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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543440/chronic-sleep-restriction-disrupts-interendothelial-junctions-in-the-hippocampus-and-increases-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#1
G Hurtado-Alvarado, J Velázquez-Moctezuma, B Gómez-González
Chronic sleep loss in the rat increases blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue and FITC-dextrans in almost the whole brain and sleep recovery during short periods restores normal blood-brain barrier permeability. Sleep loss increases vesicle density in hippocampal endothelial cells and decreases tight junction protein expression. However, at the ultrastructural level the effect of chronic sleep loss on interendothelial junctions is unknown. In this study we characterised the ultrastructure of interendothelial junctions in the hippocampus, the expression of tight junction proteins, and quantified blood-brain barrier permeability to fluorescein-sodium after chronic sleep restriction...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543437/the-adenoid-its-history-and-a-cautionary-tale
#2
Robert J Ruben
The existence of the adenoid first appears to have been noted by Conrad Victor Schneider in 1661. James Yearsley reported in 1842 one case in which he improved hearing by removal of a mucus membrane from behind the uvula, which indicates some appreciation of a relationship of the nasopharynx to ear disease. Hans Wilhelm Meyer, in 1868, was the first to demonstrate the relationship of the adenoid to ear disease and to develop an effective, although somewhat difficult, surgical operation to remove the adenoid...
June 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541527/sleep-dependent-modulation-of-metabolic-rate-in-drosophila
#3
Bethany A Stahl, Melissa E Slocumb, Hersh Chaitin, Justin R Diangelo, Alex C Keene
Dysregulation of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases, and metabolic rate is acutely regulated by sleep-wake behavior. In humans and rodent models, sleep loss is associated with obesity, reduced metabolic rate, and negative energy balance, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms governing interactions between sleep and metabolism. We have developed a system to simultaneously measure sleep and metabolic rate in individual Drosophila, allowing for interrogation of neural systems governing interactions between sleep and metabolic rate...
May 25, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541519/reduced-sleep-during-social-isolation-leads-to-cellular-stress-and-induction-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-upr
#4
Marishka K Brown, Ewa Strus, Nirinjini Naidoo
Study Objectives: Social isolation has a multitude of negative consequences on human health including the ability to endure challenges to the immune system, sleep amount and efficiency, and general morbidity and mortality. These adverse health outcomes are conserved in other social species. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, social isolation leads to increased aggression, impaired memory and reduced amounts of daytime sleep. There is a correlation between molecules affected by social isolation and those implicated in sleep in Drosophila...
May 25, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539349/sleep-loss-promotes-astrocytic-phagocytosis-and-microglial-activation-in-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#5
Michele Bellesi, Luisa de Vivo, Mattia Chini, Francesca Gilli, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
We previously found that Mertk and its ligand Gas6, astrocytic genes involved in phagocytosis, are upregulated after acute sleep deprivation. These results suggested that astrocytes may engage in phagocytic activity during extended wake, but direct evidence was lacking. Studies in humans and rodents also found that sleep loss increases peripheral markers of inflammation, but whether these changes are associated with neuroinflammation and/or activation of microglia, the brain's resident innate immune cells, was unknown...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537332/comparison-of-intermittent-fasting-versus-caloric-restriction-in-obese-subjects-a-two-year-follow-up
#6
F B Aksungar, M Sarıkaya, A Coskun, M Serteser, I Unsal
OBJECTIVE: Caloric restriction (CR) is proven to be effective in increasing life span and it is well known that, nutritional habits, sleeping pattern and meal frequency have profound effects on human health. In Ramadan some Muslims fast during the day-light hours for a month, providing us a unique model of intermittent fasting (IF) in humans. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of IF versus CR on the same non-diabetic obese subjects who were followed for two years according to the growth hormone (GH)/Insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin resistance...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533625/beneficial-effect-of-interventional-exercise-on-autistic-fragile-x-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Seunghoon Lee, Jinyoung Won, Sookyoung Park, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Joo-Heon Kim, Yonggeun Hong
[Purpose] The purpose of the present review is to discuss recent published articles in the understanding of efficacy of interventional exercise on autistic Fragile X syndrome (FXS) with special emphasis on its significance in clinical application in patients. [Methods] This review article was identified scientifically and/or clinically relevant articles from PubMed that directly/indirectly met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Mutation of fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene on the X chromosome is related with loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) that affecting physiological and behavioral abnormalities...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533143/drugs-in-space-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-astronauts
#8
Johannes Kast, Yichao Yu, Christoph N Seubert, Virginia E Wotring, Hartmut Derendorf
Space agencies are working intensely to push the current boundaries of human spaceflight by sending astronauts deeper into space than ever before, including missions to Mars and asteroids. Spaceflight alters human physiology due to fluid shifts, muscle and bone loss, immune system dysregulation, and changes in the gastrointestinal tract and metabolic enzymes. These alterations may change the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of medications used by astronauts and subsequently might impact drug efficacy and safety...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529878/neuroimaging-in-pre-motor-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Thomas R Barber, Johannes C Klein, Clare E Mackay, Michele T M Hu
The process of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease begins long before the onset of clinical motor symptoms, resulting in substantial cell loss by the time a diagnosis can be made. The period between the onset of neurodegeneration and the development of motoric disease would be the ideal time to intervene with disease modifying therapies. This pre-motor phase can last many years, but the lack of a specific clinical phenotype means that objective biomarkers are needed to reliably detect prodromal disease...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525634/association-between-weekend-catch-up-sleep-and-lower-body-mass-population-based-study-weekend-catch-up-sleep-and-body-mass-index
#10
Hee-Jin Im, Shin-Hye Baek, Min Kyung Chu, Kwang Ik Yang, Won-Joo Kim, Seong-Ho Park, Robert J Thomas, Chang-Ho Yun
Study Objectives: To determine if weekend catch-up sleep (CUS) impacts body mass index (BMI) in the general population. Methods: A stratified random sample (2,156 subjects; age 19-82 years old, 43.0±14.5; 1,183 male) from the general population was evaluated, in 2010, using face-to-face interviews about sociodemographic characteristics, height, weight, habitual sleep duration and time-in-bed at night on weekdays and weekend, sleep-related profiles, mood and anxiety scales, and comorbid-medical conditions...
May 19, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525629/the-association-of-perceived-memory-loss-with-osteoarthritis-and-related-joint-pain-in-a-large-appalachian-population
#11
Kim E Innes, Usha Sambamoorthi
Objective. : Previous studies have documented memory impairment in several chronic pain syndromes. However, the potential link between memory loss and osteoarthritis (OA), the second most common cause of chronic pain, remains little explored. In this cross-sectional study, we examine the association of perceived memory loss to OA and assess the potential mediating influence of sleep and mood disturbance in a large Appalachian population. Design.:  Cross-sectional...
May 19, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522097/sleep-spindle-density-in-narcolepsy
#12
Julie Anja Engelhard Christensen, Miki Nikolic, Mathias Hvidtfelt, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). METHODS: All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522090/hearing-loss-mediates-executive-function-impairment-in-sleep-disordered-breathing
#13
Catherine M Hill, Romola S Bucks, Colin R Kennedy, Dawn Harrison, Annette Carroll, Nicolas Upton, Alexandra M Hogan
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is often co-morbid with conductive hearing loss in early childhood due to a shared aetiology of adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Hearing loss is independently associated with impairment of executive function and behavioural difficulties. We hypothesised that these impairments in children with SDB may be mediated through hearing loss. METHODS: Fifty-eight children including 37 snorers awaiting adenotonsillectomy and 21 healthy non-snoring controls, aged 3-5 years, were assessed with pure tone audiometry, Strengths and Difficulties (SDQ), Behaviour Rating of Executive Function (BRIEF-P), and Childhood Middle Ear Disease and Hearing questionnaires...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515433/the-sleep-deprived-human-brain
#14
REVIEW
Adam J Krause, Eti Ben Simon, Bryce A Mander, Stephanie M Greer, Jared M Saletin, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Matthew P Walker
How does a lack of sleep affect our brains? In contrast to the benefits of sleep, frameworks exploring the impact of sleep loss are relatively lacking. Importantly, the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) do not simply reflect the absence of sleep and the benefits attributed to it; rather, they reflect the consequences of several additional factors, including extended wakefulness. With a focus on neuroimaging studies, we review the consequences of SD on attention and working memory, positive and negative emotion, and hippocampal learning...
May 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513320/crispr-cas9-based-pten-knock-out-and-sleeping-beauty-transposon-mediated-nras-knock-in-induces-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-mice
#15
Mingming Gao, Dexi Liu
Both Pten and Nras are downstream mediators of receptor tyrosine kinase activation that plays important roles in controlling cell survival and proliferation. Here, we investigated whether and how Pten loss cross-talks with Nras activation in driving liver cancer development in mice. Somatic disruption of hepatic Pten and overexpression of Nras were achieved in out-bred immunocompetent CD-1 mice through a hydrodynamic delivery of plasmids carrying Sleeping Beauty transposon-based integration of Nras and the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Pten knock-out system...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513079/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-other-synucleinopathies
#16
REVIEW
Erik K St Louis, Angelica R Boeve, Bradley F Boeve
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by dream enactment and complex motor behaviors during rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep atonia loss (rapid eye movement sleep without atonia) during polysomnography. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder may be idiopathic or symptomatic and in both settings is highly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration, especially Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure...
May 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511597/understanding-sleep-wake-mechanisms-and-drug-discovery
#17
Ana Clementina Equihua-Benítez, Khalil Guzmán-Vásquez, René Drucker-Colín
Although not discernible at first glance, sleep is a highly active and regulated brain state. Although we spend practically one third of our lifetimes in this stage, its importance is often taken for granted. Sleep loss can lead to disease, error and economic loss. Our understanding of how sleep is achieved has greatly advanced in recent years, and with that, the management of sleep disorders has improved. Nevertheless, there is still room for improvement and recently many new compounds have reached clinical trials with a few being approved for commercial use...
May 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507129/nonpeptide-orexin-type-2-receptor-agonist-ameliorates-narcolepsy-cataplexy-symptoms-in-mouse-models
#18
Yoko Irukayama-Tomobe, Yasuhiro Ogawa, Hiromu Tominaga, Yukiko Ishikawa, Naoto Hosokawa, Shinobu Ambai, Yuki Kawabe, Shuntaro Uchida, Ryo Nakajima, Tsuyoshi Saitoh, Takeshi Kanda, Kaspar Vogt, Takeshi Sakurai, Hiroshi Nagase, Masashi Yanagisawa
Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a debilitating disorder of sleep/wakefulness caused by a loss of orexin-producing neurons in the lateroposterior hypothalamus. Genetic or pharmacologic orexin replacement ameliorates symptoms in mouse models of narcolepsy-cataplexy. We have recently discovered a potent, nonpeptide OX2R-selective agonist, YNT-185. This study validates the pharmacological activity of this compound in OX2R-transfected cells and in OX2R-expressing neurons in brain slice preparations. Intraperitoneal, and intracerebroventricular, administration of YNT-185 suppressed cataplexy-like episodes in orexin knockout and orexin neuron-ablated mice, but not in orexin receptor-deficient mice...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506620/bombesin-administration-impairs-memory-and-does-not-reverse-memory-deficit-caused-by-sleep-deprivation
#19
L B T Ferreira, S L B Oliveira, J Raya, L A Esumi, D C Hipolide
Sleep deprivation impairs performance in emotional memory tasks, however this effect on memory is not completely understood. Possible mechanisms may involve an alteration in neurotransmission systems, as shown by the fact that many drugs that modulate neural pathways can prevent memory impairment by sleep loss. Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that emerged as a regulatory molecule of emotional memory through the modulation of other neurotransmission systems. Thus, the present study addressed the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of bombesin (BB) (2...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506144/hypnosis-for-symptom-control-in-cancer-patients-at-the-end-of-life-a-systematic-review
#20
Guy H Montgomery, Madalina Sucala, Tessa Baum, Julie B Schnur
Hypnosis has been shown to alleviate symptoms and side effects of cancer and its treatment. However, less is known about the use of hypnosis at the end of life in individuals with cancer. Our goal was to systematically review the literature on the use of hypnosis to manage the most common symptoms of end-of-life cancer patients: fatigue, sleep disturbances, pain, appetite loss, and dyspnea. EMBASE, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, PsychINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched from inception through November 7, 2016. No studies met the inclusion criteria...
July 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
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