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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647883/casper-computer-aided-segmentation-of-imperceptible-motion-a-learning-based-tracking-of-an-invisible-needle-in-ultrasound
#1
Parmida Beigi, Robert Rohling, Septimiu E Salcudean, Gary C Ng
PURPOSE: This paper presents a new micro-motion-based approach to track a needle in ultrasound images captured by a handheld transducer. METHODS: We propose a novel learning-based framework to track a handheld needle by detecting microscale variations of motion dynamics over time. The current state of the art on using motion analysis for needle detection uses absolute motion and hence work well only when the transducer is static. We have introduced and evaluated novel spatiotemporal and spectral features, obtained from the phase image, in a self-supervised tracking framework to improve the detection accuracy in the subsequent frames using incremental training...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647867/the-effects-of-4-weeks-stretching-training-to-the-point-of-pain-on-flexibility-and-muscle-tendon-unit-properties
#2
Pornpimol Muanjai, David A Jones, Mantas Mickevicius, Danguole Satkunskiene, Audrius Snieckus, Renata Rutkauskaite, Dalia Mickeviciene, Sigitas Kamandulis
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the benefits and possible problems of 4 weeks stretching when taken to the point of pain (POP) and to the point of discomfort (POD). METHODS: Twenty-six physically active women (20 ± 1.1 years) took part in group-based stretching classes of the hamstring muscles, 4 times per week for 4 weeks, one group one stretching to POD, the other to POP. Passive stiffness, joint range of motion (ROM), maximal isometric torque and concentric knee flexion torque, were measured before training and 2 days after the last training session...
June 24, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647390/neural-synergies-for-controlling-reach-and-grasp-movement-in-macaques
#3
Yaoyao Hao, Shaomin Zhang, Qiaosheng Zhang, Guanglin Li, Weidong Chen, Xiaoxiang Zheng
It has been suggested that the brain adopts a simplified strategy to coordinate a large number of degrees of freedom in motor control. Synergies have been proposed as a strategy to produce movements by recruitment of a small number of fixed modular patterns. However, there is no direct support for a synergistic organization of that brain itself. In this study, we recorded neural activities from the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of monkeys trained to reach and grasp differently shaped objects (grasping task) or the same object in different positions (reaching task)...
June 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647284/the-effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-muscle-size-and-quality-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#4
Malia N M Blue, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch
OBJECTIVES: Despite growing popularity of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving health and fitness, limited data exist identifying the effects of HIIT on muscle characteristics. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 3-week HIIT intervention on muscle size and quality in overweight and obese men and women. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Forty-four overweight and obese men and women (mean±SD; age: 35...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647204/return-to-competition-after-an-achilles-tendon-rupture-using-both-on-and-off-the-field-load-monitoring-as-guidance-a-case-report-of-a-top-level-soccer-player
#5
Maurizio Fanchini, Franco M Impellizzeri, Karin Grävare Silbernagel, Franco Combi, Franco Benazzo, Mario Bizzini
OBJECTIVES: To describe the Return to competition after Achilles Tendon rupture (ATR) in an elite soccer player. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Return to sport (RTS) of a professional soccer player who suffered an ATR during a match. The RTS phase started 15 weeks after surgery and specific on-field activities were gradually introduced. Criteria used to monitor the transition through the different phases were strength and endurance of the calf muscle and ability to sustain specific on-field training loads (TL) monitored with Global Positioning System and heart-rate system...
April 29, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646812/oral-consumption-of-vitamin-k2-for-8-weeks-associated-with-increased-maximal-cardiac-output-during-exercise
#6
Brian K McFarlin, Andrea L Henning, Adam S Venable
Background • Vitamin K1 and K2 are not typically common in a Western diet because they are found in a variety of fermented foods. Vitamin K2 in particular has been demonstrated to restore mitochondrial function and has a key role in production of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that dietary supplementation with vitamin K2 could increase the function of muscle with high mitochondrial content (ie, skeletal and cardiac muscle). Objective • The purpose of this study was to determine if 8 wk of dietary supplementation with Vitamin K2 could alter cardiovascular responses to a graded cycle ergometer test...
July 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643919/mechanobehaviour-in-dolichofacial-and-brachyfacial-adolescents
#7
J C Nickel, A L Weber, P Covington Riddle, Y Liu, H Liu, L R Iwasaki
OBJECTIVES: To test whether mechanobehaviour (temporomandibular joint (TMJ) loads, jaw muscle use) was different between facial types and correlated with ramus height (Condylion-Gonion, mm). SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) Orthodontic Clinic. Ten dolichofacial and ten brachyfacial adolescents (Sella-Nasion-Gonion-Gnathion (SN-GoGn) angles ≥37° and ≤27°, respectively) consented to participate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Numerical models calculated TMJ loads for a range of static biting based on subjects' three-dimensional anatomy...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643221/post-exercise-blood-flow-restriction-attenuates-hyperemia-similarly-in-males-and-females
#8
Scott J Dankel, J Grant Mouser, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, Samuel L Buckner, Jeremy P Loenneke
PURPOSE: Our laboratory recently demonstrated that post-exercise blood flow restriction attenuated muscle hypertrophy only in females, which we hypothesized may be due to alterations in post-exercise blood flow. The aim of this study is to test our previous hypothesis that sex differences in blood flow would exist when employing the same protocol. METHODS: Twenty-two untrained individuals (12 females; 10 males) performed two exercise sessions, each involving one set of elbow flexion exercise to volitional failure on the right arm...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642711/weekly-time-course-of-neuro-muscular-adaptation-to-intensive-strength-training
#9
Niklas Brown, Dieter Bubeck, Daniel F B Haeufle, Johannes Weickenmeier, Ellen Kuhl, Wilfried Alt, Syn Schmitt
Detailed description of the time course of muscular adaptation is rarely found in literature. Thus, models of muscular adaptation are difficult to validate since no detailed data of adaptation are available. In this article, as an initial step toward a detailed description and analysis of muscular adaptation, we provide a case report of 8 weeks of intense strength training with two active, male participants. Muscular adaptations were analyzed on a morphological level with MRI scans of the right quadriceps muscle and the calculation of muscle volume, on a voluntary strength level by isometric voluntary contractions with doublet stimulation (interpolated twitch technique) and on a non-voluntary level by resting twitch torques...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642680/weight-bearing-over-ground-stepping-in-an-exoskeleton-with-non-invasive-spinal-cord-neuromodulation-after-motor-complete-paraplegia
#10
Parag Gad, Yury Gerasimenko, Sharon Zdunowski, Amanda Turner, Dimitry Sayenko, Daniel C Lu, V Reggie Edgerton
We asked whether coordinated voluntary movement of the lower limbs could be regained in an individual having been completely paralyzed (>4 year) and completely absent of vision (>15 year) using two novel strategies-transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation at selected sites over the spine as well as pharmacological neuromodulation by buspirone. We also asked whether these neuromodulatory strategies could facilitate stepping assisted by an exoskeleton (EKSO, EKSO Bionics, CA) that is designed so that the subject can voluntarily complement the work being performed by the exoskeleton...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642676/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-protein-and-exercise
#11
REVIEW
Ralf Jäger, Chad M Kerksick, Bill I Campbell, Paul J Cribb, Shawn D Wells, Tim M Skwiat, Martin Purpura, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Arny A Ferrando, Shawn M Arent, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jeffrey R Stout, Paul J Arciero, Michael J Ormsbee, Lem W Taylor, Colin D Wilborn, Doug S Kalman, Richard B Kreider, Darryn S Willoughby, Jay R Hoffman, Jamie L Krzykowski, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641044/the-effects-of-short-versus-long-inter-set-rest-intervals-in-resistance-training-on-measures-of-muscle-hypertrophy-a-systematic-review
#12
Jozo Grgic, Bruno Lazinica, Pavle Mikulic, James W Krieger, Brad Jon Schoenfeld
Although the effects of short versus long inter-set rest intervals in resistance training on measures of muscle hypertrophy have been investigated in several studies, the findings are equivocal and the practical implications remain unclear. In an attempt to provide clarity on the topic, we performed a systematic literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) electronic databases. Six studies were found to have met the inclusion criteria: (a) an experimental trial published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal; (b) the study compared the use of short (≤60 s) to long (>60 s) inter-set rest intervals in a traditional dynamic resistance exercise using both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, with the only difference in resistance training among groups being the inter-set rest interval duration; (c) at least one method of measuring changes in muscle mass was used in the study; (d) the study lasted for a minimum of four weeks, employed a training frequency of ≥2 resistance training days per week, and (e) used human participants without known chronic disease or injury...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640883/an-artificial-emg-generation-model-based-on-signal-dependent-noise-and-related-application-to-motion-classification
#13
Akira Furui, Hideaki Hayashi, Go Nakamura, Takaaki Chin, Toshio Tsuji
This paper proposes an artificial electromyogram (EMG) signal generation model based on signal-dependent noise, which has been ignored in existing methods, by introducing the stochastic construction of the EMG signals. In the proposed model, an EMG signal variance value is first generated from a probability distribution with a shape determined by a commanded muscle force and signal-dependent noise. Artificial EMG signals are then generated from the associated Gaussian distribution with a zero mean and the generated variance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640774/the-difference-between-countermovement-and-squat-jump-performances-a-review-of-underlying-mechanisms-with-practical-applications
#14
Bas Van Hooren, Julia Zolotarjova
Van Hooren, B and Zolotarjova, J. The difference between countermovement and squat jump performances: a review of underlying mechanisms with practical applications. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2011-2020, 2017-Two movements that are widely used to monitor athletic performance are the countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ). Countermovement jump performance is almost always better than SJ performance, and the difference in performance is thought to reflect an effective utilization of the stretch-shortening cycle...
July 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640773/salivary-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-is-associated-with-exercise-ventilatory-efficiency
#15
Yang Chen, Helene Z Hill, Gudrun Lange, Michael J Falvo
Chen, Y, Hill, HZ, Lange, G, and Falvo, MJ. Salivary mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with exercise ventilatory efficiency. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2000-2004, 2017-Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) is an index of mitochondrial content and is responsive to changes in exercise training volume. Therefore, assessment of mtDNAcn may help to optimize exercise prescription and aid in athlete monitoring. Although previous work has assessed mtDNAcn derived from skeletal muscle and blood using invasive approaches, no study has examined salivary mtDNAcn and its relationship with sport performance...
July 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640772/the-effect-of-a-carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-on-upper-body-muscular-strength-and-endurance
#16
James E Dunkin, Shaun M Phillips
Dunkin, JE and Phillips, SM. The effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on upper-body muscular strength and endurance. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1948-1953, 2017-Carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinsing rapidly increases corticomotor output and maximal muscle force production, which could enhance muscular strength and endurance during resistance exercise. However, previous research has found no effect of CHO rinsing on muscular strength or endurance. The current study altered the CHO rinse composition and frequency and the muscular endurance test to further investigate the effects of a CHO mouth rinse on upper-body muscular strength and endurance...
July 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639958/pediatric-jellyfish-envenomation-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#17
Miguel Glatstein, Dikla Adir, Bella Galil, Dennis Scolnik, Ayelet Rimon, Dikla Pivko-Levy, Christopher Hoyte
BACKGROUND: Several species of jellyfish native to the western Indian Ocean have entered the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal. Since the late 1980s, each summer Rhopilema nomadica forms swarms as long as 100 km in the southeastern Levant and since the millennium aggregations of additional nonnative jellyfish have been sighted. The aim of this study was to evaluate children seen in the emergency department after jellyfish envenomations and to establish patterns of toxicity associated with this organism...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639688/pronounced-limb-and-fibre-type-differences-in-subcellular-lipid-droplet-content-and-distribution-in-elite-skiers-before-and-after-exhaustive-exercise
#18
Han-Chow E Koh, Joachim Nielsen, Bengt Saltin, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Niels Ørtenblad
Although the intramyocellular lipid pool is an important energy store during prolonged exercise, our knowledge concerning its metabolism is still incomplete. Here, quantitative electron microscopy was used to examine subcellular distribution of lipid droplets in type 1 and 2 fibres of the arm and leg muscles before and after one hour of exhaustive exercise. Intermyofibrillar lipid droplets accounted for 85-97% of the total volume fraction, while the subsarcolemmal pool made up 3-15%. Before exercise, the volume fractions of intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal lipid droplets were 4- to 6-fold higher in leg than in arm muscles (P < 0...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638350/branched-chain-amino-acid-ingestion-stimulates-muscle-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-following-resistance-exercise-in-humans
#19
Sarah R Jackman, Oliver C Witard, Andrew Philp, Gareth A Wallis, Keith Baar, Kevin D Tipton
The ingestion of intact protein or essential amino acids (EAA) stimulates mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) following resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of myofibrillar-MPS to ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) only (i.e., without concurrent ingestion of other EAA, intact protein, or other macronutrients) following resistance exercise in humans. Ten young (20.1 ± 1.3 years), resistance-trained men completed two trials, ingesting either 5...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636643/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-prevents-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-in-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-rat
#20
Koichi Himori, Daisuke Tatebayashi, Keita Kanzaki, Masanobu Wada, Håkan Westerblad, Johanna T Lanner, Takashi Yamada
Skeletal muscle weakness is a prominent feature in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we investigated whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training protects against skeletal muscle dysfunction in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). AIA was produced by intraarticular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the knees of Wistar rats. For NMES training, dorsiflexor muscles were stimulated via a surface electrode (0.5 ms pulse, 50 Hz, 2 s on/4 s off). NMES training was performed every other day for three weeks and consisted of three sets produced at three min intervals...
2017: PloS One
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