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Inhibitory neuron

Peyton W Weems, Michael N Lehman, Lique M Coolen, Robert L Goodman
Work over the last 15 years on the control of pulsatile LH secretion has focused largely on a set of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that contains two stimulatory neuropeptides, critical for fertility in humans (kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB)) and the inhibitory endogenous opioid peptide (EOP), dynorphin, and are now known as KNDy (kisspeptin-NKB-dynorphin) neurons. In this review, we consider the role of each of the KNDy peptides in the generation of GnRH pulses and the negative feedback actions of ovarian steroids, with an emphasis on NKB and dynorphin...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Richard Lindqvist, Chaitanya Kurhade, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Flaviviruses are a group of diverse and emerging arboviruses and an immense global health problem. A number of flaviviruses are neurotropic, causing severe encephalitis and even death. Type I interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense of the innate immune system against flavivirus infection. IFNs elicit the concerted action of numerous interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to restrict both virus infection and replication. Viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an ISG with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple flaviviruses in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Oriane Blanquie, Frank Bradke
Recent years have seen cytoskeleton dynamics emerging as a key player in axon regeneration. The cytoskeleton, in particular microtubules and actin, ensures the growth of neuronal processes and maintains the singular, highly polarized shape of neurons. Following injury, adult central axons are tipped by a dystrophic structure, the retraction bulb, which prevents their regeneration. Abnormal cytoskeleton dynamics are responsible for the formation of this growth-incompetent structure but pharmacologically modulating cytoskeleton dynamics of injured axons can transform this structure into a growth-competent growth cone...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Tao Tan, Wei Wang, Haitao Xu, Zhilin Huang, Yu Tian Wang, Zhifang Dong
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display abnormalities in neuronal development, synaptic function and neural circuits. The imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synaptic transmission has been proposed to cause the main behavioral characteristics of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can directly or indirectly induce excitability and synaptic plasticity changes in the brain noninvasively. However, whether rTMS can ameliorate autistic-like behaviors in animal model via regulating the balance of E/I synaptic transmission is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Eduardo F Gallo, Jozsef Meszaros, Jeremy D Sherman, Muhammad O Chohan, Eric Teboul, Claire S Choi, Holly Moore, Jonathan A Javitch, Christoph Kellendonk
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) regulate motivated behavior, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unresolved. Here, we show that selective upregulation of D2Rs in the indirect pathway of the adult NAc enhances the willingness to work for food. Mechanistic studies in brain slices reveal that D2R upregulation attenuates inhibitory transmission at two main output projections of the indirect pathway, the classical long-range projections to the ventral pallidum (VP), as well as local collaterals to direct pathway medium spiny neurons...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Yu-Chen Lu, Yu-Jun Wang, Bin Lu, Ming Chen, Ping Zheng, Jing-Gen Liu
Itch is an unpleasant sensation that initiates scratching behavior. Itch-scratch reaction is a complex phenomenon whose occurrence implicates supraspinal structures required for regulation of sensory, emotional, cognitive, and motivational aspects. However, the central mechanisms underlying the processing of itch and the interplay of the supraspinal regions and spinal cord in regulating itch-scratch processes are poorly understood. Here, we have identified that the neural projections from anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to dorsal medial striatum (DMS) constitute a critical circuit element for regulating itch-related behaviors in the brain of male C57BL/6J mice...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Charline Kambrun, Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Chiara Salio, Marc Landry, Aziz Moqrich, Yves Le Feuvre
C-low-threshold mechanoreceptors (C-LTMRs) are sensory neurons that, beyond conveying pleasant touch, modulate nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord. However, pain alleviation by C-LTMRs remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the C-LTMR-derived TAFA4 chemokine induces a reinforcement of inhibitory synaptic transmission within spinal networks, which consequently depresses local excitatory synapses and impairs synaptic transmission from high-threshold C-fibers. In animals with inflammation induced by Freund's complete adjuvant, TAFA4 decreases the noxious stimulus-induced neuronal responses recorded in vivo and alleviates mechanical pain...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Satoshi Kuroki, Takamasa Yoshida, Hidekazu Tsutsui, Mizuho Iwama, Reiko Ando, Takayuki Michikawa, Atsushi Miyawaki, Toshio Ohshima, Shigeyoshi Itohara
Multisensory integration (MSI) is a fundamental emergent property of the mammalian brain. During MSI, perceptual information encoded in patterned activity is processed in multimodal association cortex. The systems-level neuronal dynamics that coordinate MSI, however, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate intrinsic hub-like network activity in the association cortex that regulates MSI. We engineered calcium reporter mouse lines based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor yellow cameleon (YC2.60) expressed in excitatory or inhibitory neurons...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Juan R Martinez-Galan, Ana Verdejo, Elena Caminos
Disturbances in calcium homeostasis due to canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) and/or store-operated calcium (SOC) channels can play a key role in a large number of brain disorders. TRPC channels are plasma membrane cation channels included in the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. The most widely distributed member of the TRPC subfamily in the brain is TRPC1, which is frequently linked to group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and to the components of SOC channels. Proposing TRPC/SOC channels as a therapeutic target in neurological diseases previously requires a detailed knowledge of the distribution of such molecules in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Jian Yin, Ran Li, Wenchao Liu, Yunchang Chen, Xin Zhang, Xifeng Li, Xuying He, Chuanzhi Duan
Early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to inflammation and neuronal dysfunction. There is a need for effective strategies to mitigate these effects and improve the outcome of patients who experience SAH. The mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin (TTP) is an anti-inflammatory factor that induces the decay of cytokine transcripts and has been implicated in diseases such as glioma. However, the mechanism of action of TTP in EBI after SAH is unclear. The present study investigated the effects of TTP regulation via phosphorylation in a rat model of SAH by protein phosphatase (PP)2A, which is a pleiotropic enzyme complex with multiple substrate phospho-proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Wankun L Li, Monica W Chu, An Wu, Yusuke Suzuki, Itaru Imayoshi, Takaki Komiyama
The rodent olfactory bulb incorporates thousands of newly generated inhibitory neurons daily throughout adulthood, but the role of adult neurogenesis in olfactory processing is not fully understood. Here we adopted a genetic method to inducibly suppress adult neurogenesis and investigated its effect on behavior and bulbar activity. Mice without young adult-born neurons (ABNs) showed normal ability in discriminating very different odorants but were impaired in fine discrimination. Furthermore, two-photon calcium imaging of mitral cells (MCs) revealed that the ensemble odor representations of similar odorants were more ambiguous in the ablation animals...
March 13, 2018: ELife
Li-Min Mao, Hunter J Faris, John Q Wang
The Src family kinase (SFK) is a subfamily of non-receptor tyrosine kinases. SFK members, Src and especially Fyn, are expressed in the striatum. These SFK members are involved in the regulation of neuronal and synaptic activities and are linked to the pathogenesis of a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Given the fact that muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptors are highly expressed in striatal neurons and are critical for the regulation of striatal function, we investigated the role of mACh receptors in the regulation of SFKs in the adult rat striatum in vivo...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Agnese Secondo, Alba Esposito, Tiziana Petrozziello, Francesca Boscia, Pasquale Molinaro, Valentina Tedeschi, Anna Pannaccione, Roselia Ciccone, Natascia Guida, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato
Nuclear envelope (NE) is a Ca2+ -storing organelle controlling neuronal differentiation through nuclear Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+ ]n ). However, how [Ca2+ ]n regulates this important function remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the nuclear form of the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger 1(nuNCX1) during the different stages of neuronal differentiation and the involvement of PTEN/PI3'K/Akt pathway. In neuronal cells, nuNCX1 was detected on the inner membrane of the NE where protein expression and activity of the exchanger increased during NGF-induced differentiation...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Eugenia Tomasella, Lucila Bechelli, Mora Belén Ogando, Camilo Mininni, Mariano N Di Guilmi, Fernanda De Fino, Silvano Zanutto, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Antonia Marin-Burgin, Diego M Gelman
Excessive dopamine neurotransmission underlies psychotic episodes as observed in patients with some types of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The dopaminergic hypothesis was postulated after the finding that antipsychotics were effective to halt increased dopamine tone. However, there is little evidence for dysfunction within the dopaminergic system itself. Alternatively, it has been proposed that excessive afferent activity onto ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons, particularly from the ventral hippocampus, increase dopamine neurotransmission, leading to psychosis...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Peter M Grace, Xiaohui Wang, Keith A Strand, Michael V Baratta, Yingning Zhang, Erika L Galer, Hang Yin, Steven F Maier, Linda R Watkins
The absence of selective pharmacological tools is a major barrier to the in vivo study of microglia. To address this issue, we developed a Gq - and Gi -coupled Designer Receptor Exclusively Activated by a Designer Drug (DREADD) to enable selective stimulation or inhibition of microglia, respectively. DREADDs under a CD68 (microglia/macrophage) promoter were intrathecally transfected via an AAV9 vector. Naïve male rats intrathecally transfected with Gq (stimulatory) DREADDs exhibited significant allodynia following intrathecal administration of the DREADD-selective ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), which was abolished by intrathecal interleukin-1 receptor antagonist...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Neeraj K Sethiya, Alok Nahata, Pawan Kumar Singh, S H Mishra
OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuropharmacological effect of four herbs commonly identified as source of Shankhpushpi. BACKGROUND: Shankhpushpi is an Ayurvedic drug, widely used for its actions on the central nervous system, especially to improve intellect and boost memory. Four botanicals viz. Canscora decussata Schult. (CD), Clitorea ternatea Linn. (CT), Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy. (CP) and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (EA) are considered as sources of Shankhpushpi by Indian practitioners on the basis of their morphological descriptions given in ancient texts...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Jonas Kneer, Viola Borchardt, Christian Kärgel, Christopher Sinke, Claudia Massau, Gilian Tenbergen, Jorge Ponseti, Henrik Walter, Klaus M Beier, Boris Schiffer, Kolja Schiltz, Martin Walter, Tillmann H C Kruger
BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. METHODS AND SAMPLE: This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Shruti Thapliyal, Amruta Vasudevan, Yongming Dong, Jihong Bai, Sandhya P Koushika, Kavita Babu
The C. elegans ortholog of mammalian calsyntenins, CASY-1, is an evolutionarily conserved type-I transmembrane protein that is highly enriched in the nervous system. Mammalian calsyntenins are strongly expressed at inhibitory synapses, but their role in synapse development and function is still elusive. Here, we report a crucial role for CASY-1 in regulating GABAergic synaptic transmission at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction (NMJ). The shorter isoforms of CASY-1; CASY-1B and CASY-1C, express and function in GABA motor neurons where they regulate GABA neurotransmission...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Alexandre Caron, Heather M Dungan Lemko, Carlos M Castorena, Teppei Fujikawa, Syann Lee, Caleb C Lord, Newaz Ahmed, Charlotte E Lee, William L Holland, Chen Liu, Joel K Elmquist
Leptin is critical for energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and for metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to starvation. A prevalent model predicts that leptin's actions are mediated through pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons that express leptin receptors (LEPRs). However, previous studies have used prenatal genetic manipulations, which may be subject to developmental compensation. Here, we tested the direct contribution of POMC neurons expressing LEPRs in regulating energy balance, glucose homeostasis and leptin secretion during fasting using a spatiotemporally controlled Lepr expression mouse model...
March 12, 2018: ELife
Wen Yin, Xing Li, Yannan Zhao, Jun Tan, Shuyu Wu, Yudong Cao, Juan Li, Hecheng Zhu, Weidong Liu, Guihua Tang, Li Meng, Lei Wang, Bin Zhu, Gousiyi Wang, Meizuo Zhong, Xingdong Liu, Dan Xie, Bing Chen, Caiping Ren, Zhifeng Xiao, Xingjun Jiang, Jianwu Dai
Treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a clinical challenge worldwide because of the complicated inhibitory microenvironment formed post-injury, reduced axonal regenerative ability of spinal cord neurons, and scarcity of endogenous neurogenesis within the lesion center. Taxol, in addition to stabilizing microtubules, has shown potential for decreasing axonal degeneration and reducing scar formation after SCI in rodents. In this study, we further verified the therapeutic effects and clinical potential of Taxol on restriction of scar formation and promotion of neuronal regeneration and functional recovery after severe spinal cord transection in a large animal (canine) model...
March 12, 2018: Biomaterials Science
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