized mice for in vivo imaging with upright multi-photon microscope systems...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764162/the-evolving-role-of-immune-oncology-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Shaheenah Dawood
Metastatic colorectal cancer still remains an essentially non curable disease. However, with advances in chemotherapeutic and personalizing therapeutic approaches with the incorporation of targeted therapy such as anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF agents survival associated with metastatic colorectal cancer has certainly improved over the last two decades. Patients who are not amenable to surgery median survival remain approximately 2 to 3 years. In an attempt to improve prognostic outcome over the last decade research has focused on therapeutic options geared towards harnessing the immune system with success observed with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the realm of a number of solid tumors including lung and renal cancer...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759018/accelerating-pediatric-cancer-drug-development-challenges-and-opportunities-for-pediatric-master-protocols
#3
Tahira Khan, Mark Stewart, Samuel Blackman, Raphaël Rousseau, Martha Donoghue, Kenneth Cohen, Nita Seibel, Mark Fleury, Bouchra Benettaib, Raleigh Malik, Gilles Vassal, Gregory Reaman
Although outcomes for children with cancer have significantly improved over the past 40 years, there has been little progress in the treatment of some pediatric cancers, particularly when advanced. Additionally, clinical trial options and availability are often insufficient. Improved genomic and immunologic understanding of pediatric cancers, combined with innovative clinical trial designs, may provide an enhanced opportunity to study childhood cancers. Master protocols, which incorporate the use of precision medicine approaches, coupled with the ability to quickly assess the safety and effectiveness of new therapies, have the potential to accelerate early-phase clinical testing of novel therapeutics and which may result in more rapid approval of new drugs for children with cancer...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756991/the-immune-landscape-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-utility-of-cytologic-and-histologic-samples-obtained-through-minimally-invasive-pulmonary-procedures
#4
Jason Beattie, Lonny Yarmus, Momen Wahidi, M Patricia Rivera, Christopher Gilbert, Fabien Maldonado, Kasia Czarnecka, Angela Argento, Alexander Chen, Felix Herth, Daniel H Sterman
The success of immune checkpoint inhibitors and the discovery of useful biomarkers to predict response to these agents has shifted much of the focus of personalized care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer towards harnessing the immune response. With further advancement, more effective immunotherapy options will emerge along with more useful biomarkers. For patients with advanced disease, minimally invasive techniques will remain most appropriate for acquisition of tissue. This is in contrast to default gold-standard large tissue specimens obtained through surgical resection...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754192/gastrointestinal-disorders-associated-with-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Stella Hartono, Michelina Rosa Ippoliti, Maria Mastroianni, Ricardo Torres, Nicholas L Rider
There are now 354 inborn errors of immunity (primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs)) with 344 distinct molecular etiologies reported according to the International Union of Immunological Sciences (IUIS) (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11: p. 1050-63, 2013, Semin Gastrointest Dis 8: p. 22-32, 1997, J Clin Immunol 38: p. 96-128, 2018). Using the IUIS document as a reference and cross-checking PubMed ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.pubmed.gov ), we found that approximately one third of the 354 diseases of impaired immunity have a gastrointestinal component [J Clin Immunol 38: p...
May 13, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751111/2017-in-review-fda-approvals-of-new-molecular-entities
#6
Michael S Kinch, Rebekah H Griesenauer
An overview of drugs approved by the FDA in 2017 reflected a reversion to the mean after a low number of NME approvals in 2016. This reversal was largely driven by the largest number of biologics-based NMEs recorded to date, which offset an average number of small-molecule approvals. Oncology indications continued to dominate followed by novel treatments for infectious, immunologic and neurologic diseases. From a mechanistic standpoint, the industry has continued a trend of target diversification, reflecting advances in scientific understanding of disease processes...
May 8, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749320/combined-treatment-for-gastric-cancer-immunological-approach
#7
Olzhas Zhandossov, Galina Kaussova, Avraam Koten
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric cancer is one of the most common oncological diseases. It can develop in any part of the stomach and spread to other organs, especially the esophagus, lungs, and liver. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of our proposed therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our research promises more effective neoadjuvant therapy, including immunotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy. Of the 62 patients involved in our study, 32 underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with surgery, whereas the rest underwent neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy with surgery...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686682/targeting-cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensing-pathways-for-cancer-immunotherapies
#8
REVIEW
Sandra Iurescia, Daniela Fioretti, Monica Rinaldi
The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against pathogen infection though also influences pathways involved in cancer immunosurveillance. The innate immune system relies on a limited set of germ line-encoded sensors termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), signaling proteins and immune response factors. Cytosolic receptors mediate recognition of danger damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) signals. Once activated, these sensors trigger multiple signaling cascades, converging on the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664561/the-function-and-dysfunction-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-tumor-immunity
#9
REVIEW
James L Reading, Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, Charles Swanton, Alvaro Lladser, Karl S Peggs, Sergio A Quezada
The generation and maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory is crucial to long-term host survival, yet the basic tenets of CD8+ T cell immunity are still being established. Recent work has led to the discovery of tissue-resident memory cells and refined our understanding of the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of CD8+ T cell differentiation and dysregulation. In parallel, the unprecedented clinical success of immunotherapy has galvanized an intense, global research effort to decipher and de-repress the anti-tumor response...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661445/epidemiologic-profile-of-patients-transplanted-with-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-a-reference-service-in-the-state-of-rio-grande-do-norte-brazil
#10
I Campos de Azevedo, M A Ferreira Júnior, L A Pereira de Aquino, A A de Oliveira, G K P Cruz, A I de Queiroz Cardoso, M L Ivo, V E P Santos
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) consists of the intravenous infusion of healthy hematopoietic stem cells to restore the medullary and immunologic function of patients affected by a series of hematologic, oncologic, immunologic, malignant and nonmalignant inherited or acquired diseases, with the possibility of cure or increase of disease-free survival. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the epidemiologic profile and the cases of death of patients who underwent HSCT...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660368/flow-cytometry-for-receptor-analysis-from-ex-vivo-brain-tissue-in-adult-rat
#11
A Benoit, M Guillamin, P Aitken, P F Smith, B Philoxene, B Sola, L Poulain, A Coquerel, S Besnard
BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry allows single-cell analysis of peripheral biological samples and is useful in many fields of research and clinical applications, mainly in hematology, immunology, and oncology. In the neurosciences, the flow cytometry separation method was first applied to stem cell extraction from healthy or cerebral tumour tissue and was more recently tested in order to phenotype brain cells, hippocampal neurogenesis, and to detect prion proteins. However, it remains sparsely applied in quantifying membrane receptors in relation to synaptic plasticity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659184/the-human-laryngeal-innervation-revisited-the-role-of-the-neural-connections
#12
C Martín-Oviedo, E Maranillo, J R Sañudo, P Pérez-LLoret, E Verdú, T Martínez-Guirado, O Álvarez-Montero, J M Gómez Martín-Zarco, T Vázquez
In spite that vascular inconvenients or immunological rejections have been solved in relation with larynx transplant, a successful functional reinnervation has not been achieved. Some studies have suggested that laryngeal nerve connection may contain motor fibers, which could explain unexpected evoked responses in electromyographic studies or the different positions adopted of the vocal folds after similar nerve lesions. Ten patients with unexpected evoked responses after laryngeal nerve stimulation were selected...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628796/immunotherapy-of-melanoma
#13
Iwona Lugowska, Pawel Teterycz, Piotr Rutkowski
The immunotherapy is currently changing the landscape of oncology. Nowadays the standard of care in metastatic or unresectable melanoma patients include immunomodulating modalities such as anti-PD-1 drugs (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) and anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab. The improvements of progression free survival and overall survival connected with those treatments were unprecedented and have been confirmed in stage III trials. The efficacy of immunotherapy in metastatic setting can be further upgraded in some groups of patients by combining both types of antibodies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623849/cardiac-imaging-in-systemic-diseases-what-the-clinician-should-know
#14
Cesar J Herrera, Pamela Pina Santana, Jorge Martinez, Mario J Garcia
IMPORTANCE: Systemic diseases that affect the cardiovascular system constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for all specialists involved; imaging tools along with clinical suspicion play an essential role in their evaluation. These entities share neurological, immunological, renal, hematologic, oncologic, infectious and endocrine processes, all of which may have associated cardiac involvement. OBSERVATIONS: Recent advances in cardiac ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear scintigraphy have impacted the management of these conditions when involving the heart since they provide valuable anatomical and functional information while avoiding the use of invasive techniques...
April 5, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582686/the-effects-of-radiotherapy-on-the-survival-of-patients-with-unresectable-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Paolo Tini, Valerio Nardone, Pierpaolo Pastina, Luigi Pirtoli, Pierpaolo Correale, Antonio Giordano
Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer mortality across the worlds. At present, less than 30% of the patients can undergo curative surgery, while the majority of them (65%) are diagnosed with metastatic disease and directed to systemic treatments whose effects on the outcome of these patients depends by their performance status, disease-stage, histology, targetable-driving-mutation, and susceptibility to immunotherapy. In this context there is a subset of patients (25%) with locally advanced stage disease whose outcome might be greatly improved by using combined strategies of treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery...
March 27, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574334/immuno-oncology-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancers-news-from-clinical-trials-emerging-predictive-factors-and-unmet-needs
#16
REVIEW
Stefano Cavalieri, Licia Rivoltini, Cristiana Bergamini, Laura D Locati, Lisa Licitra, Paolo Bossi
According to the new determinants of cancer immunity, head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) has to be considered as an immunogenic tumor for the relatively high number of somatic mutations giving rise to neoantigens recognized by T cell. HNSCC develop at a significant rate despite the antitumoral immune response indicating the existence of effective escape mechanisms. The lack of antigen presentation or co-stimulatory molecules required and immunosuppressive phenomena established by the tumor or the host microenvironment impair immune-mediated recognition and cancer control...
April 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564185/current-status-of-immunotherapy-and-immune-biomarkers-in-gastro-esophageal-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Nischala Ammannagari, Ajlan Atasoy
Gastroesophageal (GE) cancers continue to be a significant cause of mortality globally. Despite therapeutic advances in oncology, the prognosis of advanced GE cancer remains exceedingly poor. Immunotherapy has caused a major paradigm shift in the field of oncology. Not all patients benefit from these agents and several studies are trying to identify predictive and prognostic biomarkers to better inform and guide treatment decisions. The potential role of immunotherapy in GE cancers is emerging. These cancer types are molecularly and immunologically heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity influences the tumor microenvironment posing a significant challenge to studying biomarkers of response to immunotherapy...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537104/aligning-physics-and-physiology-engineering-antibodies-for-radionuclide-delivery
#18
Wen-Ting K Tsai, Anna M Wu
The exquisite specificity of antibodies and antibody fragments renders them excellent agents for targeted delivery of radionuclides. Radiolabeled antibodies and fragments have been successfully used for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cell surface targets in oncology and immunology. Protein engineering has been used for antibody humanization essential for clinical applications, as well as optimization of important characteristics including pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and clearance. Although intact antibodies have high potential as imaging and therapeutic agents, challenges include long circulation time in blood, which leads to later imaging time points post-injection and higher blood absorbed dose that may be disadvantageous for RIT...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527836/nanotrail-oncology-a-strategic-approach-in-cancer-research-and-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Yesi Shi, Xin Pang, Junqing Wang, Gang Liu
TRAIL is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that can largely trigger apoptosis in a wide variety of cancer cells, but not in normal cells. However, insufficient exposure to cancer tissues or cells and drug resistance has severely impeded the clinical application of TRAIL. Recently, nanobiotechnology has brought about a revolution in advanced drug delivery for enhanced anticancer therapy using TRAIL. With the help of materials science, immunology, genetic engineering, and protein engineering, substantial progress is made by expressing fusion proteins with TRAIL, engineering TRAIL on biological membranes, and loading TRAIL into functional nanocarriers or conjugating it onto their surfaces...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518353/nanoparticle-fusion-protein-complexes-protect-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#20
Peter Hart, Alastair Copland, Gil Reynolds Diogo, Shane Harris, Ralf Spallek, Wulf Oehlmann, Mahavir Singh, Juan Basile, Martin Rottenberg, Matthew John Paul, Rajko Reljic
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease, and the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is inadequate. Nanoparticles (NPs) are an emerging vaccine technology, with recent successes in oncology and infectious diseases. NPs have been exploited as antigen delivery systems and also for their adjuvantic properties. However, the mechanisms underlying their immunological activity remain obscure. Here, we developed a novel mucosal TB vaccine (Nano-FP1) based upon yellow carnauba wax NPs (YC-NPs), coated with a fusion protein consisting of three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens: Acr, Ag85B, and HBHA...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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