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Augmentation Index

Alexander E St John, Andrew M McCoy, Allison G Moyes, Francis X Guyette, Eileen M Bulger, Michael R Sayre
Introduction: The prehospital decision of whether to triage a patient to a trauma center can be difficult. Traditional decision rules are based heavily on vital sign abnormalities, which are insensitive in predicting severe injury. Prehospital lactate (PLac) measurement could better inform the triage decision. PLac's predictive value has previously been demonstrated in hypotensive trauma patients but not in a broader population of normotensive trauma patients transported by an advanced life support (ALS) unit...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Melissa T Merrick, Megan Henly, Heather A Turner, Corinne David-Ferdon, Sherry Hamby, Akadia Kacha-Ochana, Thomas R Simon, David Finkelhor
Predictability in a child's environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused on residential mobility's effect on this predictability. This study augments such research by analyzing the impact of an instability index-including the lifetime destabilization factors (LDFs) of natural disasters, homelessness, child home removal, multiple moves, parental incarceration, unemployment, deployment, and multiple marriages--on childhood victimizations...
March 17, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Audrey R C Elias, Kari J Harris, Paul C LaStayo, Ryan L Mizner
BACKGROUND: Limited knee flexion and increased muscle co-contraction during jump landing are believed to diminish outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The efficacy of jump training to improve patients' mechanical and neuromuscular deficits is understudied. HYPOTHESIS: Jump training will improve functional, mechanical, and neuromuscular outcomes and higher repetition training augmented by body weight support will result in better retention of gains...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Bassel G Diebo, Denis Cherkalin, Cyrus M Jalai, Neil V Shah, Greg W Poorman, George A Beyer, Frank A Segreto, Virginie Lafage, Qais Naziri, Jared M Newman, William P Urban, Thomas J Errico, Frank J Schwab, Carl B Paulino, Peter G Passias
Retrospective review of National Inpatient Sample (2000-2012) revealed that 31.28% of musculoskeletal (MSK) patients were found to have in-hospital psychological burdens (PBs). Adult spinal deformity (ASD), degenerative disc disease (DDD) and lung cancer patients had highest PB-prevalence. MSK patients with PB were more often young, white females with increased Deyo index compared to no-PB patients. Patients who underwent spinal revision procedures had higher PB rates than with primary procedures; a converse trend was observed for total hip/knee arthroplasty...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
Michael Stoller, Steffen Gloekler, Rainer Zbinden, David Tueller, Franz Eberli, Stephan Windecker, Peter Wenaweser, Christian Seiler
AIMS: Testing the hypothesis that left ventricular (LV) afterload reduction in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) by transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) acutely improves coronary hemodynamics. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective, pathophysiologic study in 40 patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI. Endpoints were determined invasively immediately before and after TAVI without altering coronary stenotic lesions if present. Myocardial hyperemia was induced by intravenous adenosine...
March 20, 2018: EuroIntervention
Telmo Pereira, João Maldonado
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility, as well as the temporal variability of the new Complior Analyse assessing central arterial hemodynamic parameters through carotid pulse wave analysis (PWA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven (60% men) participants, with a mean age of 34.26±16.58 years, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. All patients were subjected to sequential measures of carotid PWA by two experienced operators...
March 13, 2018: Blood Pressure Monitoring
Maria McInerney, Vikki Ho, Anita Koushik, Isabelle Massarelli, Isabelle Rondeau, Gavin R McCormack, Ilona Csizmadi
INTRODUCTION: Poor diet quality has been shown to increase the risk of common chronic diseases that can negatively impact quality of life and burden the healthcare system. Canada's Food Guide evidence-based recommendations provide dietary guidance aimed at increasing diet quality. Compliance with Canada's Food Guide can be assessed with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI), a diet quality score. The recently designed Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (C-DHQ II), a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire could be used to estimate the C-HEI in Canadian populations with the addition of food group equivalents (representing Canada's Food Guide servings) to the C-DHQ II nutrient database...
March 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Zoe A Stewart, Malgorzata E Wilinska, Sara Hartnell, Leanne K O'Neil, Gerry Rayman, Eleanor M Scott, Katharine Barnard, Conor Farrington, Roman Hovorka, Helen R Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in technology, optimal glucose control remains elusive and neonatal complications ubiquitous in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pregnancy. Our aim was to examine the safety, efficacy, and longer-term feasibility of day-and-night closed-loop insulin delivery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 16 pregnant women (mean [SD]: age 32.8 [5.0] years, T1D duration 19.4 [10.2] years, HbA1c 8.0% [1.1%], BMI 26.6 [4.4] kg/m2 ) to an open-label, randomized, crossover trial...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes Care
Rampalli Viswa Chandra, Neeraja Suvvari, Aileni Amarender Reddy
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiographically compare the trephine core procedure and the bone-added osteotome sinus floor elevation technique in the augmentation of the sinus floor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single site in each subject requiring sinus augmentation where the residual bone height was ~4 mm was randomly allocated to either the trephine core procedure or the bone-added osteotome sinus floor elevation technique. Measures of bone fill and bone height were also acquired through scans from cone beam computed tomography obtained before the sinus augmentation procedure (baseline) and before implant placement at approximately 6 months postoperatively...
March 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Anthony Pease, Clement Lo, Arul Earnest, Danny Liew, Sophia Zoungas
BACKGROUND: Technology has been implemented since the 1970s with the hope of improving glycaemic control and reducing the burden of complications for those living with type 1 diabetes. A clinical and cost-effectiveness comparison of all available technologies including continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), sensor-augmented pump therapy (including either low-glucose suspend or predictive low-glucose suspend), hybrid closed-loop systems, closed-loop (single-hormone or dual-hormone) systems, flash glucose monitoring (FGM), insulin bolus calculators, and 'smart-device' applications is currently lacking...
March 12, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Cole S Bailey, Luke T Wooster, Mary Buswell, Sarvagna Patel, Paul P Pappagianopoulos, Kristian Bakken, Casey White, Melissa Tanguay, Jasmine B Blodgett, Aaron L Baggish, Rajeev Malhotra, Gregory D Lewis
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize the functional and prognostic significance of oxygen uptake (VO2 ) kinetics following peak exercise in individuals with heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: It is unknown to what extent patterns of VO2 recovery following exercise reflect circulatory response during exercise in HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: We investigated patients (30 HFpEF, 20 HFrEF, and 22 control subjects) who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with invasive hemodynamic monitoring and a second distinct HF cohort (n = 106) who underwent noninvasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing with assessment of long-term outcomes...
March 1, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
Mohamed Waseem Osman, Mintu Nath, Asma Khalil, David R Webb, Thompson G Robinson, Hatem A Mousa
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major clinical challenge and is likely to remain so as the incidence of GDM continues to increase AIM: To assess longitudinal changes in maternal haemodynamics amongst women diagnosed with GDM requiring either metformin or dietary intervention in comparison to low-risk healthy controls. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-six pregnant women attending their first appointment at the GDM clinic and 60 low-risk healthy pregnant controls attending their routine antenatal clinics were recruited and assigned to three groups: GDM Metformin (GDM-M), GDM Diet (GDM-D) and Control...
March 7, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Sergio Apfelbaum, Pilar Regalado, Laura Herman, Pablo Gagliesi
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) spend around 10 years without a diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The difficulty in distinguishing bipolar from unipolar depression, the prevalence of depressive symptoms along the course of BD and patients' bias in recalling their hypomanic symptoms are some of the factors that contribute to this problem. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the efficiency of several screening instruments for BD detection in a group of patients (n=63) with mood disorders, or cluster B personality disorders...
May 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Igor Elman, David Borsook
Pain is essential for avoidance of tissue damage and for promotion of healing. Notwithstanding the survival value, pain brings about emotional suffering reflected in fear and anxiety, which in turn augment pain thus giving rise to a self-sustaining feedforward loop. Given such reciprocal relationships, the present article uses neuroscientific conceptualizations of fear and anxiety as a theoretical framework for hitherto insufficiently understood pathophysiological mechanisms underlying chronic pain. To that end, searches of PubMed-indexed journals were performed using the following Medical Subject Headings' terms: pain and nociception plus amygdala, anxiety, cognitive, fear, sensory, and unconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Reshma John, P P Shajitha, Aneesha Devassy, Linu Mathew
20-Hydroxyecdysone is one of the most common ecdysteroids in plants with potential therapeutic applications. In this study, cell suspension cultures of Achyranthes aspera were raised in shake flasks to investigate the production of 20-hydroxyecdysone. The quantification and characterization of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the cultures were done by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-quadrupole time-of- flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF) analyses. For raising the suspension, calli initiated from in vitro grown leaf explants were cultured in liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with combinations of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1 ) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (1 mg L-1 )...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan, Ruojin Bu, Peter Hamilton, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Raj Padwal
Background: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with falls and cardiovascular events. There is growing evidence that central blood pressure (CBP) is better than peripheral blood pressure (PBP) in predicting adverse outcomes. The objectives of this study were to assess 1) the prevalence of OH identified using PBP and CBP and the levels of agreement, 2) the respective associations between OH and falls and cardiovascular comorbidities, by PBP and CBP, and 3) the association of OH with arterial wall stiffness markers (augmentation pressure (AP) and augmentation index (AI))...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Davoud Eskandari, Ding Zou, Ludger Grote, Erik Hoff, Jan Hedner
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (AZT) modulates blood pressure at high altitude and reduces sleep-disordered breathing in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We aimed to investigate the treatment effect of AZT and in combination with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on blood pressure in patients with hypertension and OSA. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, three-way crossover study, 13 male patients with hypertension and moderate to severe OSA (age 64 ± 7 years, body mass index 29 ± 4 kg/m2, and mean apnea-hypopnea index 37 ± 23 events/h) received AZT, CPAP, or AZT plus CPAP for 2-week periods...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Greg J Zahner, Kimberly A Spaulding, Joel L Ramirez, Melinda S Schaller, Shane C Walker, Nancy K Hills, Warren J Gasper, S Marlene Grenon
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness, measured by the augmentation index (AIX) from radial artery tonometry, and endothelial dysfunction, measured by brachial-artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), have each been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, their interrelationship in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients is poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of 123 vascular surgery outpatients, the association between FMD and AIX was examined in controls with atherosclerotic risk factors (n = 32) and patients with PAD (n = 91)...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Jacklyn K Jackson, Amanda J Patterson, Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks, Christopher Oldmeadow, Mark A McEvoy
Context: Depleted nitric oxide levels in the human body play a major role in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Inorganic nitrate/nitrite (rich dietary sources include beetroot and spinach) can act as a nitric oxide donor because nitrate/nitrite can be metabolized to produce nitric oxide. Objective: This review and meta-analysis sought to investigate the role of inorganic nitrate/nitrite in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans. Data Sources: Electronic databases, including Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, and Scopus, were searched...
March 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Nobuhiro Nakamura, Isao Muraoka
Background: Increased central arterial stiffness and/or decreased compliance reduces buffer function and increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) pulsatility, which leads to increased cerebral microvascular damage, resulting in the augmentation of the risk of cerebrovascular diseases. Resistance-trained men showed higher central arterial stiffness and lower arterial compliance than age-matched, sedentary men. This study examined the effect of increased central arterial stiffness and/or decreased arterial compliance on CBF pulsatility...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
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