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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090790/loss-of-interneuron-derived-collagen-xix-leads-to-a-reduction-in-perineuronal-nets-in-the-mammalian-telencephalon
#1
Jianmin Su, James Cole, Michael A Fox
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are lattice-like supramolecular assemblies of extracellular glycoproteins that surround subsets of neuronal cell bodies in the mammalian telencephalon. PNNs emerge at the end of the critical period of brain development, limit neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, and are lost in a variety of complex brain disorders diseases, including schizophrenia. The link between PNNs and schizophrenia led us to question whether neuronally expressed extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules associated with schizophrenia contribute to the assembly of these specialized supramolecular ECM assemblies...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088609/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-impairs-structural-and-neurochemical-development-of-rat-visual-cortex-in-vivo
#2
Maren Engelhardt, Graziella di Cristo, Jochen Grabert, Silke Patz, Lamberto Maffei, Nicoletta Berardi, Petra Wahle
Minipump infusions into visual cortex in vivo at the onset of the critical period have revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) delays the maturation of thalamocortical projection neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and tecto-thalamic projection neurons of the superior colliculus, and cortical layer IV spiny stellates and layer VI pyramidal neurons. Here, we report that P12-20 LIF infusion inhibits somatic maturation of pyramidal neurons and of all interneuron types in vivo...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087816/acetazolamide-potentiates-the-afferent-drive-to-prefrontal-cortex-in%C3%A2-vivo
#3
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Elaine A Del Bel, Joao P Leite, Osvaldo D Uchitel
The knowledge on real-time neurophysiological effects of acetazolamide is still far behind the wide clinical use of this drug. Acetazolamide - a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - has been shown to affect the neuromuscular transmission, implying a pH-mediated influence on the central synaptic transmission. To start filling such a gap, we chose a central substrate: hippocampal-prefrontal cortical projections; and a synaptic phenomenon: paired-pulse facilitation (a form of synaptic plasticity) to probe this drug's effects on interareal brain communication in chronically implanted rats...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087765/synapsin-ii-regulation-of-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-is-dependent-on-interneuron-subtype
#4
Pedro Feliciano, Heidi Matos, Rodrigo Andrade, Maria Bykhovskaia
: Synapsins are epilepsy susceptibility genes that encode phosphoproteins reversibly associated with synaptic vesicles. Synapsin II (SynII) gene deletion produces a deficit in inhibitory synaptic transmission, and this defect is thought to cause epileptic activity. We systematically investigated how SynII affects synchronous and asynchronous release components of inhibitory transmission in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. We found that the asynchronous GABAergic release component is diminished in SynII deleted (SynII(-)) slices...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087735/relationships-linking-emotional-motor-cognitive-and-gabaergic-dysfunctions-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice
#5
Cyrille Vaillend, Rémi Chaussenot
Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central GABAA receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087337/tunicamycin-impairs-olfactory-learning-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#6
Jia Tong, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Mustuo Taniguchi, Toshiharu Namba, Yu-Jie Wang, Hideto Kaba
Tunicamycin (TM) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits N-glycosylation in cells. ER stress is associated with neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and most patients complain of the impairment of olfactory recognition. Here we examined the effects of TM on aversive olfactory learning and the underlying synaptic plasticity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the intrabulbar infusion of TM disabled aversive olfactory learning without affecting short-term memory...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087137/nos-interacting-protein-nosip-is-increased-in-the-colon-of-patients-with-hirschsprung-s-disease
#7
Anne-Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Voltage-dependent K(+) channels (Kv channels) participate in electrical rhythmicity and smooth muscle responses and are regulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Kv channels also participate in the interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to neural inputs. The Kv family consists of 12 subfamilies, Kv1-Kv12, with five members of the Kv7 family identified to date: Kv7.1-Kv7.5. A recent study identified the potassium channel Kv7.5 as having a role in the excitability of ICC-IM in the mouse colon...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077715/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#8
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077335/omega-3-fatty-acids-regulate-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-prevent-behavior-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Chao Lin, Honglu Chao, Zheng Li, Xiupeng Xu, Yinlong Liu, Zhongyuan Bao, Lijun Hou, Yan Liu, Xiaoming Wang, Yongping You, Ning Liu, Jing Ji
Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) attenuate inflammation and improve neurological outcome in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we found that NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines were activated in human brains after TBI. Rats treated with ω-3 FAs had significantly less TBI-induced caspase-1 cleavage and IL-1β secretion than those with vehicle. G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) was observed to be involved in this anti-inflammation...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076982/from-structure-to-activity-using-centrality-measures-to-predict-neuronal-activity
#10
Jack McKay Fletcher, Thomas Wennekers
It is clear that the topological structure of a neural network somehow determines the activity of the neurons within it. In the present work, we ask to what extent it is possible to examine the structural features of a network and learn something about its activity? Specifically, we consider how the centrality (the importance of a node in a network) of a neuron correlates with its firing rate. To investigate, we apply an array of centrality measures, including In-Degree, Closeness, Betweenness, Eigenvector, Katz, PageRank, Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search (HITS) and NeuronRank to Leaky-Integrate and Fire neural networks with different connectivity schemes...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076803/drunken-membranes-short-chain-alcohols-alter-fusion-of-liposomes-to-planar-lipid-bilayers
#11
Jason Paxman, Brady Hunt, David Hallan, Samuel R Zarbock, Dixon J Woodbury
Although the effects of ethanol on protein receptors and lipid membranes have been studied extensively, ethanol's effect on vesicles fusing to lipid bilayers is not known. To determine the effect of alcohols on fusion rates, we utilized the nystatin/ergosterol fusion assay to measure fusion of liposomes to a planar lipid bilayer (BLM). The addition of ethanol excited fusion when applied on the cis (vesicle) side, and inhibited fusion on the trans side. Other short-chain alcohols followed a similar pattern. In general, the inhibitory effect of alcohols (trans) occurs at lower doses than the excitatory (cis) effect, with a decrease of 29% in fusion rates at the legal driving limit of 0...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075461/resistance-of-interleukin-6-to-the-extracellular-inhibitory-environment-promotes-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-following-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Gang Yang, Wen-Yuan Tang
Interleukin-6 (IL)-6 was originally discovered as a factor that contributes to the secondary pathological and inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS) following injury. However, accumulating evidence suggests that IL-6 is also involved in functional and structural recovery following CNS injury by promoting axonal sprou-ting. This suggests a potential dual role of IL-6 in CNS injury. However, the definitive function of IL-6 in neural injury and the corresponding underlying mechanisms are still topics of controversy...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074856/local-field-potentials-primarily-reflect-inhibitory-neuron-activity-in-human-and-monkey-cortex
#13
Bartosz Teleńczuk, Nima Dehghani, Michel Le Van Quyen, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos, Alain Destexhe
The local field potential (LFP) is generated by large populations of neurons, but unitary contribution of spiking neurons to LFP is not well characterised. We investigated this contribution in multi-electrode array recordings from human and monkey neocortex by examining the spike-triggered LFP average (st-LFP). The resulting st-LFPs were dominated by broad spatio-temporal components due to ongoing activity, synaptic inputs and recurrent connectivity. To reduce the spatial reach of the st-LFP and observe the local field related to a single spike we applied a spatial filter, whose weights were adapted to the covariance of ongoing LFP...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074478/ultrastructural-analysis-of-parvalbumin-synapses-in-human-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Jill R Glausier, Rosalinda C Roberts, David A Lewis
Coordinated activity of neural circuitry in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) supports a range of cognitive functions. Altered DLPFC activation is implicated in a number of human psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Proper DLPFC activity is, in part, maintained by two populations of neurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV): local inhibitory interneurons that form Type II synapses, and long-range glutamatergic inputs from the thalamus that form Type I synapses. Understanding the contributions of each PV neuronal population to human DLPFC function requires a detailed examination of their anatomical properties...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073939/nanoscale-molecular-reorganization-of-the-inhibitory-postsynaptic-density-is-a-determinant-of-gabaergic-synaptic-potentiation
#15
Francesca Pennacchietti, Sebastiano Vascon, Thierry Nieus, Christian Rosillo, Sabyasachi Das, Shiva Tyagarajan, Alberto Diaspro, Alessio Del Bue, Enrica Maria Petrini, Andrea Barberis, Francesca Cella Zanacchi
: Gephyrin is a key scaffold protein mediating the anchoring of GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses. Here we exploited super-resolution techniques combined with proximity-based clustering analysis and model simulations to investigate the single molecule gephyrin reorganization during plasticity of inhibitory synapses in mouse hippocampal cultured neurons. This approach revealed that during the expression of inhibitory long-term potentiation the increase of gephyrin density at postsynaptic sites is associated with the promoted formation of gephyrin nano-domains...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073678/natural-potential-neuroinflammatory-inhibitors-from-alhagi-sparsifolia-shap
#16
Di Zhou, Hongyan Wei, Zhe Jiang, Xuezheng Li, Kun Jiao, Xiaoguang Jia, Yue Hou, Ning Li
Neuroinflammation is a key contributor to neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In our previous work on natural effective neuroinflammatory inhibitors, Alhagi sparsifolia Shap. (Leguminosae), a folk medicine widely distributed in Xinjiang, attracted our attention because of its significant anti-neuroinflammatory effect. Therefore, further investigation of the bioactive material basis was carried out. As a result, 33 major components were characterized and identified by chromatographic and spectral methods, respectively...
December 30, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073023/functional-connectomics-how-maggots-make-up-their-minds
#17
William B Kristan
How Drosophila larvae select one behavior or a sequence of behaviors, and then persist in the final one, has been addressed by a powerful combination of electron-microscopy reconstruction of neuronal connections, genetic manipulations, electrophysiology, and neuronal modeling. Surprisingly, reciprocal inhibitory synaptic connections are major players in choosing, sequencing and maintaining behaviors.
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069497/a-modified-collagen-scaffold-facilitates-endogenous-neurogenesis-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#18
Caixia Fan, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Yannan Zhao, Hui Liang, Bin Wang, Sufang Han, Xiaoran Li, Bai Xu, Nuo Wang, Sumei Liu, Weiwei Xue, Jianwu Dai
Due to irreversible neuronal loss and glial scar deposition, spinal cord injury (SCI) ultimately results in permanent neurological dysfunction. Neuronal regeneration of neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in the spinal cord could be an ideal strategy for replenishing the lost neurons and restore function. However, many myelin-associated inhibitors in the SCI microenvironment limit the ability of spinal cord NSCs to regenerate into neurons. Here, a linearly ordered collagen scaffold was used to prevent scar deposition, guide nerve regeneration and carry drugs to neutralize the inhibitory molecules...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069437/indispensable-role-of-the-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-the-procognitive-effects-of-angiotensin-iv
#19
Jan Józef Braszko
BACKGROUND: Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a major role in brain functioning, including that of cognition-related structures such as cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory enhancing effect of the neuropeptide angiotensin IV (Ang IV) have been linked to VGCCs but only in respect of its long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing effect. OBJECTIVE: To assess behaviorally effects of L- and T-type VGCCs blocking drugs in low, behaviorally inactive, doses on Ang IV facilitation of recall of aversively (foot-shock) and appetitively (curiosity for novelty) motivated behaviors...
January 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069030/acute-stress-enhances-the-glutamatergic-transmission-onto-basoamygdala-neurons-embedded-in-distinct-microcircuits
#20
Chen Song, Wen-Hua Zhang, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Li Tian, Xiao-Ping Yin, Bing-Xing Pan
Amygdala activation is known to be critical for the processing of stressful events in brain. Recent studies have shown that the projection neurons (PNs) in amygdala, although architecturally intermingled, are integrated into distinct microcircuits and thus play divergent roles in amygdala-related behaviors. It remains unknown how stress regulates the individual amygdala PNs embedded in distinct microcircuits. Here, by using retrograde tracing and electrophysiological recording in in vitro slices, we explored the modulation of acute immobilization stress (AIS) on the basoamygdala (BA) PNs projecting either to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or elsewhere, which we designated as BA-mPFC and non-BA-mPFC PNs respectively...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Brain
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