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sleep loss

Stefano Schiaffino, Bert Blaauw, Kenneth A Dyar
The circadian oscillations of muscle genes are controlled either directly by the intrinsic muscle clock or by extrinsic factors, such as feeding, hormonal signals, or neural influences, which are in turn regulated by the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. A unique feature of circadian rhythms in skeletal muscle is motor neuron-dependent contractile activity, which can affect the oscillation of a number of muscle genes independently of the muscle clock. The role of the intrinsic muscle clock has been investigated using different Bmal1 knockout (KO) models...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
Brice Faraut, Thomas Andrillon, Marie-Françoise Vecchierini, Damien Leger
Sleep specialists have proposed measures to counteract the negative short- and long-term consequences of sleep debt, and some have suggested the nap as a potential and powerful "public health tool". Here, we address this countermeasure aspect of napping viewed as an action against sleep deprivation rather than an action associated with poor health. We review the physiological functions that have been associated positively with napping in both public health and clinical settings (sleep-related accidents, work and school, and cardiovascular risk) and in laboratory-based studies with potential public health issues (cognitive performance, stress, immune function and pain sensitivity)...
September 13, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Lei Yang, Wei Xu, Chao-Ying Yan
OBJECTIVE: To study the background patterns and sleep-wake cycles (SWC) on amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in preterm infants with different grades of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH). METHODS: Fifty-six preterm infants with a gestational age between 25 and 33 weeks who were diagnosed with PIVH and 31 gestational age-matched normal preterm without ICH were enrolled. According to Papile staging criteria, the infants with PIVH were subdivided into mild group (grades I and II) and moderate-severe group (grades III and IV)...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Martin A Alpert, Jad Omran, Brian P Bostick
Obesity produces a variety of hemodynamic alterations that may cause changes in cardiac morphology which predispose to left and right ventricular dysfunction. Various neurohormonal and metabolic alterations commonly associated with obesity may contribute to these abnormalities of cardiac structure and function. These changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, cardiac morphology, and ventricular function may, in severely obese patients, predispose to heart failure, even in the absence of other forms of heart disease (obesity cardiomyopathy)...
October 15, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Idan Hecht, Asaf Achiron, Vitaly Man, Zvia Burgansky-Eliash
PURPOSE: Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy affecting millions of people worldwide and represents a major public health issue. Environmental factors, behaviors, and diet are intimately related to patient health and may play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. This study aims to review the literature, focusing on the last three years, regarding modifiable lifestyle interventions in the management of primary open angle glaucoma. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for studies published between January 2013 and July 2016 on the topic of lifestyle interventions in primary open angle glaucoma...
October 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Laura M J Fernandez, Jean-Christophe Comte, Pierre Le Merre, Jian-Sheng Lin, Paul-A Salin, Sylvain Crochet
Although low-frequency (LF < 10 Hz) activities have been considered as a hallmark of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, several studies have recently reported LF activities in the membrane potential of cortical neurons from different areas in awake mice. However, little is known about the spatiotemporal organization of LF activities across cortical areas during wakefulness and to what extent it differs during NREM sleep. We have thus investigated the dynamics of LF activities across cortical areas in awake and sleeping mice using chronic simultaneous local field potential recordings...
October 14, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Andrew Mccarthy, Sally Loomis, Brian Eastwood, Keith A Wafford, Raphaëlle Winsky-Sommerer, Gary Gilmour
While several methods have been used to restrict the sleep of experimental animals, it is often unclear whether these different forms of sleep restriction have comparable effects on sleep-wake architecture or functional capacity. The present study compared four models of sleep restriction, using enforced wakefulness by rotation of cylindrical home cages over 11 h in male Wistar rats. These included an electroencephalographic-driven 'Biofeedback' method and three non-invasive methods where rotation was triggered according to a 'Constant', 'Decreasing' or random protocol based upon the 'Weibull' distribution fit to an archival Biofeedback dataset...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
G Hurtado-Alvarado, E Domínguez-Salazar, L Pavon, J Velázquez-Moctezuma, B Gómez-González
Sleep is a vital phenomenon related to immunomodulation at the central and peripheral level. Sleep deficient in duration and/or quality is a common problem in the modern society and is considered a risk factor to develop neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep loss in rodents induces blood-brain barrier disruption and the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Several reports indicate that sleep loss induces a systemic low-grade inflammation characterized by the release of several molecules, such as cytokines, chemokines, and acute-phase proteins; all of them may promote changes in cellular components of the blood-brain barrier, particularly on brain endothelial cells...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Maria Jenelyn M Alviar, Tom Hale, Monalisa Dungca
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 12, 2011. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is pain that arises in the missing limb after amputation and can be severe, intractable, and disabling. Various medications have been studied in the treatment of phantom pain. There is currently uncertainty in the optimal pharmacologic management of PLP. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions in treating PLP...
October 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Arcady A Putilov, Olga G Donskaya, Evgeniy G Verevkin
One of the critical barriers to reducing the threats of sleep loss to public health, safety, and productivity is a lack of practical tools for quick identification of objective level of sleepiness. We examined a novel sleepiness measure named "spectral drowsy component score" to provide evidence for generalizability of a frequency weighting curve required for calculation of this measure. Each spectral drowsy component score is a sum of 16 weighted ln-transformed single-Hz power densities (1-16 Hz) obtained by the fast Fourier transformation of an electroencephalographic signal recorded during the first minute after closing the eyes...
October 11, 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Timothy D Nelson, Katherine M Kidwell, Maren Hankey, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Kimberly Andrews Espy
OBJECTIVE: Although numerous studies have documented the effects of sleep loss on executive control (EC) and related abilities, research examining the impact of early EC on subsequent sleep problems is lacking. Therefore, the current study reports on a longitudinal investigation of EC in preschool as a predictor of sleep-wake problems and daytime sleepiness in early adolescence. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 141 children (48.6% female) recruited from the community for a longitudinal study spanning preschool through early adolescence, with an oversampling for high sociodemographic risk (34...
October 11, 2016: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Emma Gibbons, Amanda Faith Casey, Keith Z Brewster
BACKGROUND: Rates of morbid obesity are higher for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Individuals with ID may find nutritional guidelines difficult to follow and many face personal and environmental barriers for physical activity. Bariatric surgery may reduce obesity related health comorbidities while promoting sustained weight loss in diverse populations. Yet no study has reviewed the feasibility of conducting bariatric surgery on individuals with ID. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a scoping review of literature on bariatric procedures performed on individuals with ID...
September 16, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Saeed Shoar, Alan A Saber
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare midterm and long-term weight loss and resolution of co-morbidity with laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). SUMMARY: LRYGB and LSG are the most common procedures performed in bariatric surgery. However, their weight loss efficacy in the midterm and long-term has not been well compared. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed by systematically identifying comparative studies conducted until the end of June 2016 that investigated weight loss outcome and resolution of co-morbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and obstructive sleep apnea) with LRYGB and LSG in the midterm (3-5 years) and long term (≥5 years)...
August 18, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Raouf Amin, Narong Simakajornboon, Rhonda Szczesniak, Thomas Inge
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated with obesity is known to improve after bariatric surgery, but little is known about early changes in this condition after surgery. OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical course of OSA after bariatric surgery SETTING: Children's hospital in the United States METHODS: Adolescents and young adults with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n = 6) or gastric bypass (n = 1) were enrolled in this prospective study...
May 30, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Andrea Lee, Rebecca M Gilbert
Parkinson disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative condition, causing both motor and non motor symptoms. Motor symptoms include stiffness, slowness, rest tremor and poor postural reflexes, whereas nonmotor symptoms include abnormalities of mood, cognition, sleep and autonomic function. Affected patients show cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein into intracellular structures called Lewy bodies, within specific brain regions. The main known non modifiable risk factor is age...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Qian Song, Ge Feng, Zehua Huang, Xiaoman Chen, Zhaohuan Chen, Yong Ping
Impaired sleep patterns are common symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cellular mechanisms underlying sleep disturbance in AD remain largely unknown. Here, using a Drosophila Aβ42 AD model, we show that Aβ42 markedly decreases sleep in a large population, which is accompanied with postdevelopmental axonal arborization of wake-promoting pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) neurons. The arborization is mediated in part via JNK activation and can be reversed by decreasing JNK signaling activity. Axonal arborization and impaired sleep are correlated in Aβ42 and JNK kinase hemipterous mutant flies...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
E N Barker, L J Dawson, J H Rose, S Van Meervenne, O Frykman, C Rohdin, A Leijon, K E Soerensen, J Järnegren, G C Johnson, D P O'Brien, N Granger
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by loss of neurons and are commonly associated with a genetic mutation. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical and histopathological features of a novel degenerative neurological disease affecting the brain of young adult Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers (NSDTRs). ANIMALS: Nine, young adult, related NSDTRs were evaluated for neurological dysfunction and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Linda S Chesterton, Krysia S Dziedzic, Danielle A van der Windt, Graham Davenport, Helen L Myers, Trishna Rathod, Milica Blagojevic-Bucknall, Sue M Jowet, Claire Burton, Edward Roddy, Elaine M Hay
BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with idiopathic mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are usually managed in primary care and commonly treated with night splints and/or corticosteroid injection. The comparative effectiveness of these interventions has not been reliably established nor investigated in the medium and long term. The primary objective of this trial is to investigate whether corticosteroid injection is effective in reducing symptoms and improving hand function in mild to moderate CTS over 6 weeks when compared with night splints...
October 6, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Yoko Komada, Raoul Breugelmans, Christopher L Drake, Shun Nakajima, Norihisa Tamura, Hideki Tanaka, Shigeru Inoue, Yuichi Inoue
The aim of this study was to elucidate the level of daytime sleepiness in Japanese school-aged children and adolescents, and to examine associated factors including sleep loss and social jetlag using the Japanese version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS-J). After the linguistic validation of the PDSS-J with a multi-step translation methodology, consisting of forward translation, back translation, expert review and cognitive debriefing interviews, we conducted a psychometric validation for 492 students aged 11-16 years (46...
August 12, 2016: Chronobiology International
Masoume Rambod, Farkhondeh Sharif, Zahra Molazem, Kate Khair
BACKGROUND: Pain, as a crucial subsequence of joint hemorrhages in hemophilia patients, is chronic, debilitating, and distracting. This study aimed to describe and interpret pain experiences of hemophilia patients in their lives. METHODS: This qualitative study with hermeneutic phenomenological approach was conducted on fourteen hemophilia patients who had been referred to a hemophilia center affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The study question was "what is the meaning of pain in hemophilia patients' lives? The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and field notes through purposeful sampling...
October 2016: International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery
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