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Giuseppe Coratella, Federico Schena
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different resistance training protocols on muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy after training and detraining. Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomized in concentric-only (CONC), eccentric-only (ECC), traditional concentric-eccentric (TRAD) bench press resistance training or control group. The training volume was equalized among the intervention groups. Bench press of 1-repetition maximum (1RM)/body mass, maximum number of repetitions (MNR), and chest circumference were evaluated at the baseline, after 6 weeks of training, and after 6 weeks of detraining...
November 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Seong-Won Han, Dae-Yeon Lee, Dong-Sung Choi, Boram Han, Jin-Sun Kim, Hae-Dong Lee
This study aimed to examine whether muscle force and tendon stiffness in a muscle -tendon complex alter synchronously following 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training in older people. Forty older women aged 65 years and older, were randomly assigned into Control (CON, n=15) and WBV training groups (Exposure Time (ET, n=13) and Vibration Intensity (VI, n=12)). For the training groups, 4-week detraining period was subjected following the training period. Throughout the training/detraining period, force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and stiffness of the Achilles tendon were assessed 4 times (0, 4, 8, and 12-week) using a combined system of dynamometer and ultrasonography...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Attila Oláh, Dalma Kellermayer, Csaba Mátyás, Balázs Tamás Németh, Árpád Lux, Lilla Szabó, Marianna Török, Mihály Ruppert, Anna Meltzer, Alex Ali Sayour, Kálmán Benke, István Hartyánszky, Béla Merkely, Tamás Radovits
PURPOSE: Long-term exercise training is associated with characteristic cardiac adaptation, termed athlete's heart. Our research group previously characterized in vivo left ventricular (LV) function of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy in detail in a rat model, however the effect of detraining on LV function is still unclear. We aimed at evaluating the reversibility of functional alterations of athlete's heart after detraining. METHODS: Rats (n=16) were divided into detrained exercised (DEx) and detrained control (DCo) groups...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Cian McGinley, David J Bishop
McGinley C, Bishop DJ. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men. J Appl Physiol 121: 1290-1305, 2016. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00630.2016-This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid-base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Antoine Boullis, Claire Detrain, Frédéric Francis, François J Verheggen
Understanding how climate change will affect species interactions is a challenge for all branches of ecology. We have only limited understanding of how increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels will affect pheromone-mediated communication among insects. Based on the existing literature, we suggest that the entire process of pheromonal communication, from production to behavioural response, is likely to be impacted by increases in temperature and modifications to atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Jeremy P Loenneke
In this paper we revisit a topic originally discussed in 1955, namely the lack of direct evidence that muscle hypertrophy from exercise plays an important role in increasing strength. To this day, long-term adaptations in strength are thought to be primarily contingent on changes in muscle size. Given this assumption, there has been considerable attention placed on programs designed to allow for maximization of both muscle size and strength. However, the conclusion that a change in muscle size affects a change in strength is surprisingly based on little evidence...
December 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Mahmoud Nikseresht, Mohammad Reza Hafezi Ahmadi, Mehdi Hedayati
This study compared the effects of nonlinear resistance training (NRT), aerobic interval training (AIT), and detraining on adipokines and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged obese men. Thirty-three obese men were randomly allocated to NRT (n = 12), AIT (n = 10), and control (CON, n = 11) groups. Subjects in experimental groups performed exercise protocols 3 days per week for 12 weeks followed by a 4-week detraining period. The NRT involved 55 min of weight training with flexible periodization. The AIT consisted of running on a treadmill (4 × 4-min intervals at 90% of maximal heart rate, with each interval separated by 3 min at 65%)...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Caroline Gastebois, Clément Villars, Jocelyne Drai, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas, Stéphane Blanc, Audrey Bergouignan, Etienne Lefai, Chantal Simon
PURPOSE: To delineate the direct effect of physical activity on adiponectin metabolism, we investigated the impact of contrasted physical activity changes, independent of body mass changes, on adiponectin plasma concentration and muscle sensitivity in lean and overweight adult males. METHODS: Eleven physically active lean men (70.6 ± 2.1 kg) were subjected to 1-month detraining; 9 sedentary lean men (73.1 ± 3.3 kg); and 11 sedentary overweight men (97.5 ± 3...
September 8, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
R A Marschner, G Pinto, J Borges, M M Markoski, B D Schaan, A M Lehnen
Elevated serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels were previously described in insulin-resistance states. Exercise training can improve insulin sensitivity and RBP4, but the time-response effect of exercise detraining on RBP4 has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effects of exercise training and short-term detraining on insulin resistance, serum RBP4 levels, and GLUT4 expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Thirty-two male SHR, 4 months old, were submitted to 10-week treadmill training, 5 times/week or kept sedentary, followed by a 2- and 4-day detraining period...
September 2, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Chantal M I Beijersbergen, Urs Granacher, Martijn Gäbler, Paul DeVita, Tibor Hortobágyi
INTRODUCTION: Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 weeks of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower extremity muscle power and gait kinematics. METHODS: As part of the Potsdam Gait Study (POGS), participants started with 10 weeks of power training followed by 10 weeks of detraining (n = 16) and participants started with a 10-week control period followed by 10 weeks of power training (n = 16)...
August 30, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Alfonso J Alfini, Lauren R Weiss, Brooks P Leitner, Theresa J Smith, James M Hagberg, J Carson Smith
While endurance exercise training improves cerebrovascular health and has neurotrophic effects within the hippocampus, the effects of stopping this exercise on the brain remain unclear. Our aim was to measure the effects of 10 days of detraining on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in gray matter and the hippocampus in healthy and physically fit older adults. We hypothesized that rCBF would decrease in the hippocampus after a 10-day cessation of exercise training. Twelve master athletes, defined as older adults (age ≥ 50 years) with long-term endurance training histories (≥15 years), were recruited from local running clubs...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Quentin Bourgeois, Annica M L Ekman, Matthew R Igel, Radovan Krejci
Clouds are crucial for Earth's climate and radiation budget. Great attention has been paid to low, high and vertically thick tropospheric clouds such as stratus, cirrus and deep convective clouds. However, much less is known about tropospheric mid-level clouds as these clouds are challenging to observe in situ and difficult to detect by remote sensing techniques. Here we use Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite observations to show that thin mid-level clouds (TMLCs) are ubiquitous in the tropics...
2016: Nature Communications
Sara Maldonado-Martín, Jesús Cámara, David V B James, Juan Ramón Fernández-López, Xabier Artetxe-Gezuraga
In cycling, it is common practice to have a break in the off season longer than 4 weeks while adopting an almost sedentary lifestyle, and such a break is considered to be long-term detraining. No previous studies have assessed the effect of training cessation with highly trained young cyclists. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine effects of 5 weeks of training cessation in 10 young (20.1 ± 1.4 years) male road cyclists for body composition, haematological and physiological parameters...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jean-Baptiste Leclerc, Claire Detrain
Social insects have evolved an array of individual and social behaviours that limit pathogen entrance and spread within the colony. The detection of ectoparasites or of fungal spores on a nestmate body triggers their removal by allogrooming and appears as a primary component of social prophylaxis. However, in the case of fungal infection, one may wonder whether ant workers are able to detect, discriminate and keep at bay diseased nestmates that have no spores over their cuticle but which constitute a latent sanitary risk due to post-mortem corpse sporulation...
August 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Yi-Hung Liao, Yu-Chi Sung, Chun-Chung Chou, Chung-Yu Chen
Changes in an athlete's physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study...
2016: PloS One
L Dos Santos, E S Cyrino, M Antunes, D A Santos, L B Sardinha
BACKGROUND: Resistance training (RT) has selective effects on body composition that may counteract the deleterious effects of aging. Changes in phase angle (PhA) may serve to monitor the influence of RT in older people. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of RT in training, detraining and retraining on body composition, including PhA in older women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-three older women (⩾60 years old) participated. The RT program was carried out over 12 weeks for each stage (training, detraining and retraining)...
July 13, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Chia-Hua Kuo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Anastasios A Theodorou, George Panayiotou, Konstantinos A Volaklis, Helen T Douda, Vassilis Paschalis, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Ilias Smilios, Argyris Toubekis, Dimitris Kyprianou, Ioannis Papadopoulos, Savvas P Tokmakidis
Fifty-six elderly individuals diagnosed with coronary artery disease participated in the study and were divided into four groups: an aerobic exercise group, a resistance exercise group, a combined (aerobic + resistance) exercise group and a control group. The three exercise groups participated in 8 months of exercise training. Before, at 4 and at 8 months of the training period as well as at 1, 2 and 3 months after training cessation, muscle strength was measured and blood samples were collected. The resistance exercise caused significant increases mainly in muscle strength whereas aerobic exercise caused favourable effects mostly on lipid and apolipoprotein profiles...
July 2016: Research in Sports Medicine
Sukho Lee, Kwang-Seok Hong, Kijeong Kim
In the present study, we investigated the effects of previous strength training and retraining following long-term cessation of exercise on muscle mass and contractile properties. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) aged eight weeks were randomly assigned one of the four groups: control (CON), detraining (DT), training (TR), and retraining (RT). The training regimen consisted of climbing ladder 5×3 sets, once every third day for eight weeks with weight attached to the tail. The weight carried during each training session was initially 50% of body weight and progressively increased by 10% per session...
April 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Ravinea Manotheepan, Tore K Danielsen, Mani Sadredini, Mark E Anderson, Cathrine R Carlson, Stephan E Lehnart, Ivar Sjaastad, Mathis K Stokke
AIMS: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia type 1 (CPVT1) is caused by mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) that lead to disrupted Ca(2+) handling in cardiomyocytes and ventricular tachycardia. The aim of this study was to test whether exercise training could reduce the propensity for arrhythmias in mice with the CPVT1-causative missense mutation Ryr2-R2474S by restoring normal Ca(2+) handling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ryr2-R2474S mice (RyR-RS) performed a 2 week interval treadmill exercise training protocol...
August 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
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