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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345402/clinical-and-functional-correlates-of-processing-speed-in-pediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Nathan E Cook, Ellen B Braaten, Craig B H Surman
It is well established that processing speed is negatively impacted in children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Unfortunately, exactly how processing speed vulnerabilities manifest in daily functioning has not been well established. To support clinical care of youth with ADHD, it is important to better understand the functional consequences and relevant outcomes associated with processing speed deficits. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to identify the association between processing speed and clinical or functional correlates among children or adolescents diagnosed with ADHD...
March 27, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343697/modeling-avoidance-in-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-using-reinforcement-learning
#2
Anahit Mkrtchian, Jessica Aylward, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser, Oliver J Robinson
BACKGROUND: Serious and debilitating symptoms of anxiety are the most common mental health problem worldwide, accounting for around 5% of all adult years lived with disability in the developed world. Avoidance behavior-avoiding social situations for fear of embarrassment, for instance-is a core feature of such anxiety. However, as for many other psychiatric symptoms the biological mechanisms underlying avoidance remain unclear. METHODS: Reinforcement learning models provide formal and testable characterizations of the mechanisms of decision making; here, we examine avoidance in these terms...
February 8, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342535/-professional-stressors-and-common-mental-health-disorders-causal-links
#3
C Nicolas, N Chawky, C Jourdan-Ionescu, M-S Drouin, C Page, N Houlfort, G Beauchamp, M Séguin
According to the World Health Organization, depression has become the leading cause of disability in the world, contributing significantly to the burden of health issues especially in the industrialized countries. This is a major public health problem, with potential impact on work climates, productivity at work and the continued existence of the organizations. Some recent studies have examined potential links between professional factors and common mental health disorders, but none have demonstrated a direct causal link...
March 22, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341015/impairment-of-social-function-in-young-females-with-recent-onset-anorexia-nervosa-and-recovered-individuals
#4
Mette Bentz, Jens Richardt Moellegaard Jepsen, Tine Pedersen, Cynthia M Bulik, Lennart Pedersen, Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Kerstin J Plessen
PURPOSE: A subgroup of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) displays social difficulties; however, it is not clear if individuals with comorbid autism spectrum disorders account for these difficulties. METHODS: We compared social function using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in 43 young females with first-episode AN who did not have comorbid autism spectrum disorder, 28 individuals recovered from adolescent-onset AN, and 41 healthy comparison individuals (age range 14-22 years)...
January 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339814/modulating-oxidative-stress-relieves-stress-induced-behavioral-and-cognitive-impairments-in-rats
#5
Naimesh Solanki, Ankita Salvi, Gaurav Patki, Samina Salim
Background: Persistent psychological stress often leads to anxiety disorders and depression. Benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are popular treatment options but have limited efficacy, supporting the need for alternative treatment. Based on our recent preclinical work suggesting a causal link between neurobehavioral deficits and elevated oxidative stress, we hypothesized that interventions that mitigate oxidative stress can attenuate/overcome neurobehavioral deficits...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339141/don-t-touch-me-autistic-traits-modulate-early-and-late-erp-components-during-visual-perception-of-social-touch
#6
Leehe Peled-Avron, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
Although individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have impaired responses to interpersonal touch, the underlying neural correlates remain largely unknown. Here, we examined the neural correlates that underlie interpersonal touch perception in individuals with either high or low autistic traits. Fifty-three participants were classified as having either high or low autistic traits based on their performance on the autism quotient (AQ) questionnaire. We hypothesized that individuals with high AQ scores would have relatively high touch hypervigilance, reflected as earlier P1 and stronger late positive potential (LPP) responses, two components of event-related potentials that serve as electrophysiological markers of anxiety bias...
March 24, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335879/are-social-and-communication-difficulties-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-social-anxiety
#7
Hannah Pickard, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Francesca Happé, William Mandy
OBJECTIVE: Social anxiety (SA) is a common condition associated with social and communication (SC) difficulties in typically developing young people, as well as those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Whether SC difficulties place children at risk for developing SA is unclear. Using a longitudinal design, the present study aimed to disentangle the relationship between SA symptoms and SC difficulties using a population-based sample of 9,491 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334933/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1is-essential-for-normal-hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal-hpi-axis-function
#8
Helen Eachus, Charlotte Bright, Vincent T Cunliffe, Marysia Placzek, Jonathan D Wood, Penelope J Watt
Psychiatric disorders arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including stress. Studies in rodents have shown that mutants for Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a well-accepted genetic risk factor for mental illness, display abnormal behaviours in response to stress, but the mechanisms through which DISC1 affects stress responses remain poorly understood. Using two lines of zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1, we investigated behaviour and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, the fish equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334398/maintenance-of-social-anxiety-in-stuttering-a-cognitive-behavioral-model
#9
Lisa Iverach, Ronald M Rapee, Quincy J J Wong, Robyn Lowe
Purpose: Stuttering is a speech disorder frequently accompanied by anxiety in social-evaluative situations. A growing body of research has confirmed a significant rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a chronic and disabling anxiety disorder associated with substantial life impairment. Several influential models have described cognitive-behavioral factors that contribute to the maintenance of social anxiety in nonstuttering populations. The purpose of the present article is to apply these leading models to the experience of social anxiety for people who stutter...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331743/psychiatric-symptoms-and-psychosocial-problems-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Filiz İzci, Ahmet Serkan İlgün, Ebru Fındıklı, Vahit Özmen
Cancer is a physical disease and also one of the leading clinical manifestations where psychosocial problems are prevalent. Psychosocial problems that these patients may have in the long run include anxiety, uneasiness, mourning, helplessness, fatigue, impairment of concentration, sleep disorders, mental and cognitive reservation, sexual dysfunction, infertility, psychological distress, and psychiatric disorders. Psychosocial problems have a nature of underpinning the emergence of psychological troubles. The prevalence of psychological disorders in patients with cancer range from 29% to 47%...
July 2016: J Breast Health (2013)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329305/association-between-spousal-suicide-and-mental-physical-and-social-health-outcomes-a-longitudinal-and-nationwide-register-based-study
#11
Annette Erlangsen, Bo Runeson, James M Bolton, Holly C Wilcox, Julie L Forman, Jesper Krogh, M Katherine Shear, Merete Nordentoft, Yeates Conwell
Importance: Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. Objective: To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health outcomes when compared with the general population and spouses bereaved by other manners. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide, register-based cohort study conducted in Denmark of 6...
March 22, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326752/minimal-role-of-comorbid-personality-disorder-on-the-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-anxiety-spectrum-disorders
#12
Dana Kamaradova, Klara Latalova, Jan Prasko, Ales Grambal, Zuzana Sigmundova, Petra Kasalova, Snezana Cakirpaloglu
OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on the definition of Quality of life (QoL). It is considered to be comprised of both psychological and somatical well-being. A variety of tools has been developed to measure subjective and objective (QoL). A number of factors, including demographical and medical may have an impact on QoL. The aim of our study was to compare the QoL in selected anxiety disorders and evaluate the influence of comorbid personality disorder. METHOD: We evaluated data from 278 patients suffering from social phobia, panic disorder and/or agoraphobia, adjustment disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder...
January 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326741/the-impact-of-childhood-adversities-on-anxiety-and-depressive-disorders-in-adulthood
#13
Marketa Marackova, Jan Prasko, Stanislav Matousek, Klara Latalova, Radovan Hruby, Michaela Holubova, Milos Slepecky, Kristyna Vrbova, Ales Grambal
OBJECTIVES: The childhood adversities model is generally accepted as a predictor of adult psychopathology vulnerability. It stems from child development theories, but the question remains as of how well solid research supports it. The aim of this article is to give a review of the studies concerning childhood adversities and their impact on the development of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder in adulthood. METHOD: A computerized search of the MEDLINE database of publications up to 31 March 2016 was done, using the keywords "childhood adversities, abuse, maltreatment, bullying" and "anxiety disorders, depressive disorder"...
December 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325901/correlates-of-social-exclusion-in-social-anxiety-disorder-an-fmri-study
#14
Alexandre Heeren, Laurence Dricot, Joël Billieux, Pierre Philippot, Delphine Grynberg, Philippe de Timary, Pierre Maurage
Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased information-processing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature of this sensitivity to social exclusion in SAD. Especially, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in SAD. Our primary purpose was thus to determine both the self-report and neural correlates of social exclusion in this population. 23 patients with SAD and 23 matched nonanxious controls played a virtual game ("Cyberball") during fMRI recording...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325146/hypersexuality-as-a-neuropsychiatric-disorder-the-neurobiology-and-treatment-options
#15
Hatta Sidi, Muna Asiff, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Cesar Alfonso
Hypersexuality refers to abnormally increased or extreme involvement in any sexual activity. It is clinically challenging, presents trans-diagnostically and there is extensive medical literature addressing nosology, pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric aspects. Classification includes deviant behaviours, diagnosable entities related to impulsivity, and obsessional phenomena. Some clinicians view an increase in sexual desire as 'normal' while psychodynamic theorists consider it ego-defensive at times alleviating unconscious anxiety rooted in intrapsychic conflicts...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324806/social-networking-site-sns-use-by-adolescent-mothers-can-social-support-and-social-capital-be-enhanced-by-online-social-networks-a-structured-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Samantha Nolan, Joyce Hendricks, Sally Ferguson, Amanda Towell
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: to critically appraise the available literature and summarise the evidence relating to adolescent mothers' use of social networking sites in terms of any social support and social capital they may provide and to identify areas for future exploration. BACKGROUND: social networking sites have been demonstrated to provide social support to marginalised individuals and provide psycho-social benefits to members of such groups. Adolescent mothers are at risk of; social marginalisation; anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms; and poorer health and educational outcomes for their children...
March 7, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324704/bxd-recombinant-inbred-strains-participate-in-social-preference-anxiety-and-depression-behaviors-along-sex-differences-in-cytokines-and-tactile-allodynia
#17
Caridad López-Granero, Alessandra Antunes Dos Santos, Beatriz Ferrer, Megan Culbreth, Sudipta Chakraborty, Angel Barrasa, Maria Gulinello, Aaron B Bowman, Michael Aschner
Depression and anxiety are the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a major public health concern. Dysregulation of oxidative and inflammatory systems may be associated with psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Due to the need to find appropriate animal models to the understanding of such disorders, we queried whether 2 BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice strains (BXD21/TyJ RI and BXD84/RwwJ RI mice) and C57BL/6 wild-type mice show differential performance in depression and anxiety related behaviors and biomarkers...
March 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322279/pluripotent-stem-cells-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#18
REVIEW
M A Soliman, F Aboharb, N Zeltner, L Studer
Neuropsychiatric disorders place an enormous medical burden on patients across all social and economic ranks. The current understanding of the molecular and cellular causes of neuropsychiatric disease remains limited, which leads to a lack of targeted therapies. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offers a novel platform for modeling the genetic contribution to mental disorders and yields access to patient-specific cells for drug discovery and personalized medicine. Here, we review recent progress in using iPSC technology to model and potentially treat neuropsychiatric disorders by focusing on the most prevalent conditions in psychiatry, including depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320355/severe-war-related-trauma-and-personality-pathology-a-case-control-study
#19
Jasna Munjiza, Dolores Britvic, Maja Radman, Mike J Crawford
BACKGROUND: Exposure to war-related trauma has long been recognised to have an adverse effect on mental health. We attempted to investigate whether people who have clinically significant personality-related problems 15 years after a war are more likely to have been exposed to severe war-related trauma than those who do not have significant personality difficulties. METHODS: A case -control study was conducted in southern Croatia, fifteen years after the 1991-1995 war...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318338/latent-class-profiles-of-anxiety-symptom-trajectories-from-preschool-through-school-age
#20
Sarah J Kertz, Chad Sylvester, Rebecca Tillman, Joan L Luby
Anxiety typically arises early in childhood and decreases during school age. However, little is known about the earlier developmental course of anxiety in preschool, especially in at risk children, posing a clinically important problem. Given that anxiety in youth has a chronic course for some and also predicts later development of other mental health problems, it is important to identify factors early in development that may predict chronic anxiety symptoms. At-risk children (oversampled for depression) and caregivers completed 6 assessment waves beginning at preschool age (between 3-5...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
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