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Immunology oncological

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345329/generating-quantitative-cell-identity-labels-with-marker-enrichment-modeling-mem
#1
Kirsten E Diggins, Jocelyn S Gandelman, Caroline E Roe, Jonathan M Irish
Multiplexed single-cell experimental techniques like mass cytometry measure 40 or more features and enable deep characterization of well-known and novel cell populations. However, traditional data analysis techniques rely extensively on human experts or prior knowledge, and novel machine learning algorithms may generate unexpected population groupings. Marker enrichment modeling (MEM) creates quantitative identity labels based on features enriched in a population relative to a reference. While developed for cell type analysis, MEM labels can be generated for a wide range of multidimensional data types, and MEM works effectively with output from expert analysis and diverse machine learning algorithms...
January 18, 2018: Current Protocols in Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344676/application-of-genome-editing-techniques-in-immunology
#2
REVIEW
Agata O Zych, Malgorzata Bajor, Radoslaw Zagozdzon
The idea of using the effector immune cells to specifically fight cancer has recently evolved into an exciting concept of adoptive cell therapies. Indeed, genetically engineered T cells expressing on their surface recombinant, cancer-targeted receptors have been shown to induce promising response in oncological patients. However, in addition to exogenous expression of such receptors, there is also a need for disruption of certain genes in the immune cells to achieve more potent disease-targeted actions, to produce universal chimeric antigen receptor-based therapies or to study the signaling pathways in detail...
January 17, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332705/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-management-of-advanced-and-high-stage-tumors
#3
REVIEW
Syril Keena T Que, Fiona O Zwald, Chrysalyne D Schmults
While the majority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) can be treated surgically, the additional work-up and treatments indicated for high-risk cSCC remain undefined. In recent years, improvements in tumor staging systems have allowed for the more accurate stratification of tumors into high- and low-risk categories. This insight, along with the publication of cSCC guidelines, brings us closer to the development of a consensus approach. The second article in this continuing medical education series addresses in question and answer format the most common questions related to advanced and high-stage cSCCs, with a simplified flowchart...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332322/tumor-immunology-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Chi Young Jung, Scott J Antonia
Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although progress in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been made over the past decade, the 5-year survival rate in patients with lung cancer remains only 10%-20%. Obviously, new therapeutic options are required for patients with advanced NSCLC and unmet medical needs. Cancer immunotherapy is an evolving treatment modality that uses a patient's own immune systems to fight cancer...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319049/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#5
REVIEW
Russell W Jenkins, David A Barbie, Keith T Flaherty
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) targeting CTLA-4 and the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have shown unprecedented clinical activity in several types of cancer and are rapidly transforming the practice of medical oncology. Whereas cytotoxic chemotherapy and small molecule inhibitors ('targeted therapies') largely act on cancer cells directly, immune checkpoint inhibitors reinvigorate anti-tumour immune responses by disrupting co-inhibitory T-cell signalling. While resistance routinely develops in patients treated with conventional cancer therapies and targeted therapies, durable responses suggestive of long-lasting immunologic memory are commonly seen in large subsets of patients treated with ICI...
January 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284160/developmental-biology-the-stem-cell-of-biological-disciplines
#6
Scott F Gilbert
Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines." Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258857/understanding-preanalytical-variables-and-their-effects-on-clinical-biomarkers-of-oncology-and-immunotherapy
#7
REVIEW
Lokesh Agrawal, Kelly B Engel, Sarah R Greytak, Helen M Moore
Identifying a suitable course of immunotherapy treatment for a given patient as well as monitoring treatment response is heavily reliant on biomarkers detected and quantified in blood and tissue biospecimens. Suboptimal or variable biospecimen collection, processing, and storage practices have the potential to alter clinically relevant biomarkers, including those used in cancer immunotherapy. In the present review, we summarize effects reported for immunologically relevant biomarkers and highlight preanalytical factors associated with specific analytical platforms and assays used to predict and gauge immunotherapy response...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239457/opioids-and-immunosupression-in-oncological-postoperative-patients
#8
José Luis Bonilla-García, Manuel Cortiñas-Sáenz, Esperanza Del Pozo-Gavilán
INTRODUCTION: Recent animal studies demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of opioid withdrawal resulting in a higher risk of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of remifentanil discontinuation on Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU)-acquired infection after a schedule of sedoanalgesia of at least 6 days. METHOD: All patients over 18 years of age with a unit admission of more than 4 days were consecutively selected. The study population was the one affected by surgical pathology of any origin where sedation was based on any hypnotic and the opioid remifentanil was used as analgesic for at least 96 hours in continuous perfusion...
September 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224713/veterinary-oncology-immunotherapies
#9
REVIEW
Philip J Bergman
The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine...
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209572/trial-watch-immunostimulatory-monoclonal-antibodies-for-oncological-indications
#10
REVIEW
Mariona Cabo, Rienk Offringa, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Aura Muntasell, Lorenzo Galluzzi
The goal of cancer immunotherapy is to establish new or boost pre-existing anticancer immune responses that eradicate malignant cells while generating immunological memory to prevent disease relapse. Over the past few years, immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block co-inhibitory receptors on immune effectors cells - such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, best known as PD-1) - or their ligands - such as CD274 (best known as PD-L1) - have proven very successful in this sense...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204089/subpopulations-of-natural-killer-t-like-cells-before-and-after-surgical-treatment-of-laryngeal-cancer
#11
Janusz Klatka, Ewelina Grywalska, Anna Hymos, Ewelina Krasowska, Michał Mielnik, Dorota Siwicka-Gieroba, Justyna Markowicz, Piotr Trojanowski, Witold Olszański, Jacek Roliński
Introduction: Tumours connected with head and neck comprise about 5% of all tumours. The most frequent histological type of laryngeal carcinoma is squamous cell carcinoma. Different research projects suggest that the role of T lymphocytes might be significant in tumour development. iNKT cells are a new subpopulation of T cells and show cytotoxic activity against tumours. iNKT cells participate in modulating the function of other cells which have anti-tumour properties and secrete cytokines, which have pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185392/immunotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer-evidence-and-perspectives
#12
Alicia Tosoni, Enrico Franceschi, Ernesto Pasquini, Andrea Lanese, Elisa Donini, Maria Pia Foschini, Danilo Dall'Olio, Alba A Brandes
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas evade immune response through multiple immunologic resistance mechanisms. Two of the most commonly involved checkpoint inhibitory mechanisms are CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1, which act at earlier and later stages of immune response to tumors. Pembrolizumab and nivolumab are PD-1 antibodies that interrupt the immunosuppressive pathway of inhibitory checkpoints, which are used by tumor cells to prevent immune reaction. Both recently gained US FDA approval for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer with disease progression during or following platinum containing chemotherapy...
December 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181807/pharmacogenomic-biomarkers-for-improved-drug-therapy-recent-progress-and-future-developments
#13
Volker M Lauschke, Lili Milani, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg
Much of the inter-individual variability in drug efficacy and risk of adverse reactions is due to polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics or immunological responses. Pharmacogenetic research has identified a multitude of gene-drug response associations, which have resulted in genetically guided treatment and dosing decisions to yield a higher success rate of pharmacological treatment. The rapid technological developments for genetic analyses reveal that the number of genetic variants with importance for drug action is much higher than previously thought and that a true personalized prediction of drug response requires attention to millions of rare mutations...
November 27, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176356/evolving-paradigms-for-new-agent-development-in-pediatric-oncology
#14
Andrea Flynn, Elizabeth Fox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss considerations of new paradigms for clinical drug development in pediatric oncology that incorporate our expanding knowledge and complexity of molecular alterations associated with cancer; advances in cancer immunology and cellular therapy; the increasing number of new anticancer drugs, therapeutic approaches, and potential combinations; and recent initiatives by regulatory agencies to improve access to safe and effective therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer in children and adolescents is a rare event with significant long-term impact on individuals and society...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168922/focused-ultrasound-tumor-ablation-and-its-potential-to-enhance-immunological-therapy-to-cancer
#15
Giovanni Mauri, Luca Nicosia, Zhen Xu, Salvatore Di Pietro, Lorenzo Monfardini, Guido Bonomo, Gianluca Maria Varano, Francesco Prada, Paolo Della Vigna, Franco Orsi
Various kind of image-guided techniques have been successfully applied in the last years for the treatment of tumours, as alternative to surgical resection. High Intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a novel, totally non-invasive, image-guided technique that allow for achieving tissue destruction with the application of focused ultrasound at high intensity. This technique has been successfully applied for the treatment of a large variety of diseases, including oncological and non-oncological diseases. One of the most fascinating aspects of image-guided ablations, and particularly of HIFU, is the reported possibility of determining a sort of stimulation of the immune system, with an unexpected "systemic" response to treatments designed to be "local"...
November 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167827/hepatocellular-cancer-and-recurrence-after-liver-transplantation-what-about-the-impact-of-immunosuppression
#16
REVIEW
Jan Lerut, Samuele Iesari, Maxime Foguenne, Quirino Lai
Liver transplantation (LT) has originally been designed to treat hepatobiliary malignancies. The initial results of LT for hepatocellular cancer (HCC) were, however, dismal this mainly due to the poor patient selection procedure. Better surgical and perioperative care and, especially, the refinement of selection criteria led to a major improvement of results, making HCC nowadays (again!) one of the leading indications for LT. This evolution is clearly shown by the innumerable reports aiming to further extend inclusion criteria for LT in HCC patients...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158212/cardiac-toxicity-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-cardio-oncology-meets-immunology
#17
Gilda Varricchi, Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Carlo G Tocchetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147628/trial-watch-adoptively-transferred-cells-for-anticancer-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Carole Fournier, François Martin, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Lionel Apetoh
Immunotherapies aimed at strengthening immune effector responses against malignant cells are growing at exponential rates. Alongside, the impressive benefits obtained by patients with advanced melanoma who received adoptively transferred tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have encouraged the scientific community to pursue adoptive cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy. ACT involves autologous or allogenic effector lymphocytes that are generally obtained from the peripheral blood or resected tumors, expanded and activated ex vivo, and administered to lymphodepleted patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#19
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138137/the-next-frontier-head-and-neck-cancer-immunoprevention
#20
J Silvio Gutkind, Jack D Bui
Restoring T cell-mediated antitumor immunity by targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) results in immunomodulation and durable remissions. However, the overall response rate to these immunotherapies in HNSCC is only approximately 20%. This raises the possibility that immunologic intervention earlier in the HNSCC continuum, such as in oral premalignant lesions (OPL) could elicit an increased therapeutic response. New experimental studies suggest that immune therapies can be used for HNSCC prevention rather than therapy...
November 14, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
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