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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223941/enhanced-corticospinal-excitability-and-volitional-drive-in-response-to-shortening-and-lengthening-strength-training-and-changes-following-detraining
#1
Jamie Tallent, Stuart Goodall, Karl C Gibbon, Tibor Hortobágyi, Glyn Howatson
There is a limited understanding of the neurological adaptations responsible for changes in strength following shortening and lengthening resistance training and subsequent detraining. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in corticospinal and spinal responses to resistance training of the tibialis anterior muscle between shortening or lengthening muscle contractions for 4 weeks and after 2 weeks of detraining. Thirty-one untrained individuals were assigned to either shortening or lengthening isokinetic resistance training (4 weeks, 3 days/weeks) or a non-training control group...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171810/short-versus-long-small-sided-game-training-during-ramadan-in-soccer-players
#2
Hana Baklouti, Noureddine Rejeb, Asma Aloui, Hamdi Jaafar, Achraf Ammar, Hamdi Chtourou, Olivier Girard, Nizar Souissi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of two small-sided game (SSG) training formats (4 × 4 min (SSG-S) and 2 × 8 min (SSG-L)) conducted during Ramadan on Hoff and five-jump (5JT) tests' performances and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). DESIGN: Three group, case-control. SETTING: Field tests. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male soccer players were divided into 3 groups: 2 groups undertaking 4 weeks of SSG-S (n = 8) or SSG-L (n = 8) during Ramadan and a control group (n = 8)...
October 24, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155720/effects-of-8-week-swimming-training-on-carotid-arterial-stiffness-and-hemodynamics-in-young-overweight-adults
#3
Wen-Xue Yuan, Hai-Bin Liu, Feng-Shan Gao, Yan-Xia Wang, Kai-Rong Qin
BACKGROUND: Exercise has been found to either reduce or increase arterial stiffness. Land-based exercise modalities have been documented as effective physical therapies to decrease arterial stiffness. However, these land-based exercise modalities may not be suitable for overweight individuals, in terms of risks of joint injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8-week swimming training and 4-week detraining on carotid arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in young overweight adults...
December 28, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140647/effects-of-maintaining-different-exercise-intensities-during-detraining-on-aerobic-capacity-in-thoroughbreds
#4
Kazutaka Mukai, Atsushi Hiraga, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Akira Matsui, Hajime Ohmura, Hiroko Aida, James H Jones
OBJECTIVE To determine whether racehorses undergoing regular exercise at 2 intensities or stall rest during a period of reduced training (detraining) would differentially maintain their cardiopulmonary and oxygen-transport capacities. ANIMALS 27 Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURES Horses trained on a treadmill for 18 weeks underwent a period of detraining for 12 weeks according to 1 of 3 protocols: cantering at 70% of maximal rate of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]o2max) for 3 min/d for 5 d/wk (canter group); walking for 1 h/d for 5 d/wk (walk group); or stall rest (stall group)...
February 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134506/effect-of-exercise-training-and-detraining-in-autonomic-modulation-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#5
Andréa D Reis, João B Silva Garcia, Renata R Diniz, Antonio C Silva-Filho, Carlos J Dias, Richard D Leite, Cristiano Mostarda
BACKGROUNDː Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Heart rate variability has attracted scientific community attention in different pathologies, becoming thus an ultimate importance tool in both clinical and research setting, being a good predictor of cardiac events and mortality risk and also used in physical exercise and sports in general. The aim of the present study was to evaluate 12 weeks of exercise training and six weeks of detraining in cardiorespiratory capacity, and autonomic modulation in breast cancer patients...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120855/the-beneficial-effects-of-aerobic-and-concurrent-training-on-metabolic-profile-and-body-composition-after-detraining-a-1-year-follow-up-in-postmenopausal-women
#6
F E Rossi, T A Diniz, L M Neves, A C S Fortaleza, J Gerosa-Neto, D S Inoue, C Buonani, J M Cholewa, F S Lira, I F Freitas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Aerobic and concurrent training (CT, aerobic and strength training) improves body composition and metabolic profile; however, it is not known whether these positive outcomes acquired after aerobic or CT are maintained long term (⩾6 months) after program interruption in postmenopausal women. This study investigated the changes in total and appendicular body composition, bone mineral density and metabolic profile following 16 weeks of aerobic or CT, and through 6 months and 1 year of detraining in postmenopausal women...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116787/effects-of-detraining-on-anthropometry-aerobic-capacity-and-functional-ability-in-adults-with-down-syndrome
#7
P H Boer
BACKGROUND: Structured exercise has shown to improve parameters of functional fitness in adults with Down syndrome (DS). However, few, if any, continue to exercise after exercise intervention studies. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of detraining on anthropometry, aerobic capacity and functional ability of adults with DS. METHODS: In a previous study, forty-two participants either performed 12 weeks of interval training, continuous aerobic training or no training (CON)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095854/the-effects-of-detraining-and-training-on-adipose-tissue-lipid-droplet-in-obese-mice-after-chronic-high-fat-diet
#8
Ju Yong Bae, Jinhee Woo, Hee Tae Roh, Yul Hyo Lee, Kangeun Ko, Sunghwun Kang, Ki Ok Shin
BACKGROUND: It is well known that exercise promotes lipolysis by stimulating the lipid droplet (LD) signaling pathway. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the effect of detraining with high fat diet (HFD) and training effects after long-term HFD. Here, we investigated the effect of detraining and training on adipose tissue LD pathway in diet-induced obese mice after continuous HFD. METHODS: Seventy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into a Normal diet + Sedentary group (ND, n = 10) or a High-fat diet + Sedentary group (HF, n = 50); in the HF group, obesity was induced by a 45% fat chow for six weeks...
January 17, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092795/moderate-aerobic-exercise-training-for-improving-reproductive-function-in-infertile-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Behzad Hajizadeh Maleki, Bakhtyar Tartibian
This study investigated for the first time the changes in seminal markers of inflammation, oxidative stress status, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity as well as pregnancy rate following 24weeks of moderate aerobic exercise in infertile patients. A total of 1026 sedentary men (aged 25-40years) attending the infertility clinic with history of more than one year of infertility, were screened and 419 were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=210) or non-exercise (NON-EX, n=209) groups. Exercise training favorably attenuated seminal markers of both inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, 8-Isoprostane) as well as enhanced antioxidant defense system (SOD, catalase and TAC) (P<0...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071733/an-automated-method-for-large-scale-monitoring-of-seed-dispersal-by-ants
#10
Audrey Bologna, Etienne Toffin, Claire Detrain, Alexandre Campo
Myrmecochory is the process of seed dispersal by ants; however, it is highly challenging to study, mainly because of the small size of both partners and the comparatively large range of dispersal. The mutualistic interaction between ants and seeds involves the former retrieving diaspores, consuming their elaiosome (a nutrient-rich appendage), and the rejection of seeds from the nest. Here, we introduce a semi-automated method based on stitching high resolution images together, allowing the study of myrmecochory in a controlled environment over time...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065709/-the-exercise-training-restores-the-heart-rate-variability-in-heart-failure-patients-a-systematic-review
#11
Victoria Segovia, Carlos Manterola, Marcelo González, Iván Rodríguez-Núñez
: Cardiovascular diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population. In this sense the autonomic imbalance is the cornerstone of the physiopathology underlying the development of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) in adult patients with chronic heart failure. METHODOLOGY: A systematic literature review was conducted on electronic databases. The considered studies were randomized clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies with non-randomized control group, quasi-experimental studies with analysis of pre and post intervention and crossover studies with randomly assigned training and detraining periods...
January 5, 2017: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043055/hip-mechanics-underlie-lower-extremity-power-training-induced-increase-in-old-adults-fast-gait-velocity-the-potsdam-gait-study-pogs
#12
Chantal M I Beijersbergen, Urs Granacher, Martijn Gäbler, Paul DeVita, Tibor Hortobágyi
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with slowed gait and old compared with young adults generally walk with greater positive hip work (H1) and reduced positive ankle work (A2). The role of exercise interventions on old adults' gait mechanics that underlie training-induced improvements in gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of lower extremity power training and detraining on old adults' gait kinetics. METHODS: As part of the Potsdam Gait Study (POGS), healthy old adults completed a no-intervention control period (69...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019124/immediate-and-residual-effects-of-low-dose-nandrolone-decanoate-and-treadmill-training-on-adipose-and-reproductive-tissues-of-male-wistar-rats
#13
Josilene M Rodrigues, Vinicius P P Oliveira, Julia P Furlan, Ana Claudia Munhoz, Marcelo R S Rempel, Marcia N Brito, Nilton A Brito, Maria M D Pedrosa, Cecília E M Costa
CONTEXT: Residual effects after nandrolone decanoate (ND) treatment are not reported. OBJECTIVE: Immediate and residual effects of low-dose ND and treadmill training were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats were trained and/or ND-treated for four weeks and the assessments were made after this period or four weeks later. RESULTS: The groups did not differ in final plasma glucose or AUC of the ivGTT, but hyperinsulinemia was noticed in some trained/treated groups...
December 25, 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004433/effects-of-early-and-delayed-initiation-of-exercise-training-on-cardiac-and-haemodynamic-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
David W Popok, Christopher R West, Laura McCracken, Andrei V Krassioukov
What is the central question of this study? How does early versus delayed initiation of passive hindlimb cycling, as well as detraining, affect cardiac function and blood pressure control in a rodent model of spinal cord injury? What is the main finding and its importance? Early or delayed initiation of hindlimb cycling improves cardiac and haemodynamic function in spinal cord injury, although the benefits of early administration are more pronounced. We also demonstrate the need for exercise to be maintained, because detraining rapidly reverses the cardiac and haemodynamic benefits...
February 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974835/rethinking-the-process-of-detrainment-jets-in-obstructed-natural-flows
#15
Michele Mossa, Francesca De Serio
A thorough understanding of the mixing and diffusion of turbulent jets released in porous obstructions is still lacking in literature. This issue is undoubtedly of interest because it is not strictly limited to vegetated flows, but also includes outflows which come from different sources and which spread among oyster or wind farms, as well as aerial pesticide treatments sprayed onto orchards. The aim of the present research is to analyze this process from a theoretical point of view. Specifically, by examining the entrainment coefficient, it is deduced that the presence of a canopy prevents a momentum jet from having an entrainment process, but rather promotes its detrainment...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801598/eccentric-resistance-training-increases-and-retains-maximal-strength-muscle-endurance-and-hypertrophy-in-trained-men
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Giuseppe Coratella, Federico Schena
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different resistance training protocols on muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy after training and detraining. Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomized in concentric-only (CONC), eccentric-only (ECC), traditional concentric-eccentric (TRAD) bench press resistance training or control group. The training volume was equalized among the intervention groups. Bench press of 1-repetition maximum (1RM)/body mass, maximum number of repetitions (MNR), and chest circumference were evaluated at the baseline, after 6 weeks of training, and after 6 weeks of detraining...
November 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768508/asynchronous-alterations-of-muscle-force-and-tendon-stiffness-following-8-week-resistance-exercise-with-whole-body-vibration-in-older-women
#17
Seong-Won Han, Dae-Yeon Lee, Dong-Sung Choi, Boram Han, Jin-Sun Kim, Hae-Dong Lee
This study aimed to examine whether muscle force and tendon stiffness in a muscle -tendon complex alter synchronously following 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training in older people. Forty older women aged 65 years and older, were randomly assigned into Control (CON, n=15) and WBV training groups (Exposure Time (ET, n=13) and Vibration Intensity (VI, n=12)). For the training groups, 4-week detraining period was subjected following the training period. Throughout the training/detraining period, force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and stiffness of the Achilles tendon were assessed 4 times (0, 4, 8, and 12-week) using a combined system of dynamometer and ultrasonography...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755352/complete-reversion-of-cardiac-functional-adaptation-induced-by-exercise-training
#18
Attila Oláh, Dalma Kellermayer, Csaba Mátyás, Balázs Tamás Németh, Árpád Lux, Lilla Szabó, Marianna Török, Mihály Ruppert, Anna Meltzer, Alex Ali Sayour, Kálmán Benke, István Hartyánszky, Béla Merkely, Tamás Radovits
PURPOSE: Long-term exercise training is associated with characteristic cardiac adaptation, termed athlete's heart. Our research group previously characterized in vivo left ventricular (LV) function of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy in detail in a rat model; however, the effect of detraining on LV function is still unclear. We aimed at evaluating the reversibility of functional alterations of athlete's heart after detraining. METHODS: Rats (n = 16) were divided into detrained exercised (DEx) and detrained control (DCo) groups...
March 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742804/influence-of-training-intensity-on-adaptations-in-acid-base-transport-proteins-muscle-buffer-capacity-and-repeated-sprint-ability-in-active-men
#19
Cian McGinley, David J Bishop
McGinley C, Bishop DJ. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men. J Appl Physiol 121: 1290-1305, 2016. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00630.2016-This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid-base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720079/will-climate-change-affect-insect-pheromonal-communication
#20
Antoine Boullis, Claire Detrain, Frédéric Francis, François J Verheggen
Understanding how climate change will affect species interactions is a challenge for all branches of ecology. We have only limited understanding of how increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels will affect pheromone-mediated communication among insects. Based on the existing literature, we suggest that the entire process of pheromonal communication, from production to behavioural response, is likely to be impacted by increases in temperature and modifications to atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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