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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343367/magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-leukoaraiosis-in-elderly-dogs
#1
Elena Scarpante, Giunio Bruto Cherubini, Alberta de Stefani, Olivier Taeymans
Leukoaraiosis is a descriptive term used to designate bilateral, symmetrical, white matter lesions identified in brains of elderly human patients. These lesions are isointense to normal in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1-weighted pulse sequences, non-contrast enhancing, and hyperintense in T2-weighted and FLAIR pulse sequences. Pathophysiologic mechanisms for leukoaraiosis remain incompletely understood; however, an ischemic origin is currently being favored. Age-related changes, such as brain atrophy, ventricular enlargement, and well-demarcated sulci, have also been previously described in dogs over 9 years of age...
March 26, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343314/rectus-abdominis-atrophy-after-ventral-abdominal-incisions-midline-versus-chevron
#2
Y Vigneswaran, E Poli, M S Talamonti, S P Haggerty, J G Linn, M B Ujiki
PURPOSE: Although many outcomes have been compared between a midline and chevron incision, this is the first study to examine rectus abdominis atrophy after these two types of incisions. METHODS: Patients undergoing open pancreaticobiliary surgery between 2007 and 2011 at our single institution were included in this study. Rectus abdominis muscle thickness was measured on both preoperative and follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans to calculate percent atrophy of the muscle after surgery...
March 25, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343240/childhood-angular-kyphosis-a-plea-for-involvement-of-the-pediatric-neurosurgeon
#3
E Cornips, S Koudijs, J Vles, L van Rhijn
INTRODUCTION: Childhood angular kyphosis is rare, as most children are affected by a mixed kyphotic and scoliotic deformity. Published series involving a mix of kyphosis and kyphoscoliosis, pediatric and adult, congenital and acquired cases are almost exclusively authored by orthopedic surgeons, suggesting that (pediatric) neurosurgeons are not involved. CASE SERIES: We present five cases that illustrate the spectrum of angular kyphosis, and these were treated by a multidisciplinary team including child neurologist, orthopedic surgeon, and pediatric neurosurgeon as complementary partners...
March 25, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343213/gross-hematuria-is-more-common-in-male-and-older-patients-with-renal-tuberculosis-in-china-a-single-center-15-year-clinical-experience
#4
Yudong Cao, Yu Fan, Yuke Chen, Zheng Zhao, Yi Song, Cheng Shen, Xin Li, Haichao Huang, Wei Yu, Jie Jin
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of renal tuberculosis and identify the age- and gender-related differences. METHODS: A total of 419 patients at the Peking University First Hospital from January 2000 to July 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data on demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, complications, laboratory results, radiologic imaging, surgical procedures, and pathology features were collected and compared between genders and 3 different age groups (under 40 years, 41-60, years and over 60 years)...
March 25, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343139/oxytocin-in-corticosterone-induced-chronic-stress-model-focus-on-adrenal-gland-function
#5
Dušanka Stanić, Bosiljka Plećaš-Solarović, Duško Mirković, Predrag Jovanović, Slađana Dronjak, Bojan Marković, Tea Đorđević, Svetlana Ignjatović, Vesna Pešić
Chronic stress conditions can lead to considerable and extensible changes in physiological and psychological performances, and in emergence of risk for various somatic diseases. On the other hand, the neuropeptide oxytocin is reported to increase the resistance of the organism to stress and modulate activity of autonomic nervous system. Chronic corticosterone administration is used as a rat model for a state observed in terms of chronic stress exposure, when negative feedback mechanism of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is disrupted...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343108/the-effects-of-modified-versus-unmodified-wheat-gluten-administration-in-patients-with-celiac-disease
#6
Mariacatia Marino, Rossella Casale, Raffaele Borghini, Sara Di Nardi, Giuseppe Donato, Antonio Angeloni, Salvatore Moscaritolo, Lorenza Grasso, Giuseppe Mazzarella, Marco Di Tola, Mauro Rossi, Antonio Picarelli
Celiac disease (CD) treatment requires a gluten-free diet (GFD), although alternative approaches have been proposed. Modification of gliadin peptides using microbial transglutaminase (mTG) inhibits their ability to induce immune response in vitro. Our aim was to evaluate the safety of mTG-modified wheat flour ingestion in CD patients. Twenty-one CD patients in remission were randomized to receive mTG-modified (n=11) or unmodified (n=10) wheat flour rusks, in double-blind fashion. Monthly, patients completed a symptom questionnaire...
March 23, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342882/functional-neuroimaging-findings-in-healthy-middle-aged-adults-at-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Mirette Habib, Elijah Mak, Silvy Gabel, Li Su, Guy Williams, Adam Waldman, Katie Wells, Karen Ritchie, Craig Ritchie, John T O'Brien
It is well established that the neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins many years before symptom onset. This preclinical phase provides a crucial time-window for therapeutic intervention, though this requires biomarkers that could evaluate the efficacy of future disease-modification treatments in asymptomatic individuals. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of studies characterizing the temporal sequence of the earliest functional and structural brain imaging changes in AD. These efforts have focused on studying individuals who are highly vulnerable to develop AD, such as those with familial genetic mutations, susceptibility genes (i...
March 22, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342697/recent-publications-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-reviewing-progress-toward-improved-ad-clinical-trials
#8
REVIEW
Michael W Weiner, Dallas P Veitch, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has continued development and standardization of methodologies for biomarkers and has provided an increased depth and breadth of data available to qualified researchers. This review summarizes the 450+ publications using ADNI data during 2014 and 2015. METHODS: We used standard searches to find publications using ADNI data. RESULTS: (1) Structural and functional changes, including subtle changes to hippocampal shape and texture, atrophy in areas outside of hippocampus, and disruption to functional networks, are detectable in presymptomatic subjects before hippocampal atrophy; (2) In subjects with abnormal β-amyloid deposition (Aβ+), biomarkers become abnormal in the order predicted by the amyloid cascade hypothesis; (3) Cognitive decline is more closely linked to tau than Aβ deposition; (4) Cerebrovascular risk factors may interact with Aβ to increase white-matter (WM) abnormalities which may accelerate Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in conjunction with tau abnormalities; (5) Different patterns of atrophy are associated with impairment of memory and executive function and may underlie psychiatric symptoms; (6) Structural, functional, and metabolic network connectivities are disrupted as AD progresses...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340083/evaluating-the-patterns-of-aging-related-tau-astrogliopathy-unravels-novel-insights-into-brain-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
Gabor G Kovacs, John L Robinson, Sharon X Xie, Edward B Lee, Murray Grossman, David A Wolk, David J Irwin, Dan Weintraub, Christopher F Kim, Theresa Schuck, Ahmed Yousef, Stephanie T Wagner, Eunran Suh, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski
The term "aging-related tau astrogliopathy" (ARTAG) describes pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes. We evaluated the correlates of ARTAG types (i.e., subpial, subependymal, white and gray matter, and perivascular) in different neuroanatomical regions. Clinical, neuropathological, and genetic (eg, APOE ε4 allele, MAPT H1/H2 haplotype) data from 628 postmortem brains from subjects were investigated; most of the patients had been longitudinally followed at the University of Pennsylvania...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339906/interstitial-fibrosis-scored-on-whole-slide-digital-imaging-of-kidney-biopsies-is-a-predictor-of-outcome-in-proteinuric-glomerulopathies
#10
Laura H Mariani, Sebastian Martini, Laura Barisoni, Pietro A Canetta, Jonathan P Troost, Jeffrey B Hodgin, Matthew Palmer, Avi Z Rosenberg, Kevin V Lemley, Hui-Ping Chien, Jarcy Zee, Abigail Smith, Gerald B Appel, Howard Trachtman, Stephen M Hewitt, Matthias Kretzler, Serena M Bagnasco
Background.: Interstitial fibrosis (IF), tubular atrophy (TA) and interstitial inflammation (II) are known determinants of progression of renal disease. Standardized quantification of these features could add value to current classification of glomerulopathies. Methods.: We studied 315 participants in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) study, including biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD = 98), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS = 121), membranous nephropathy (MN = 59) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN = 37)...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339397/cognitive-status-gray-matter-atrophy-and-lower-orthostatic-blood-pressure-in-older-adults
#11
Celia O'Hare, Rose-Anne Kenny, Howard Aizenstein, Robert Boudreau, Anne Newman, Lenore Launer, Suzanne Satterfield, Kristine Yaffe, Caterina Rosano
BACKGROUND: Associations between orthostatic blood pressure and cognitive status (CS) have been described with conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that long-term exposure to lower orthostatic blood pressure is related to having worse CS later in life and that atrophy of regions involved in central regulation of autonomic function mediate these associations. METHODS: Three-to-four measures of orthostatic blood pressure were obtained from 1997-2003 in a longitudinal cohort of aging, and average systolic orthostatic blood pressure response (ASOBPR) was computed as % change in systolic blood pressure from sit-to-stand measured at one minute post stand...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339082/effects-of-autophagy-and-endocytosis-on-the-activity-of-matrix-metalloproteinase%C3%A2-2-in-human-renal-proximal-tubular-cells-under-hypoxia
#12
Wenmin Yu, Zhi Wang, Yiping Li, Lei Liu, Jing Liu, Fenggan Ding, Xiaoyi Zhang, Zhengyuan Cheng, Pingsheng Chen
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is characterized by tubular atrophy with basement membrane thickening and accumulation of interstitial extracellular matrix (ECM). A decrease in the activity of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) may promote this process. Although proximal tubular cells are sensitive to oxygen deprivation, whether cellular autophagy or endocytosis induced by hypoxia can alter the activity of MMP‑2 remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether autophagy and endocytosis induced by hypoxia can have an effect on the activity of MMP‑2 in HK‑2 cells...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338593/clinical-correlates-to-assist-with-cte-diagnosis-insights-from-a-novel-rodent-repeat-concussion-model
#13
Gretchen M Thomsen, Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Annie Ma, Livia Wyss, Patricia Haro, Jean-Philippe Vit, Pablo Avalos, Navpreet Dhillon, Noell Cho, Oksana Shelest, Eric J Ley
INTRODUCTION: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease linked to repetitive head injuries. CTE symptoms include changes in mood, behavior, cognition and motor function, however CTE is only currently diagnosed post-mortem. Using a rat model of recurrent traumatic brain injury (TBI) we demonstrate rodent deficits that predict the severity of CTE-like brain pathology. METHODS: Bilateral, closed skull, mild TBI was administered once per week to 35 WT rats, 8 rats received 2 injuries ('2xTBI'), 27 rats received 5 injuries ('5xTBI') and 13 rats were sham controls...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338541/intralesional-treatment-with-5-fluorouracil-and-steroid-improves-allergic-contact-dermatitis-without-causing-skin-atrophy-and-rebound-lesions
#14
Xiangming Chen, Guojiang Wang, Qingwen Zeng, Haiqing Zhang, Yang Hu, Aihua Yu, Ting Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338488/respiratory-complications-management-and-treatments-for-neuromuscular-disease-in-children
#15
MyMy C Buu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize current literature describing the respiratory complications of neuromuscular disease (NMD) and the effect of respiratory interventions and to explore new gene therapies for patients with NMD. RECENT FINDINGS: Measurements of respiratory function focus on vital capacity and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure and show decline over time. Management of respiratory complications includes lung volume recruitment, mechanical insufflation-exsufflation, chest physiotherapy and assisted ventilation...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337975/a-chemical-chaperone-improves-muscle-function-in-mice-with-a-ryr1-mutation
#16
Chang Seok Lee, Amy D Hanna, Hui Wang, Adan Dagnino-Acosta, Aditya D Joshi, Mark Knoblauch, Yan Xia, Dimitra K Georgiou, Jianjun Xu, Cheng Long, Hisayuki Amano, Corey Reynolds, Keke Dong, John C Martin, William R Lagor, George G Rodney, Ergun Sahin, Caroline Sewry, Susan L Hamilton
Mutations in the RYR1 gene cause severe myopathies. Mice with an I4895T mutation in the type 1 ryanodine receptor/Ca(2+) release channel (RyR1) display muscle weakness and atrophy, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that the I4895T mutation in RyR1 decreases the amplitude of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) transient, resting cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, muscle triadin content and calsequestrin (CSQ) localization to the junctional SR, and increases endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) and mitochondrial ROS production...
March 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337452/teratogenic-effect-of-usnic-acid-from-cladonia-substellata-vainio-during-organogenesis
#17
C R Silva, K S N Marinho, T D S Silva, D K S Ferreira, G M Aguiar, M C B Martins, K R P Santos, F C A Aguiar Júnior, N P S Santos, E C Pereira, N H Silva
Studies about toxicological potential of usnic acid are limited. This way, the vast majority of data available in the literature are related only to biological activities. This is the first study that aimed to evaluate the oral toxicity of usnic acid during the period of organogenesis. Females rats were distributed in the control groups, treated I and II, at doses of 15 and 25 mg/kg, administered by gavage during the 6° to 15° days of pregnancy. After 20 days the fetuses were removed and analyzed. A reduction in weight gain during pregnancy, increased resorption, reduction in the number of viable fetuses, and their body weight were observed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337349/a-rational-approach-to-sinus-augmentation-the-low-window-sinus-lift
#18
Terry Zaniol, Alex Zaniol
Sinus augmentation is a well-known approach to treating alveolar bone ridge atrophy in the posterior maxilla. The preparation of the lateral window is crucial. Its size, design, and position in the vestibular sinus wall may affect the intra- and postsurgical complication rates and affect the intrasurgical activity of both surgeons and assistants. The present paper describes a rational technique that also exploits the guided surgery approach for design and preparation of a lateral window for sinus augmentation, the Low Window Sinus Lift...
2017: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337259/intranasal-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-brain-injury-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischaemic-injury
#19
Zhenlang Lin, Yingying Hu, Zhouguang Wang, Shulin Pan, Hao Zhang, Libing Ye, Hongyu Zhang, Mingchu Fang, Huai Jiang, Junming Ye, Jian Xiao, Li Liu
Brain injury secondary to birth asphyxia is the major cause of death and long-term disability in newborns. Intranasal drug administration enables agents to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enter the brain directly. In this study, we determined whether intranasal basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) could exert neuroprotective effects in neonatal rats after hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury and assessed whether attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was associated with these neuroprotective effects...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337218/effect-of-transplantation-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-platelets-rich-plasma-on-experimental-model-of-radiation-induced-oral-mucosal-injury-in-albino-rats
#20
Basma Elsaadany, Samar El Kholy, Dalia El Rouby, Laila Rashed, Tarek Shouman
Normal tissue damage following radiotherapy is still a major problem in cancer treatment. Therefore, the current work aimed at exploring the possible role of systemically injected bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and/or locally injected platelet rich plasma (PRP) in ameliorating the side effects of ionizing radiation on the rat's tongue. Twelve rats served as control group (N) and 48 rats received a single radiation dose of 13 Gy to the head and neck region; then, they were equally divided into 4 experimental groups: irradiated only (C), irradiated + MSCs (S), irradiated + (PRP) (P), and combined group (PS)...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
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