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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095854/the-effects-of-detraining-and-training-on-adipose-tissue-lipid-droplet-in-obese-mice-after-chronic-high-fat-diet
#1
Ju Yong Bae, Jinhee Woo, Hee Tae Roh, Yul Hyo Lee, Kangeun Ko, Sunghwun Kang, Ki Ok Shin
BACKGROUND: It is well known that exercise promotes lipolysis by stimulating the lipid droplet (LD) signaling pathway. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the effect of detraining with high fat diet (HFD) and training effects after long-term HFD. Here, we investigated the effect of detraining and training on adipose tissue LD pathway in diet-induced obese mice after continuous HFD. METHODS: Seventy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into a Normal diet + Sedentary group (ND, n = 10) or a High-fat diet + Sedentary group (HF, n = 50); in the HF group, obesity was induced by a 45% fat chow for six weeks...
January 17, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092795/moderate-aerobic-exercise-training-for-improving-reproductive-function-in-infertile-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Behzad Hajizadeh Maleki, Bakhtyar Tartibian
This study investigated for the first time the changes in seminal markers of inflammation, oxidative stress status, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity as well as pregnancy rate following 24weeks of moderate aerobic exercise in infertile patients. A total of 1026 sedentary men (aged 25-40years) attending the infertility clinic with history of more than one year of infertility, were screened and 419 were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=210) or non-exercise (NON-EX, n=209) groups. Exercise training favorably attenuated seminal markers of both inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, 8-Isoprostane) as well as enhanced antioxidant defense system (SOD, catalase and TAC) (P<0...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071733/an-automated-method-for-large-scale-monitoring-of-seed-dispersal-by-ants
#3
Audrey Bologna, Etienne Toffin, Claire Detrain, Alexandre Campo
Myrmecochory is the process of seed dispersal by ants; however, it is highly challenging to study, mainly because of the small size of both partners and the comparatively large range of dispersal. The mutualistic interaction between ants and seeds involves the former retrieving diaspores, consuming their elaiosome (a nutrient-rich appendage), and the rejection of seeds from the nest. Here, we introduce a semi-automated method based on stitching high resolution images together, allowing the study of myrmecochory in a controlled environment over time...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065709/-the-exercise-training-restores-the-heart-rate-variability-in-heart-failure-patients-a-systematic-review
#4
Victoria Segovia, Carlos Manterola, Marcelo González, Iván Rodríguez-Núñez
: Cardiovascular diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population. In this sense the autonomic imbalance is the cornerstone of the physiopathology underlying the development of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) in adult patients with chronic heart failure. METHODOLOGY: A systematic literature review was conducted on electronic databases. The considered studies were randomized clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies with non-randomized control group, quasi-experimental studies with analysis of pre and post intervention and crossover studies with randomly assigned training and detraining periods...
January 5, 2017: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043055/hip-mechanics-underlie-lower-extremity-power-training-induced-increase-in-old-adults-fast-gait-velocity-the-potsdam-gait-study-pogs
#5
Chantal M I Beijersbergen, Urs Granacher, Martijn Gäbler, Paul DeVita, Tibor Hortobágyi
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with slowed gait and old compared with young adults generally walk with greater positive hip work (H1) and reduced positive ankle work (A2). The role of exercise interventions on old adults' gait mechanics that underlie training-induced improvements in gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of lower extremity power training and detraining on old adults' gait kinetics. METHODS: As part of the Potsdam Gait Study (POGS), healthy old adults completed a no-intervention control period (69...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019124/immediate-and-residual-effects-of-low-dose-nandrolone-decanoate-and-treadmill-training-on-adipose-and-reproductive-tissues-of-male-wistar-rats
#6
Josilene M Rodrigues, Vinicius P P Oliveira, Julia P Furlan, Ana Claudia Munhoz, Marcelo R S Rempel, Marcia N Brito, Nilton A Brito, Maria M D Pedrosa, Cecília E M Costa
CONTEXT: Residual effects after nandrolone decanoate (ND) treatment are not reported. OBJECTIVE: Immediate and residual effects of low-dose ND and treadmill training were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats were trained and/or ND-treated for four weeks and the assessments were made after this period or four weeks later. RESULTS: The groups did not differ in final plasma glucose or AUC of the ivGTT, but hyperinsulinemia was noticed in some trained/treated groups...
December 25, 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004433/effects-of-early-and-delayed-initiation-of-exercise-training-on-cardiac-and-hemodynamic-function-post-spinal-cord-injury
#7
David W Popok, Christopher R West, Laura McCracken, Andrei V Krassioukov
Spinal cord injury (SCI) reduces physical activity and alters descending supraspinal cardiovascular control, predisposing this population to early onset of cardiovascular disease. We used a T3 SCI rodent model to investigate the effect of early vs. delayed passive hind-limb cycling (PHLC), as well as the effect of detraining on cardiac dysfunction and blood pressure control, including autonomic dysreflexia (AD). 20 male Wistar rats were divided into an early PHLC initiation group followed by a period of detraining (PHLC starting day 6 post-SCI, for 4 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of detraining; "early PHLC/detraining" group) and a delayed PHLC intervention group (no PHLC for first 5 weeks post-SCI, followed by PHLC for 4 weeks; "no PHLC/delayed PHLC" group)...
December 22, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974835/rethinking-the-process-of-detrainment-jets-in-obstructed-natural-flows
#8
Michele Mossa, Francesca De Serio
A thorough understanding of the mixing and diffusion of turbulent jets released in porous obstructions is still lacking in literature. This issue is undoubtedly of interest because it is not strictly limited to vegetated flows, but also includes outflows which come from different sources and which spread among oyster or wind farms, as well as aerial pesticide treatments sprayed onto orchards. The aim of the present research is to analyze this process from a theoretical point of view. Specifically, by examining the entrainment coefficient, it is deduced that the presence of a canopy prevents a momentum jet from having an entrainment process, but rather promotes its detrainment...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801598/eccentric-resistance-training-increases-and-retains-maximal-strength-muscle-endurance-and-hypertrophy-in-trained-men
#9
Giuseppe Coratella, Federico Schena
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different resistance training protocols on muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy after training and detraining. Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomized in concentric-only (CONC), eccentric-only (ECC), traditional concentric-eccentric (TRAD) bench press resistance training or control group. The training volume was equalized among the intervention groups. Bench press of 1-repetition maximum (1RM)/body mass, maximum number of repetitions (MNR), and chest circumference were evaluated at the baseline, after 6 weeks of training, and after 6 weeks of detraining...
November 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768508/asynchronous-alterations-of-muscle-force-and-tendon-stiffness-following-8-week-resistance-exercise-with-whole-body-vibration-in-older-women
#10
Seong-Won Han, Dae-Yeon Lee, Dong-Sung Choi, Boram Han, Jin-Sun Kim, Hae-Dong Lee
This study aimed to examine whether muscle force and tendon stiffness in a muscle -tendon complex alter synchronously following 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training in older people. Forty older women aged 65 years and older, were randomly assigned into Control (CON, n=15) and WBV training groups (Exposure Time (ET, n=13) and Vibration Intensity (VI, n=12)). For the training groups, 4-week detraining period was subjected following the training period. Throughout the training/detraining period, force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and stiffness of the Achilles tendon were assessed 4 times (0, 4, 8, and 12-week) using a combined system of dynamometer and ultrasonography...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755352/complete-reversion-of-cardiac-functional-adaptation-induced-by-exercise-training
#11
Attila Oláh, Dalma Kellermayer, Csaba Mátyás, Balázs Tamás Németh, Árpád Lux, Lilla Szabó, Marianna Török, Mihály Ruppert, Anna Meltzer, Alex Ali Sayour, Kálmán Benke, István Hartyánszky, Béla Merkely, Tamás Radovits
PURPOSE: Long-term exercise training is associated with characteristic cardiac adaptation, termed athlete's heart. Our research group previously characterized in vivo left ventricular (LV) function of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy in detail in a rat model, however the effect of detraining on LV function is still unclear. We aimed at evaluating the reversibility of functional alterations of athlete's heart after detraining. METHODS: Rats (n=16) were divided into detrained exercised (DEx) and detrained control (DCo) groups...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742804/influence-of-training-intensity-on-adaptations-in-acid-base-transport-proteins-muscle-buffer-capacity-and-repeated-sprint-ability-in-active-men
#12
Cian McGinley, David J Bishop
McGinley C, Bishop DJ. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men. J Appl Physiol 121: 1290-1305, 2016. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00630.2016-This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid-base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720079/will-climate-change-affect-insect-pheromonal-communication
#13
Antoine Boullis, Claire Detrain, Frédéric Francis, François J Verheggen
Understanding how climate change will affect species interactions is a challenge for all branches of ecology. We have only limited understanding of how increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels will affect pheromone-mediated communication among insects. Based on the existing literature, we suggest that the entire process of pheromonal communication, from production to behavioural response, is likely to be impacted by increases in temperature and modifications to atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717161/the-problem-of-muscle-hypertrophy-revisited
#14
Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Jeremy P Loenneke
In this paper we revisit a topic originally discussed in 1955, namely the lack of direct evidence that muscle hypertrophy from exercise plays an important role in increasing strength. To this day, long-term adaptations in strength are thought to be primarily contingent on changes in muscle size. Given this assumption, there has been considerable attention placed on programs designed to allow for maximization of both muscle size and strength. However, the conclusion that a change in muscle size affects a change in strength is surprisingly based on little evidence...
December 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636349/detraining-induced-alterations-in-adipokines-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-after-nonlinear-periodized-resistance-and-aerobic-interval-training-in-obese-men
#15
Mahmoud Nikseresht, Mohammad Reza Hafezi Ahmadi, Mehdi Hedayati
This study compared the effects of nonlinear resistance training (NRT), aerobic interval training (AIT), and detraining on adipokines and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged obese men. Thirty-three obese men were randomly allocated to NRT (n = 12), AIT (n = 10), and control (CON, n = 11) groups. Subjects in experimental groups performed exercise protocols 3 days per week for 12 weeks followed by a 4-week detraining period. The NRT involved 55 min of weight training with flexible periodization. The AIT consisted of running on a treadmill (4 × 4-min intervals at 90% of maximal heart rate, with each interval separated by 3 min at 65%)...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632382/effects-of-training-and-detraining-on-adiponectin-plasma-concentration-and-muscle-sensitivity-in-lean-and-overweight-men
#16
Caroline Gastebois, Clément Villars, Jocelyne Drai, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas, Stéphane Blanc, Audrey Bergouignan, Etienne Lefai, Chantal Simon
PURPOSE: To delineate the direct effect of physical activity on adiponectin metabolism, we investigated the impact of contrasted physical activity changes, independent of body mass changes, on adiponectin plasma concentration and muscle sensitivity in lean and overweight adult males. METHODS: Eleven physically active lean men (70.6 ± 2.1 kg) were subjected to 1-month detraining; 9 sedentary lean men (73.1 ± 3.3 kg); and 11 sedentary overweight men (97.5 ± 3...
December 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589346/short-term-detraining-does-not-change-insulin-sensitivity-and-rbp4-in-rodents-previously-submitted-to-aerobic-exercise
#17
Rafael A Marschner, Graziela Pinto, Júlia Borges, Melissa Medeiros Markoski, Beatriz D Schaan, Alexandre Machado Lehnen
Elevated serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels were previously described in insulin-resistance states. Exercise training can improve insulin sensitivity and RBP4, but the time-response effect of exercise detraining on RBP4 has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effects of exercise training and short-term detraining on insulin resistance, serum RBP4 levels, and GLUT4 expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Thirty-two male SHR, 4 months old, were submitted to 10-week treadmill training, 5 times/week or kept sedentary, followed by a 2- and 4-day detraining period...
January 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580150/kinematic-mechanisms-of-how-power-training-improves-healthy-old-adults-gait-velocity
#18
Chantal M I Beijersbergen, Urs Granacher, Martijn Gäbler, Paul Devita, Tibor Hortobágyi
INTRODUCTION: Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults, but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 wk of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower extremity muscle power and gait kinematics. METHODS: As part of the Potsdam Gait Study, participants started with 10 wk of power training followed by 10 wk of detraining (n = 16), and participants started with a 10-wk control period followed by 10 wk of power training (n = 16)...
January 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547184/hippocampal-and-cerebral-blood-flow-after-exercise-cessation-in-master-athletes
#19
Alfonso J Alfini, Lauren R Weiss, Brooks P Leitner, Theresa J Smith, James M Hagberg, J Carson Smith
While endurance exercise training improves cerebrovascular health and has neurotrophic effects within the hippocampus, the effects of stopping this exercise on the brain remain unclear. Our aim was to measure the effects of 10 days of detraining on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in gray matter and the hippocampus in healthy and physically fit older adults. We hypothesized that rCBF would decrease in the hippocampus after a 10-day cessation of exercise training. Twelve master athletes, defined as older adults (age ≥ 50 years) with long-term endurance training histories (≥15 years), were recruited from local running clubs...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530236/ubiquity-and-impact-of-thin-mid-level-clouds-in-the-tropics
#20
Quentin Bourgeois, Annica M L Ekman, Matthew R Igel, Radovan Krejci
Clouds are crucial for Earth's climate and radiation budget. Great attention has been paid to low, high and vertically thick tropospheric clouds such as stratus, cirrus and deep convective clouds. However, much less is known about tropospheric mid-level clouds as these clouds are challenging to observe in situ and difficult to detect by remote sensing techniques. Here we use Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite observations to show that thin mid-level clouds (TMLCs) are ubiquitous in the tropics...
2016: Nature Communications
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