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Bacterial meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654563/neuroborreliosis-in-swedish-children-a-population-based-study-on-incidence-and-clinical-characteristics
#1
Liv Södermark, Vignir Sigurdsson, Wilhelmina Näs, Pernilla Wall, Birger Trollfors
BACKGROUND: Borrelia burgdorferi is a common cause of bacterial meningitis but there are very few studies on incidence in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence and symptoms of neuroborreliosis in Swedish children. DESIGN: Medical records of children (<15 years) treated for neuroborreliosis 2002-2014 were studied retrospectively. The patients were identified in the computerized registers of discharge diagnoses at the Departments of Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases in Gothenburg, Borås, Trollhättan and Halmstad using ICD-10 diagnosis codes G51...
June 24, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652113/early-versus-late-diagnosis-in-community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Jacob Bodilsen, Christian Thomas Brandt, Andrew Sharew, Michael Dalager-Pedersen, Thomas Benfield, Henrik Carl Schønheyder, Henrik Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: To examine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with late diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM). METHODS: We conducted a chart review of all adults with proven CABM in three centres in Denmark from 1998 through 2014. Patients were categorised as 1) early diagnosis of CABM immediately on admission or 2) late diagnosis if CABM was not listed in referral or admission records and neither lumbar puncture nor antibiotic therapy for meningitis was considered immediately on admission...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648390/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-unusual-manifestations-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#3
Adrian Sousa, Maria Teresa Pérez-Rodríguez, Andrés Nodar, Lucía Martínez-Lamas, Francisco Jose Vasallo, Maximiliano Álvarez-Fernández, Manuel Crespo
INTRODUCTION: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) typically presents as bacterial pneumonia, meningitis or primary bacteraemia. However, Streptococcus pneumoniae can produce infection at any level of the body (endocarditis, arthritis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc.), which is also known as unusual IPD (uIPD). There are very limited data available about the clinical and microbiological profile of these uncommon manifestations of pneumococcal disease. Our aim was to analyse clinical forms, microbiological profile, epidemiology and prognosis of a cohort of patients with unusual invasive pneumococcal disease (uIPD)...
June 22, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646959/is-chickenpox-so-bad-what-do-we-know-about-immunity-to-varicella-zoster-virus-and-what-does-it-tell-us-about-the-future
#4
Anne A Gershon
Varicella and zoster continue to cause significant morbidity and even mortality in children and adults. Complications include bacterial superinfection, central nervous system manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia, and pain syndromes especially post herpetic neuralgia. Many developed countries but not all, are now administering live attenuated varicella vaccine routinely, with a decrease in the incidence of disease, providing personal and herd immunity. There is some controversy, however, in some countries concerning whether a decrease in the circulation of wild type virus will result in loss of immunity to VZV in persons who have already had varicella...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645926/nasopharyngeal-glial-heterotopia-with-delayed-postoperative-meningitis
#5
Kenichi Maeda, Kenji Furuno, Pin Fee Chong, Takato Morioka
A male infant, who underwent radical resection of a large glial heterotopia at the nasopharynx at 8 days, developed delayed postoperative bacterial meningitis at 9 months. Neuroradiological examination clearly demonstrated that meningitis had occurred because of the intracranial and extracranial connections, which were scarcely seen in the perioperative period. A transsphenoidal extension of hypothalamic hamartoma is possible because the connection started from the right optic nerve, running through the transsphenoidal canal in the sphenoid bone and terminating at the recurrent mass in the nasopharyngeal region...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#6
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633281/the-sweet-side-of-the-pathogenic-neisseria-the-role-of-glycan-interactions-in-colonisation-and-disease
#7
Tsitsi D Mubaiwa, Evgeny A Semchenko, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Glycomics is a rapidly growing field that focuses on the structure and function of carbohydrates (glycans) in biological systems. Glycan interactions play a major role in infectious disease, at all stages of colonisation and disease progression. Neisseria meningitidis, the cause of meningococcal sepsis and meningitis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. N. meningitidis displays a range of surface glycosylations including capsule polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide and O-linked glycoproteins...
June 13, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627004/utility-of-the-urine-reagent-strip-leukocyte-esterase-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-resource-limited-settings-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
William Bortcosh, Mark Siedner, Ryan W Carroll
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis often requires cytometry, chemistry, and/or microbiologic culture capabilities. Unfortunately, laboratory resources in low resource settings (LRS) often lack the capacity to perform these studies. We sought to determine whether the presence of white blood cells in CSF detected by commercially available urine reagent strips could aid in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We searched PubMed for studies published between 1980 - 2016 that investigated the use of urine reagent strips to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis...
June 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622857/streptococcus-suis-serotype-9-strain-gz0565-contains-a-type-vii-secretion-system-putative-substrate-esxa-that-contributes-to-bacterial-virulence-and-a-vanz-like-gene-that-confers-resistance-to-teicoplanin-and-dalbavancin-in-streptococcus-agalactiae
#9
Liying Lai, Jiao Dai, Huanyu Tang, Shouming Zhang, Chunyan Wu, Wancen Qiu, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao, Hongjie Fan, Zongfu Wu
Streptococcus suis (SS), an important pathogen for pigs, is not only considered as a zoonotic agent for humans, but is also recognized as a major reservoir of antimicrobial resistance contributing to the spread of resistance genes to other pathogenic Streptococcus species. In addition to serotype 2 (SS2), serotype 9 (SS9) is another prevalent serotype isolated from diseased pigs. Although many SS strains have been sequenced, the complete genome of a non-SS2 virulent strain has been unavailable to date. Here, we report the complete genome of GZ0565, a virulent strain of SS9, isolated from a pig with meningitis...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616745/bacterial-meningitis-complicating-the-course-of-liver-cirrhosis
#10
Pasquale Pagliano, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Silvano Esposito
Meningitis is rarely reported in studies investigating bacterial infections in patients affected by liver cirrhosis. We investigated the findings of bacterial meningitis in patients affected by liver cirrhosis referred to our department in a 16-year period. MATERIALS: Patients with cirrhosis and bacterial meningitis were enrolled. Cirrhosis was defined by liver histology or clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic and endoscopic findings. Bacterial meningitis was defined by cerebro-spinal fluid pleocytosis (>10/mcl) and characteristic clinical presentation...
June 14, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614982/intraventricular-administration-of-tigecycline-for-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-bacterial-meningitis-after-craniotomy-a-case-report
#11
Yuanxing Wu, Kai Chen, Jingwei Zhao, Qiang Wang, Jianxin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Intracranial infections, especially multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial meningitis, are one of the most severe complications after craniotomy and may greatly impact patient outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of severe MDR Klebsiella pneumonia meningitis after craniotomy that was treated with three different dosages of tigecycline (Pfizer, New York, NY, U.S.A.)via a combined intravenous (IV) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600447/the-epidemiology-management-and-outcomes-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-infants
#12
Lynda Ouchenir, Christian Renaud, Sarah Khan, Ari Bitnun, Andree-Anne Boisvert, Jane McDonald, Jennifer Bowes, Jason Brophy, Michelle Barton, Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts, Michael Hawkes, Joan L Robinson
OBJECTIVES: The pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis in infants and their antimicrobial susceptibilities may have changed in this era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, use of conjugated vaccines, and maternal antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus (GBS). The objective was to determine the optimal empirical antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in early infancy. METHODS: This was a cohort study of infants <90 days of age with bacterial meningitis at 7 pediatric tertiary care hospitals across Canada in 2013 and 2014...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592578/bacterial-meningitis-in-finland-1995-2014-a-population-based-observational-study
#13
Aleksandra Polkowska, Maija Toropainen, Jukka Ollgren, Outi Lyytikäinen, J Pekka Nuorti
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial meningitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its epidemiological characteristics, however, are changing due to new vaccines and secular trends. Conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae (10-valent) were introduced in 1986 and 2010 in Finland. We assessed the disease burden and long-term trends of five common causes of bacterial meningitis in a population-based observational study. METHODS: A case was defined as isolation of S...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592301/pneumococcal-meningitis-with-normal-cerebrospinal-biochemistry-and-no-pneumococci-at-microscopy-mimicking-a-stroke-a-case-report
#14
Gideon Ertner, Jeppe Romme Christensen, Christian T Brandt
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis commonly presents with symptoms such as headache, impaired consciousness, neck stiffness, and fever. In most cases, cerebrospinal fluid analysis will yield white cell counts >100/mm(3). Atypical presentations occur, especially in the very young or very elderly and the immunocompromised. We report an unusual case of pneumococcal meningitis in a healthy 78-year-old Danish woman who presented with clinical features mimicking a stroke with normal cerebrospinal fluid parameters and without microscopic evidence of bacteria...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587514/pre-hospital-oily-chloramphenicol-treatment-in-meningitis-outbreaks-in-low-resources-environments
#15
Enrico Rino Bregani, Matilde Conti, Caterina Valcarenghi
Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of death and disability in sub-Saharan Africa and, with pre-treatment in peripheral health centres, the poorest populations could avoid early death, especially if they live far from hospital. During the 2001 meningitis epidemic in south Chad, Moyen Chari sanitary district peripheral health centres were equipped with oily chloramphenicol (CAP) to administer before hospital referral in suspected cases of meningitis. Eighty-six patients treated with CAP in whom the diagnosis was definitively confirmed subsequently in hospital were compared with patients receiving CAP at hospital admission during the same period...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583583/temporal-changes-of-oxidative-stress-markers-in-escherichia-coli-k1-induced-experimental-meningitis-in-a-neonatal-rat-model
#16
Vijayasree V Giridharan, Lutiana R Simões, Valdemira S Dagostin, Jaqueline S Generoso, Gislaine T Rezin, Drielly Florentino, Jhonata P Muniz, Allan Collodel, Fabricia Petronilho, Joao Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello
Despite advances in antimicrobial therapy and advanced critical care neonatal bacterial meningitis has a mortality rate of over 10% and induces neurological sequelae in 20-50% of cases. Escherichia coli K1 (E. coli K1) is the most common gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis and is the second most common cause behind group B streptococcus. We previously reported that an E. coli K1 experimental meningitis infection in neonatal rats resulted in habituation and aversive memory impairment and a significant increase in cytokine levels in adulthood...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570459/alar-pinning-in-rigid-external-distraction-for-midfacial-hypoplasia
#17
Jenny L Yu, Albert S Woo
BACKGROUND: Distraction osteogenesis with a rigid external distractor is a widely accepted treatment for midfacial hypoplasia. In this study, the authors introduce the utilization of alar pinning with the external halo distractor for maxillary advancement, in place of an oral splint. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 7 patients who successfully underwent distraction osteogenesis using the alar pinning technique. Midfacial hypoplasia was secondary to Crouzon syndrome (n = 4), Apert syndrome (n = 1), Pfeiffer syndrome (n = 1), or bacterial meningitis (n = 1)...
May 31, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569760/strength-of-neisseria-meningitidis-binding-to-endothelial-cells-requires-highly-ordered-cd147-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-clusters-assembled-by-alpha-actinin-4
#18
Nawal Maïssa, Valentina Covarelli, Sébastien Janel, Beatrice Durel, Nandi Simpson, Sandra C Bernard, Liliana Pardo-Lopez, Haniaa Bouzinba-Ségard, Camille Faure, Mark G H Scott, Mathieu Coureuil, Philippe C Morand, Frank Lafont, Xavier Nassif, Stefano Marullo, Sandrine Bourdoulous
Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) is an invasive bacterial pathogen that colonizes human vessels, causing thrombotic lesions and meningitis. Establishment of tight interactions with endothelial cells is crucial for meningococci to resist haemodynamic forces. Two endothelial receptors, CD147 and the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), are sequentially engaged by meningococci to adhere and promote signalling events leading to vascular colonization, but their spatiotemporal coordination is unknown. Here we report that CD147 and β2AR form constitutive hetero-oligomeric complexes...
June 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569141/disease-burden-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-invasive-group-b-streptococcus-among-infants-in-china-a-protocol-for-a-national-prospective-observational-study
#19
Wenjing Ji, Haiying Liu, Zhengjiang Jin, Aimin Wang, Xiaoping Mu, Xiaosong Qin, Weidong Wang, Chunyan Gao, Yuning Zhu, Xiaodan Feng, Jine Lei, Shangyang She, Lan Jiang, Jing Liu, Shuhua Yang, Zeshi Liu, Gang Li, Qiuhong Li, Dawen Guo, Muhammad Majid Aziz, Ali Hassan Gillani, Yu Fang
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis that can lead to neurological sequelae in infants less than 3 months of age. The GBS disease burden is not known in China, therefore it cannot receive major attention. The main objectives of this study are the evaluation of the incidence of neonatal GBS infection, GBS case-fatality ratio, its serotypes and genotypes, bacterial resistance, clinical treatment and outcomes in China. METHODS: We are conducting a nation-wide, population-based, multi-center, prospective, observational cohort study in China from May 2016 to December 2017...
May 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557739/epidemiology-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-cultures-and-time-to-detection-in-term-infants
#20
Rianna Leazer, Natasha Erickson, James Paulson, Ronen Zipkin, Monica Stemmle, Alan R Schroeder, Michael Bendel-Stenzel, Bryan R Fine
BACKGROUND: Although meningitis is rare in previously healthy term infants, lumbar puncture is often performed to evaluate for source of illness. This study was performed to determine the time to detection for positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and to provide an update on the current epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in term infants. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, retrospective review of positive CSF cultures in infants ≤90 days of age. Specimens were drawn in the emergency department or inpatient setting between January 2000 and December 2013...
May 2017: Pediatrics
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