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Chengjiao Duan, Linchuan Fang, Congli Yang, Weibin Chen, Yongxing Cui, Shiqing Li
Enzymes in the soil are vital for assessing heavy metal soil pollution. Although the presence of heavy metals is thought to change the soil enzyme system, the distribution of enzyme activities in heavy metal polluted-soil is still unknown. For the first time, using soil zymography, we analyzed the distribution of enzyme activities of alfalfa rhizosphere and soil surface in the metal-contaminated soil. The results showed that the growth of alfalfa was significantly inhibited, and an impact that was most pronounced in seedling biomass and chlorophyll content...
March 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Martin Kornecki, Jochen Strube
Productivity improvements of mammalian cell culture in the production of recombinant proteins have been made by optimizing cell lines, media, and process operation. This led to enhanced titers and process robustness without increasing the cost of the upstream processing (USP); however, a downstream bottleneck remains. In terms of process control improvement, the process analytical technology (PAT) initiative, initiated by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA), aims to measure, analyze, monitor, and ultimately control all important attributes of a bioprocess...
March 16, 2018: Bioengineering
Gennaro Ilardi, Daniela Russo, Silvia Varricchio, Giovanni Salzano, Giovanni Dell'Aversana Orabona, Virginia Napolitano, Rosa Maria Di Crescenzo, Alessandra Borzillo, Francesco Martino, Francesco Merolla, Massimo Mascolo, Stefania Staibano
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) can play a causative role in the development of sinonasal tract malignancies. In fact, HPV may be the most significant causative agent implicated in sinonasal tumorigenesis and is implicated in as many as 21% of sinonasal carcinomas. To date, there are no definitive, reliable and cost-effective, diagnostic tests approved by the FDA for the unequivocal determination of HPV status in head and neck cancers. We followed an exhaustive algorithm to correctly test HPV infection, including a sequential approach with p16INK4a IHC, viral DNA genotyping and in situ hybridization for E6/E7 mRNA...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elissaios Stavrou, Yansun Yao, Alexander F Goncharov, Sergey S Lobanov, Joseph M Zaug, Hanyu Liu, Eran Greenberg, Vitali B Prakapenka
Using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in concert with first principles calculations we demonstrate the synthesis of stable Xe(Fe,Fe/Ni)_{3} and XeNi_{3} compounds at thermodynamic conditions representative of Earth's core. Surprisingly, in the case of both the Xe-Fe and Xe-Ni systems Fe and Ni become highly electronegative and can act as oxidants. The results indicate the changing chemical properties of elements under extreme conditions by documenting that electropositive at ambient pressure elements could gain electrons and form anions...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Robert M B Dyer, Philip L Hahn, Michael K Hilinski
The first examples of nonenzymatic N-oxidation of heteroarenes in the presence of amines are reported. Pyridine, quinoline, and isoquinoline N-oxides are selectively formed in the presence of more reactive aliphatic and alicyclic amines by use of an in situ protonation strategy and an iminium salt organocatalyst. Application to late-stage functionalization that mimics phase 1 metabolism of small-molecule drugs is also demonstrated.
March 16, 2018: Organic Letters
Vladimir V Voronin, Maria S Ledovskaya, Evgeniy G Gordeev, Konstantin S Rodygin, Valentine P Ananikov
A novel synthetic methodology for the preparation of 1,3-disubstituted pyrazoles from in situ generated nitrile imines and acetylene is reported. The reactions are performed in a simple two-chamber reactor. One part of the reactor is loaded with hydrazonoyl chloride precursors of active nitrile imine species and a base. The other part is used to generate acetylene from CaC2 and water. Partitioning of the reactants improves the yields of desired pyrazoles up to 99% and simplifies their isolation to a simple procedure of solvent evaporation...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Xiulin Fan, Jie Yue, Fudong Han, Ji Chen, Tao Deng, Xiuquan Zhou, Singyuk Hou, Chunsheng Wang
Room temperature all solid-state Na-S batteries (ASNSBs) using sulfide solid electrolytes are a promising next-generation battery technology due to the high energy, enhanced safety, and earth abundant resources of both sodium and sulfur. Currently, the sulfide electrolyte ASNSBs are fabricated by simple cold-pressing process leaving with high residential stress. Even worse, the large volume change of S/Na2S during charge/discharge cycles induces additional stress, seriously weakening the less-contacted interfaces among the solid electrolyte, active materials and the electron conductive agent that are formed in the cold-pressing process...
March 16, 2018: ACS Nano
David Williams, Joanne L Fothergill, Benjamin Evans, Jessica Caples, Sam Haldenby, Martin J Walshaw, Michael A Brockhurst, Craig Winstanley, Steve Paterson
Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are a paradigm for within-host evolution with abundant evidence for rapid evolutionary adaptation and diversification. Recently emerged transmissible strains have spread globally, with the Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES) the most common strain infecting the UK CF population. Previously we have shown that highly divergent lineages of LES can be found within a single infection, consistent with super-infection among a cross-sectional cohort of patients...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Brendan Dyett, Hao Hao, Detlef Lohse, Xuehua Zhang
The coalescence between growing droplets is important for the surface coverage and spatial arrangements of droplets on surfaces. In this work, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is utilized to in situ investigate the formation of nanodroplets around the rim of a polymer microcap, with sub-micron spatial and millisecond temporal resolution. We observe that the coalescence among droplets occurs frequently during their growth by solvent exchange. Our experimental results show that the position of the droplet from two merged droplets is related to the size of the parent droplets...
March 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Rebecca L Cunningham, Kelly R Monk
In situ hybridization enables visualization of mRNA localization, and immunohistochemistry enables visualization of protein localization within a tissue or organism. Both techniques have been extensively utilized in zebrafish (Thisse et al., Development 119:1203-1215, 1993; Dutton et al., Development 128:4113-4125, 2001; Gilmour et al., Neuron 34:577-588, 2002; Lyons et al., Curr Biol 15:513-524, 2005) including for visualization of mRNA localization in Schwann cells (Lyons et al., Curr Biol 15:513-524, 2005; Monk et al...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Vania W Almeida, Margaret L Bates, Mary Bartlett Bunge
The transmission electron microscope (TEM) enables a unique and valuable examination of cellular and extracellular elements in tissue in situ, in cultured cells, or in pellets derived from suspensions of cells or other materials such as nanoparticles. Here we focus on the preparation of cultured Schwann cells or Schwann cell-containing dorsal root ganglion cultures. To gain as life-like as possible views of the cellular details, it is imperative to achieve excellent preservation of the cellular structure. The steps in the preparation of cultures described in this chapter represent the results of many years of accumulated TEM images to find the best methods of preservation for Schwann cells, myelin, and basal lamina components...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jamil Manji, Al-Rahim R Habib, Ameen A Amanian, Saad Alsaleh, Andrew Thamboo, Amin R Javer
PURPOSE: Synechiae formation in the middle meatus is the most common complication of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Our objectives were to determine the incidence of synechiae occurring in a cohort of patients that have undergone FESS and identify characteristics associated with the development of synechiae postoperatively. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of CRS patients, with or without nasal polyposis, that had undergone bilateral FESS in the past...
March 15, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Xiaohui Zhao, Fuqiang Fan, Huaidong Zhou, Panwei Zhang, Gaofeng Zhao
In-depth understanding of indigenous microbial assemblages resulted from aged contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of vital importance in successful in situ bioremediation treatments. Soil samples of three boreholes were collected at 12 different vertical depths. Overall, the dominating three-ring PAHs (76.2%) were closely related to distribution patterns of soil dehydrogenase activity, microbial cell numbers, and Shannon biodiversity index (H') of indigenous microorganisms. High-molecular-weight PAHs tend to yield more diverse communities...
March 15, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Zhen-Yue Wu, Chao Ma, Yu-Lin Bai, Yu-Si Liu, Shi-Feng Wang, Xiao Wei, Kai-Xue Wang, Jie-Sheng Chen
The development of sustainable and low cost electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries has attracted considerable attention. In this work, a carbon composite material decorated with in situ generated ZnS nanoparticles has been prepared via a simple pyrolysis of the rubber powder from dumped tires. Upon being used as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries, the carbon composite shows a high reversible capacity and rate capability. A capacity as high as 267 mA h g-1 is still retained after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1...
March 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yalda B Naeini, Ramir Arcega, Sharon Hirschowitz, Nagesh Rao, Haodong Xu
Malignant mesotheliomas are rather uncommon neoplasms associated primarily with asbestos exposure; however, they may also arise as second primary malignancies after radiation therapy, with a latency period of 15-25 years. Numerous studies have reported an association between pleural malignant mesothelioma and chest radiation performed for other malignancies; on the other hand, post-irradiation mesotheliomas of the pericardium have been reported in only a few published cases to date, and no homozygous deletion of 9p21 has been described in such cases...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Henrik Lauridsen, Casper Bindzus Foldager, Line Hansen, Michael Pedersen
Non-invasive methods to track the progress of stem cell therapies are important in the development of future regenerative therapies. Super-paramagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) have previously been applied to track cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo in non-regenerative animal models. To the best of the author's knowledge, the present study investigated for the first time, the feasibility of tracking SPIO labeled cells in an intrinsic regenerative environment, the regenerating limb of the axolotl, and investigated the homing of stem cell-like blastema cells to the regenerative zone...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Junjie Zhao, Berc Kalanyan, Heather F Barton, Brent A Sperling, Gregory N Parsons
In situ chemical measurements of solution/surface reactions during metal-organic framework (MOF) thin film growth can provide valuable information about the mechanistic and kinetic aspects of key reaction steps, and allow control over crystal quality and material properties. Here, we report a new approach to study the growth of MOF thin films in a flow cell using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Real-time spectra recorded during continuous flow synthesis were used to investigate the mechanism and kinetics that govern the formation of (Zn, Cu) hydroxy double salts (HDSs) from ZnO thin films and the subsequent conversion of HDS to HKUST-1...
October 24, 2017: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
Jiangwei Wang, Yanming Wang, Wei Cai, Jixue Li, Ze Zhang, Scott X Mao
Shear band in metallic crystals is localized deformation with high dislocation density, which is often observed in nanopillar deformation experiments. The shear band dynamics coupled with dislocation activities, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigate the dynamic processes of dislocation and shear band in body-centered cubic (BCC) tungsten nanowires via an integrated approach of in situ nanomechanical testing and atomistic simulation. We find a strong effect of surface orientation on dislocation nucleation in tungsten nanowires, in which {111} surfaces act as favorite sites under high strain...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
H C Sun, Z L Ning, G Wang, W Z Liang, S Pauly, Y J Huang, S Guo, X Xue, J F Sun
ZrCu-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) are well known for their plastic deformability, superior to traditional metallic glasses (MGs), which is attributed to a unique dual-phases structure, namely, the glassy matrix and unstable B2 phase. In the present study, in-situ tensile testing is used to trace the deformation process of a ZrCu-based BMGC. Three deformation stages of the BMGC, i.e., the elastic-elastic stage, the elastic-plastic stage, and the plastic-plastic stage are identified. In the elastic-elastic and elastic-plastic stages, the yield strength and elastic limit are major influenced by the volume fraction of the B2 crystals...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jieyong Ou, Hong Li, Zengguang Yan, Youya Zhou, Liping Bai, Chaoyan Zhang, Xuedong Wang, Guikui Chen
Clay minerals have been proposed as amendments for remediating metal-contaminated soils owing to their abundant reserves, high performance, simplicity of use and low cost. Two novel clay minerals, Maifan stone and illite/smectite clay, were examined in the in situ immobilisation of soil metals. The application of 0.5% Maifan stone or illite/smectite clay to field soils significantly decreased the fractions of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu and Pb. Furthermore, reductions of 35...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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