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Bacterial meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430673/antimicrobial-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-prevalence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#1
Regine Cherazard, Marcia Epstein, Thien-Ly Doan, Tanzila Salim, Sheena Bharti, Miriam A Smith
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications in S. pneumoniae resistance. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Since S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was first reported with subsequent development of resistance to other classes of drugs, selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is challenging...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425045/soluble-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cell-1-strem-1-a-potential-biomarker-for-the-diagnosis-of-infectious-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Changlin Cao, Jingxian Gu, Jingyao Zhang
Sensitive and useful biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of infectious diseases have been widely developed. An example of these biomarkers is triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 (TREM-1), which is a cell surface receptor expressed on monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils. TREM-1 amplifies inflammation by activating the TREM-1/DAP12 pathway. This pathway is triggered by the interaction of TREM-1 with ligands or stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Consequently, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are secreted...
April 19, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423169/innate-immune-response-to-lipooligosaccharide-pivotal-regulator-of-the-pathobiology-of-invasive-neisseria-meningitidis-infections
#3
Constance M John, Nancy J Phillips, Daniel C Stein, Gary A Jarvis
Infections due to Neisseria meningitidis afflict more than one million people worldwide annually and cause death or disability in many survivors. The clinical course of invasive infections has been well studied, but our understanding of the cause of differences in patient outcomes has been limited because these are dependent on multiple factors including the response of the host, characteristics of the bacteria and interactions between the host and the bacteria. The meningococcus is a highly inflammatory organism, and the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) on the outer membrane is the most potent inflammatory molecule it expresses due to the interactions of the lipid A moiety of LOS with receptors of the innate immune system...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420932/sporadic-actinomycosis-of-the-hip-complicated-by-central-nervous-system-infection
#4
Mohammad Aamer Saleem, Zain Ul Abideen, Iram Shakir Kiani, Anum Yousaf, Amna Rasheed, Raja Wajid Shabbir
Actinomycosis is caused by the Gram positive filamentous Actinomyces bacterial species that are normal commensals of the oral cavity. Due to their low virulence, disease is rare in the immune competent patient. Although it may afflict any system in the body, involvement of the musculoskeletal system is uncommon. Here in, we describe the case of a 60 year old lady presenting with low grade fever, left hip pain and drowsiness. She was diagnosed as left hip actinomycosis on Computed tomogram (CT) guided biopsy and histopathological analysis of infiltrative lesions identified on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)...
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419853/listeria-monocytogenes-meningitis-in-the-netherlands-1985-2014-a-nationwide-surveillance-study
#5
Merel M Koopmans, Merijn W Bijlsma, Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek, Arie van der Ende
OBJECTIVES: Listeria monocytogenes can cause sepsis and meningitis. We report national surveillance data on L. monocytogenes meningitis in the Netherlands, describing incidence changes, genetic epidemiology and fatality rate. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Netherlands Reference Laboratory of Bacterial Meningitis for cases of L.monocytogenes meningitis. Strains were assessed by serotyping and bacterial population structure by multi-locus sequence typing. RESULTS: A total of 375 cases of Listeria meningitis were identified between 1985 and 2014...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419350/epidemiology-of-meningitis-and-encephalitis-in-the-united-states-from-2011-2014
#6
Rodrigo Hasbun, Ning Rosenthal, J M Balada-Llasat, Jessica Chung, Steve Duff, Samuel Bozzette, Louise Zimmer, Christine C Ginocchio
Background: Large epidemiological studies evaluating the etiologies, management decisions and outcomes of adults with meningitis and encephalitis in the United States (US) are lacking. Methods: Adult patients (≥18 years) with meningitis or encephalitis by ICD-9 codes available in the Premier Healthcare Database during 2011-2014 were analyzed. Results: A total of 26,429 patients with meningitis or encephalitis were identified. The median age was 43 years; 53% were female...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419005/clinical-utility-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-pediatric-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study-of-more-than-2000-samples-from-2004-2015
#7
Abdullah Alqayoudhi, Maryke Nielsen, Nicola O'Sullivan, Mary Corcoran, Patrick J Gavin, Karina M Butler, Robert Cunney, Richard J Drew
The aim of this retrospective study was to review the diagnostic accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in comparison with traditional bacterial culture. The hypothesis was that PCR is more sensitive than culture and would detect more cases of pneumococcal meningitis, particularly in children treated with antimicrobials before CSF sampling occurred. Patients younger than 16 years who had a CSF sample tested for S.pneumoniae DNA by PCR between 2004 and 2015 were included...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409125/colibactin-contributes-to-the-hypervirulence-of-pks-k1-cc23-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-mouse-meningitis-infections
#8
Min-Chi Lu, Ying-Tsong Chen, Ming-Ko Chiang, Yao-Chen Wang, Pei-Yi Hsiao, Yi-Jhen Huang, Ching-Ting Lin, Ching-Chang Cheng, Chih-Lung Liang, Yi-Chyi Lai
Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common pathogen of community-acquired meningitis in Taiwan. However, the lack of a physiologically relevant meningitis model for K. pneumoniae has impeded research into its pathogenesis mechanism. Based on the core genome MLST analyses, the hypervirulent K1 K. pneumoniae strains, which are etiologically implicated in adult meningitis, mostly belong to a single clonal complex, CC23. Some K1 CC23 K. pneumoniae strains carry a gene cluster responsible for colibactin production...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407706/gas-containing-cervical-epidural-abscess-accompanying-bacterial-meningitis-in-an-adult
#9
Dong Min Kim, Seok Won Kim
Gas-containing spinal epidural abscesses are uncommon. Moreover, acute spinal epidural abscesses rarely complicate bacterial meningitis in adults. Here, we report a rare case of a gas-containing cervical epidural abscess accompanying bacterial meningitis. In spite of aggressive fluid and continuous antibiotic therapy after the isolation of Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus constellatus in the cerebrospinal fluid cultures, the patient showed remaining motor dysfunction and bladder involvement. Our experience suggests that the effort to prevent neurologic deterioration by emergent surgical decompression and drainage of pus is mandatory to avoid additional spinal cord dysfunction in patients with spinal epidural abscesses accompanying bacterial meningitis...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402705/interaction-of-factor-h-binding-protein-of-streptococcus-suis-with-globotriaosylceramide-promotes-the-development-of-meningitis
#10
Decong Kong, Zhe Chen, Junping Wang, Qingyu Lv, Hua Jiang, Yuling Zheng, Maokai Xu, Xuyu Zhou, Huaijie Hao, Yongqiang Jiang
Streptococcus suis is an important emerging zoonotic agent that causes acute bacterial meningitis in humans with high mortality and morbidity. Our previous work showed that factor H-binding protein (Fhb) contributed to virulence of S. suis, but the role of Fhb in the development of S. suis meningitis remained unclear. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that Fhb contributed to the traversal of S. suis across the human blood-brain barrier by allelic-exchange mutagenesis, complementation and specific antibody blocking studies...
April 12, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399052/a-comparison-of-hospital-versus-outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy-at-home-for-pyelonephritis-and-meningitis
#11
Conor C Hensey, Arun Sett, Tom G Connell, Penelope A Bryant
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of home treatment with outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT), children with pyelonephritis and meningitis are rarely included. We aimed to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes between hospital and home treatment for these conditions, and to identify factors influencing home treatment. METHODS: Children admitted to the hospital with pyelonephritis or proven and presumed bacterial meningitis from 1/1/2012-31/12/2013 were identified retrospectively...
April 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397477/real-time-pcr-detection-of-the-most-common-bacteria-and-viruses-causing-meningitis
#12
Oya Akkaya, Hulya Iren Guvenc, Serife Yuksekkaya, Aysegul Opus, Asuman Guzelant, Meral Kaya, Muhammet Guzel Kurtoglu, Nurettin Kaya
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections require prompt diagnosis, as the clinical condition progresses rapidly and may lead to severe permanent sequelae or death. The causative agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study, samples with the diagnosis of CNS infection based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sent to us from other hospitals/labs, were studied by multiplex real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate, retrospectively, the most common bacteria and viruses causing meningitis and seasonal distribution of these agents using the multiplex real-time PCR method in CSF samples...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393582/insights-into-the-human-brain-proteome-disclosing-the-biological-meaning-of-protein-networks-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#13
Paulo Bastos, Rita Ferreira, Bruno Manadas, Paula I Moreira, Rui Vitorino
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an excellent source of biological information regarding the nervous system, once it is in close contact and accurately reflects alterations in this system. Several studies have analyzed differential protein profiles of CSF samples between healthy and diseased human subjects. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms and how CSF proteins relate to diseases are still poorly known. By applying bioinformatics tools, we attempted to provide new insights on the biological and functional meaning of proteomics data envisioning the identification of putative disease biomarkers...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392538/listeria-monocytogenes-meningitis-complicating-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#14
Takuma Ohnishi, Akiko Kawano, Mayumi Araki, Yuko Hamahata, Machiko Usui, Motoko Shimoyamada, Takuya Tamame, Masayuki Akashi, Seiji Sato
Listeria monocytogenes only occasionally causes bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent children. We report a case of L. monocytogenes meningitis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. The patient was a previously healthy 20-month-old girl who was admitted because of sustained fever and lethargy after suffering from gastroenteritis for 6 days. The patient's peripheral white blood cell count was 18,600/µL and the C-reactive protein level was 2.44 mg/dL. A stool sample tested positive for rotavirus antigen...
April 7, 2017: Keio Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392319/diagnostic-accuracy-of-routine-blood-examinations-and-csf-lactate-level-for-post-neurosurgical-bacterial-meningitis
#15
Yang Zhang, Xiong Xiao, Junting Zhang, Zhixian Gao, Nan Ji, Liwei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) lactate level for Post-neurosurgical Bacterial Meningitis (PBM) at a large sample-size post-neurosurgical patients. METHODS: The diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level to distinguish between PAM and PBM were evaluated with the values of the Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC-ROC) by retrospectively analyzing the datasets of post-neurosurgical patients in the clinical information databases...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390400/a-comparative-study-do-clickers-increase-student-engagement-in-multidisciplinary-clinical-microbiology-teaching
#16
Niall T Stevens, Hélène McDermott, Fiona Boland, Teresa Pawlikowska, Hilary Humphreys
BACKGROUND: Audience response devices, or "clickers", have been used in the education of future healthcare professionals for several years with varying success. They have been reported to improve the learning experience by promoting engagement and knowledge retention. In 2014, our department evaluated the use of "clickers" in a newly introduced multidisciplinary approach to teaching large groups of third year medical students clinical cases developed around a microbiology theme. METHODS: Six multidisciplinary teaching sessions covering community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, infective endocarditis, peritonitis, bloodstream infection with pyelonephritis and bacterial meningitis were included in the study...
April 8, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385844/draft-genome-sequences-of-six-strains-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-from-serotypes-5-6a-6b-18c-19a-and-23f
#17
Hedvig E Jakobsson, Francisco Salvà-Serra, Kaisa Thorell, Roger Karlsson, Lucia Gonzales-Silès, Fredrik Boulund, Lars Engstrand, Erik Kristiansson, Edward R B Moore
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogenic bacterium found most commonly in the respiratory tract of humans and is a common cause of pneumonia and bacterial meningitis. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of six S. pneumoniae strains: CCUG 1350, CCUG 7206, CCUG 11780, CCUG 33774, CCUG 35180, and CCUG 35272.
April 6, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382572/current-clinical-trials-on-the-use-of-ceftaroline-in-the-pediatric-population
#18
REVIEW
Adam Corey, Tsz-Yin So
The rate of antibiotic resistance in children continues to rise requiring the use of new antibiotics. Ceftaroline fosamil, a newer-generation cephalosporin, was recently approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in children aged >2 months. Ceftaroline provides coverage against staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382026/interstrain-cooperation-in-meningococcal-biofilms-role-of-autotransporters-nalp-and-auta
#19
Jesús Pérez-Ortega, Antonio Rodríguez, Eduardo Ribes, Jan Tommassen, Jesús Arenas
Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) and Neisseria lactamica (Nl) are commensal bacteria that live in the human nasopharynx, where they form microcolonies. In contrast to Nl, Nm occasionally causes blood and/or meningitis infection with often fatal consequences. Here, we studied interactions between neisserial strains during biofilm formation. Fluorescent strains were engineered and analyzed for growth in single- and dual-strain biofilms with confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Different strains of diverse Neisseria species formed microcolonies of different sizes and morphologies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353449/influence-of-socio-economic-inequality-measured-by-the-gini-coefficient-on-meningitis-incidence-caused-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-haemophilus-influenzae-in-colombia-2008-2011
#20
Wilmer F Acevedo-Mendoza, Diana Paola Buitrago Gómez, Miguel Ángel Atehortua-Otero, Miguel Ángel Páez, Manuela Jiménez-Rincón, Guillermo J Lagos-Grisales, Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales
Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of infectious neurological morbidity and mortality. Its incidence has decreased with the introduction of vaccination programmes against preventable agents. However, low-income and middle-income countries with poor access to health care still have a significant burden of the disease. Thus, the relationship between the Gini coefficient and H. influenzae and M. tuberculosis meningitis incidence in Colombia, during 2008-2011, was assessed. In this ecological study, the Gini coefficient was obtained from the Colombian Department of Statistics, incidence rates were calculated (cases/1,000,000 pop) and linear regressions were performed using the Gini coefficient, to assess the relationship between the latter and the incidence of meningitis...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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