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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166628/biochar-application-for-the-remediation-of-heavy-metal-polluted-land-a-review-of-in-situ-field-trials
#1
David O'Connor, Tianyue Peng, Junli Zhang, Daniel C W Tsang, Daniel S Alessi, Zhengtao Shen, Nanthi S Bolan, Deyi Hou
Polluted land is a global issue, especially for developing countries. It has been reported that soil amendment with biochar may reduce the bioavailability of a wide range of contaminants, including heavy metal(loids), potentially reclaiming contaminated soils for agricultural use. However, there have been only limited reports on the in situ application of biochar at the field scale. This review was devoted to providing preliminary scientific evidence from these field trials, based on a review of 29 publications involving field applications of biochar in 8 different countries...
November 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166563/mechanochemical-synthesis-of-pharmaceutical-cocrystal-suspensions-via-hot-melt-extrusion-enhancing-cocrystal-yield
#2
Shu Li, Tao Yu, Yiwei Tian, Colette Lagan, David S Jones, Gavin P Andrews
Pharmaceutical cocrystals have attracted increasing attention over the past decade as an alternative way to modify the physicochemical properties and hence improve the bioavailability of a drug, without sacrificing thermodynamic stability. Our previous work has demonstrated the viability of in-situ formation of ibuprofen/isonicotinamide cocrystal suspensions within a matrix carrier via a single-step hot-melt extrusion (HME) process. The key aim of the current work is to establish optimised processing conditions to improve cocrystal yield within extruded matrices...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166507/pigmented-bowen-s-disease-associated-with-high-risk-hpv-simulating-melanoma-of-the-hand
#3
Rute Facchini Lellis, John Verrinder Veasey, Renata Diniz Jacques Gonçalves
Bowen's disease is an in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin with only 2% of pigmented cases reported. It is clinically characterized by papules and plaques of blackened surface that may be caused either by sun damage - usually in photoexposed areas in elderly individuals - or by human papillomavirus infection - usually in the anogenital region of young adults. Dermoscopic aspects of Bowen's disease are discussed for over a decade, but with no definitive criteria that would lead to a definitive diagnosis...
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166242/dynamism-of-an-astrocyte-in-vivo-perspectives-on-identity-and-function
#4
Kira E Poskanzer, Anna V Molofsky
Astrocytes are an abundant and evolutionarily conserved central nervous system cell type. Despite decades of evidence that astrocytes are integral to neural circuit function, it seems as though astrocytic and neuronal biology continue to advance in parallel to each other, to the detriment of both. Recent advances in molecular biology and optical imaging are being applied to astrocytes in new and exciting ways but without fully considering their unique biology. From this perspective, we explore the reasons that astrocytes remain enigmatic, arguing that their responses to neuronal and environmental cues shape form and function in dynamic ways...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166027/nanoscale-detection-of-intermediate-solid-solutions-in-equilibrated-lixfepo4-microcrystals
#5
Brian M May, Young-Sang Yu, Martin Holt, Fiona C Strobridge, Ulrike Bösenberg, Clare P Grey, Jordi Cabana
Redox-driven phase transformations in solids determine the performance of lithium-ion batteries, crucial in the technological transition from fossil fuels. Couplings between chemistry and strain define reversibility and fatigue of an electrode. The accurate definition of all phases in the transformation, their energetics and nanoscale location within a particle produces fundamental understanding of these couplings needed to design materials with ultimate performance. Here we demonstrate that scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy (SXDM) extends our ability to image battery processes in single particles...
November 22, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166023/rhodium-catalyzed-synthesis-of-sulfur-ylides-via-in-situ-generated-iodonium-ylides
#6
Janakiram Vaitla, Kathrin H Hopmann, Annette Bayer
A convenient strategy for the synthesis of sulfur ylides via rhodium-catalyzed coupling of in situ generated iodonium ylides with sulfides or sulfoxides has been developed. A wide range of sulfur ylides were obtained in moderate to good yields from inexpensive sulfur compounds and active methylene compounds with a short reaction time (MW, 5-10 min) or 12-16 h at rt. Furthermore, these sulfoxonium ylides were used as novel acceptor/acceptor carbenes for N-H insertion reactions.
November 22, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165979/addressing-challenges-and-scalability-in-the-synthesis-of-thin-uniform-metal-shells-on-large-metal-nanoparticle-cores-case-study-of-ag-pt-core-shell-nanocubes
#7
Umar Aslam, Suljo Linic
Bimetallic nanoparticles in which a metal is coated with an ultrathin (~1 nm) layer of a second metal are often desired for their unique chemical and physical properties. Current synthesis methods for producing such core-shell nanostructures often require incremental addition of a shell metal precursor which is rapidly reduced onto metal cores. A major shortcoming of this approach is that it necessitates precise concentrations of chemical reagents making it difficult to perform at large scales. To address this issue, we considered an approach whereby the reduction of the shell metal precursor was controlled through in-situ chemical modification of the precursor...
November 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165847/breast-lesion-characterization-using-whole-lesion-histogram-analysis-with-stretched-exponential-diffusion-model
#8
Chunling Liu, Kun Wang, Xiaodan Li, Jine Zhang, Jie Ding, Karl Spuhler, Timothy Duong, Changhong Liang, Chuan Huang
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been studied in breast imaging and can provide more information about diffusion, perfusion and other physiological interests than standard pulse sequences. The stretched-exponential model has previously been shown to be more reliable than conventional DWI techniques, but different diagnostic sensitivities were found from study to study. PURPOSE: This work investigated the characteristics of whole-lesion histogram parameters derived from the stretched-exponential diffusion model for benign and malignant breast lesions, compared them with conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and further determined which histogram metrics can be best used to differentiate malignant from benign lesions...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165762/recent-perspectives-of-pediatric-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#9
D-L Zhang, S-Z Chen, X-M Liu
The assorted circumstances characterized by malfunctioning in cognition, communication or motor skills lead to abnormal development of the central nervous system (CNS) in young infants. These conditions are collectively termed as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and are usually diagnosed during childhood or infancy. NDDs occur as frequent as 1-3% in the general population and their diagnostic yield is approximately 15-25% with existing available techniques. So, the majority of affected patients are still undiagnosed due to genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity despite the discovery of 450 genes associated with NDDs...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165500/uv-vis-spectrophotometry-of-quinone-flow-battery-electrolyte-for-in-situ-monitoring-and-improved-electrochemical-modeling-of-potential-and-quinhydrone-formation
#10
Liuchuan Tong, Qing Chen, Andrew A Wong, Rafael Gómez-Bombarelli, Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Roy G Gordon, Michael J Aziz
Quinone-based aqueous flow batteries provide a potential opportunity for large-scale, low-cost energy storage due to their composition from earth abundant elements, high aqueous solubility, reversible redox kinetics and their chemical tunability such as reduction potential. In an operating flow battery utilizing 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid, the aggregation of an oxidized quinone and a reduced hydroquinone to form a quinhydrone dimer causes significant variations from ideal solution behavior and of optical absorption from the Beer-Lambert law...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165492/controlling-the-sn-c-bonds-content-in-sno2-cnts-composite-to-form-in-situ-pulverized-structure-for-enhanced-electrochemical-kinetics
#11
Yayi Cheng, Jianfeng Huang, Hui Qi, Liyun Cao, Xiaomin Luo, Jiayin Li, Zhanwei Xu, Jun Yang
The Sn-C bonding content between the SnO2 and CNTs interface was controlled by the hydrothermal method and subsequent heat treatment. Electrochemical analysis found that the SnO2@CNTs with high Sn-C bonding content exhibited much higher capacity contribution from alloying and conversion reaction compared with the low content of Sn-C bonding even after 200 cycles. The high Sn-C bonding content enabled the SnO2 nanoparticles to stabilize on the CNTs surface, realizing an in situ pulverization process of SnO2...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165362/enhanced-oxygen-reduction-reaction-by-in-situ-anchoring-fe%C3%A2-n-nanoparticles-on-nitrogen-doped-pomelo-peel-derived-carbon
#12
Yiqing Wang, Mingyuan Zhu, Gang Wang, Bin Dai, Feng Yu, Zhiqun Tian, Xuhong Guo
The development of effective oxygen electrode catalysts for renewable energy technologies such as metal-air batteries and fuel cells remains challenging. Here, we prepared a novel high-performance oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst comprised of Fe₂N nanoparticles (NPs) in situ decorated over an N-doped porous carbon derived from pomelo peel (i.e., Fe₂N/N-PPC). The decorated Fe₂N NPs provided large quantities of Fe-N-C bonding catalytic sites. The as-obtained Fe₂N/N-PPC showed superior onset and half-wave potentials (0...
November 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165298/nail-apparatus-melanoma-in-a-japanese-population-a-comparative-study-of-surgical-procedures-and-prognoses-in-a-large-series-of-151-cases
#13
Dai Ogata, Hisashi Uhara, Arata Tsutsumida, Naoya Yamazaki, Kosuke Mochida, Masahiro Amano, Shusuke Yoshikawa, Yoshio Kiyohara, Tetsuya Tsuchida
Nail apparatus melanoma (NAM) is a rare subtype of malignant melanoma with a prevalence that varies among populations. Conservative surgical approaches for thin to intermediate NAMs have recently been reported, however, their adoption is controversial, and resulting long-term prognoses are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis of NAM in a sample Asian population, and to investigate whether there is a difference in the local control and overall survival (OS) rates according to the extent of resection of the primary tumour...
November 22, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165230/para-like-protein-influences-the-distribution-of-multi-copy-chromosomes-in-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942
#14
Satoru Watanabe, Aska Noda, Ryudo Ohbayashi, Kana Uchioke, Ami Kurihara, Shizuka Nakatake, Sayumi Morioka, Yu Kanesaki, Taku Chibazakura, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
While many bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, harbour a single-copy chromosome, freshwater cyanobacteria have multiple copies of each chromosome per cell. Although it has been reported that multi-copy chromosomes are evenly distributed along the major axis of the cell in cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, the distribution mechanism of these chromosomes remains unclear. In S. elongatus, the carboxysome, a metabolic microcompartment for carbon fixation that is distributed in a similar manner to the multi-copy chromosomes, is regulated by ParA-like protein (hereafter ParA)...
November 21, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165071/minocycline-loaded-in-situ-hydrogel-for-periodontitis-treatment
#15
Xiaoqing Wang, Jianli Ma, Xiaoming Zhu, Fang Wang, Liang Zhou
In situ hydrogel based on phase separation by solvent exchange has emerged as an attractive alternative for periodontal pocket injection. In this study, an minocycline (MCL)-loaded in situ hydrogel was prepared composed of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) to enhance the topical treatment of periodontitis. A series of reasonable and applicable formulations were optimized by investigating their syringeability, viscosity and in vitro drug release. The rheological profiles, antimicrobial activities and pharmacodynamics were further studied to evaluate its effect on periodontitis treatment...
November 20, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165002/adrenal-dependent-and-independent-stress-induced-per1-mrna-in-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-male-and-female-rats
#16
Lauren E Chun, Jenny Christensen, Elizabeth R Woodruff, Sarah J Morton, Laura R Hinds, Robert L Spencer
Oscillating clock gene expression gives rise to a molecular clock that is present not only in the body's master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also in extra-SCN brain regions. These extra-SCN molecular clocks depend on the SCN for entrainment to a light:dark cycle. The SCN has limited neural efferents, so it may entrain extra-SCN molecular clocks through its well-established circadian control of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. Glucocorticoids can regulate the normal rhythmic expression of clock genes in some extra-SCN tissues...
November 22, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164881/monitoring-local-strain-vector-in-atomic-layered-mose2-by-second-harmonic-generation
#17
Jing Liang, Jin Zhang, Zhenzhu Li, Hao Hong, Jinhuan Wang, Zhihong Zhang, Xu Zhou, Ruixi Qiao, Jiyu Xu, Peng Gao, Zhirong Liu, Zhongfan Liu, Zhipei Sun, Sheng Meng, Kaihui Liu, Dapeng Yu
Strain serves as a powerful freedom to effectively, reversibly, and continuously engineer the physical and chemical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as bandgap, phase diagram, and reaction activity. Although there is a high demand for full characterization of the strain vector at local points, it is still very challenging to measure the local strain amplitude and its direction. Here, we report a novel approach to monitor the local strain vector in 2D molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) by polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic generation (SHG)...
November 22, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164864/treatment-of-aqueous-film-forming-foam-by-heat-activated-persulfate-under-conditions-representative-of-in-situ-chemical-oxidation
#18
Thomas A Bruton, David L Sedlak
Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in an increasing number of water supplies. In many instances, the contamination is associated with the use of PFAS-containing aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) in firefighting activities. To investigate the potential for remediating AFFF contamination in groundwater with heat-activated persulfate, PFAS oxidation and the generation of transformation products was evaluated under well-controlled conditions. Fluorotelomer- and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide-based polyfluorinated compounds were transformed to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, which underwent further degradation under acidic conditions produced after persulfate decomposed...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164850/exploring-highly-reversible-1-5-electron-reactions-v3-v4-v5-in-na3vcr-po4-3-cathode-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#19
Rui Liu, Guiliang Xu, Qi Li, Shiyao Zheng, Guorui Zheng, Zhengliang Gong, Yixiao Li, Elizaveta Kruskop, Riqiang Fu, Zonghai Chen, Khalil Amine, Yong Yang
Development of highly reversible multi-electron reaction per redox center in NASICON-structured cathode materials is desired to improve the energy density of Sodium-ion batteries. Here, we investigated more than one electron storage of Na in Na3VCr(PO4)3. Combining a series of advanced characterization techniques such as ex situ 51V solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray absorption near edge structure and in situ X-ray diffraction, we reveal that, V3+/V4+ and V4+/V5+ redox couples in the materials can be accessed, leading to 1...
November 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164763/tmem207-hinders-the-tumour-suppressor-function-of-wwox-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Katsuaki Bunai, Hiroshi Okubo, Kimika Hano, Keisuke Inoue, Yusuke Kito, Chiemi Saigo, Toshiyuki Shibata, Tamotsu Takeuchi
The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) functions as a tumour suppressor in oral carcinogenesis. As aberrant TMEM207 expression may lead to tumour progression by hampering the tumour suppressor function of WWOX in various cancers, we explored the expression and pathobiological properties of TMEM207, focusing on the WWOX-mediated regulation of the HIF-1α pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). TMEM207 immunoreactivity was detected in 40 of 90 OSCC samples but not in neighbouring non-tumorous epithelial tissues...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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