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Inhibitory neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320163/inhibition-of-17-beta-estradiol-on-neuronal-excitability-via-enhancing-girk1-mediated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-currents-and-girk1-expression
#1
Yuwen Zhang, Yian Huang, Guoxiang Wang, Xin Wang, Yun Wang
BACKGROUND: Catamenial epilepsy is a common central nervous system disease in female, which is influenced by the 17-β-estradiol (estrogen) level during the menstrual cycle. Low level (<0.05ng/ml) of estrogen normally accompanies with the perimenstrual classification of catamenial epilepsy, however, without clear mechanism. In previous studies, estrogen has been demonstrated to possess widely regulatory effects on potassium channels. Here, the effect of 17-β-estradiol on modulating inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) currents was investigated in cultured hippocampal neurons...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318784/kinetics-of-endogenous-camkii-required-for-synaptic-plasticity-revealed-by-optogenetic-kinase-inhibitor
#2
Hideji Murakoshi, Myung Eun Shin, Paula Parra-Bueno, Erzsebet M Szatmari, Akihiro C E Shibata, Ryohei Yasuda
Elucidating temporal windows of signaling activity required for synaptic and behavioral plasticity is crucial for understanding molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena. Here, we developed photoactivatable autocamtide inhibitory peptide 2 (paAIP2), a genetically encoded, light-inducible inhibitor of CaMKII activity. The photoactivation of paAIP2 in neurons for 1-2 min during the induction of LTP and structural LTP (sLTP) of dendritic spines inhibited these forms of plasticity in hippocampal slices of rodents...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318488/computational-models-of-o-lm-cells-are-recruited-by-low-or-high-theta-frequency-inputs-depending-on-h-channel-distributions
#3
Vladislav Sekulić, Frances K Skinner
Although biophysical details of inhibitory neurons are becoming known, it is challenging to map these details onto function. Oriens-lacunosum/moleculare (O-LM) cells are inhibitory cells in the hippocampus that gate information flow, firing while phase-locked to theta rhythms. We build on our existing computational model database of O-LM cells to link model with function. We place our models in high-conductance states and modulate inhibitory inputs at a wide range of frequencies. We find preferred spiking recruitment of models at high (4-9 Hz) or low (2-5 Hz) theta depending on, respectively, the presence or absence of h-channels on their dendrites...
March 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315395/acute-intravenous-administration-of-dietary-constituent-theanine-suppresses-noxious-neuronal-transmission-of-trigeminal-spinal-nucleus-caudalis-in-rats
#4
Shiori Takehana, Yoshiko Kubota, Nobuo Uotsu, Kei Yui, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
Theanine is a non-dietary amino acid linked to the modulation of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system, although the acute effects of theanine in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The present study investigated whether acute intravenous theanine administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315308/target-specific-alterations-in-the-vip-inhibitory-drive-to-hippocampal-gabaergic-cells-after-status-epilepticus
#5
Linda Suzanne David, Lisa Topolnik
Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with complex reorganization of hippocampal circuits involving a significant loss of specific subtypes of GABAergic interneurons. While adaptive circuit plasticity may increase the chances for recruitment of surviving interneurons, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We studied the alterations in the inhibitory tone received by the hippocampal CA1 oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurons from the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and calretinin (CR)-expressing interneurons using the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of epilepsy...
March 14, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303403/hypocretin-orexin-and-plastic-adaptations-associated-with-drug-abuse
#6
Corey Baimel, Stephanie L Borgland
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are a critical part of the neural circuits that underlie reward learning and motivation. Dopamine neurons send dense projections throughout the brain and recent observations suggest that both the intrinsic properties and the functional output of dopamine neurons are dependent on projection target and are subject to neuromodulatory influences. Lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (also termed orexin) neurons project to the VTA and contain both hypocretin and dynorphin peptides in the same dense core vesicles suggesting they may be co-released...
March 17, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303334/an-insect-inspired-model-for-visual-binding-ii-functional-analysis-and-visual-attention
#7
Brandon D Northcutt, Charles M Higgins
We have developed a neural network model capable of performing visual binding inspired by neuronal circuitry in the optic glomeruli of flies: a brain area that lies just downstream of the optic lobes where early visual processing is performed. This visual binding model is able to detect objects in dynamic image sequences and bind together their respective characteristic visual features-such as color, motion, and orientation-by taking advantage of their common temporal fluctuations. Visual binding is represented in the form of an inhibitory weight matrix which learns over time which features originate from a given visual object...
March 16, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303333/an-insect-inspired-model-for-visual-binding-i-learning-objects-and-their-characteristics
#8
Brandon D Northcutt, Jonathan P Dyhr, Charles M Higgins
Visual binding is the process of associating the responses of visual interneurons in different visual submodalities all of which are responding to the same object in the visual field. Recently identified neuropils in the insect brain termed optic glomeruli reside just downstream of the optic lobes and have an internal organization that could support visual binding. Working from anatomical similarities between optic and olfactory glomeruli, we have developed a model of visual binding based on common temporal fluctuations among signals of independent visual submodalities...
March 16, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303263/astrocyte-ca-2-influx-negatively-regulates-neuronal-activity
#9
Yao V Zhang, Kiel G Ormerod, J Troy Littleton
Maintenance of neural circuit activity requires appropriate regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Recently, glia have emerged as key partners in the modulation of neuronal excitability; however, the mechanisms by which glia regulate neuronal signaling are still being elucidated. Here, we describe an analysis of how Ca(2+) signals within Drosophila astrocyte-like glia regulate excitability in the nervous system. We find that Drosophila astrocytes exhibit robust Ca(2+) oscillatory activity manifested by fast, recurrent microdomain Ca(2+) fluctuations within processes that infiltrate the synaptic neuropil...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303090/the-inhibitory-effect-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-hydrolase-domain-containing-6-abhd6-on-the-surface-targeting-of-glua2-and-glua3-containing-ampa-receptors
#10
Mengping Wei, Moye Jia, Jian Zhang, Lulu Yu, Yunzhi Zhao, Yingqi Chen, Yimeng Ma, Wei Zhang, Yun S Shi, Chen Zhang
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are major excitatory receptors that mediate fast neurotransmission in the mammalian brain. The surface expression of functional AMPARs is crucial for synaptic transmission and plasticity. AMPAR auxiliary subunits control the biosynthesis, membrane trafficking, and synaptic targeting of AMPARs. Our previous report showed that α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6), an auxiliary subunit for AMPARs, suppresses the membrane delivery and function of GluA1-containing receptors in both heterologous cells and neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302446/electrophysiological-evidence-of-increased-glycine-receptor-mediated-phasic-and-tonic-inhibition-by-blockade-of-glycine-transporters-in-spinal-superficial-dorsal-horn-neurons-of-adult-mice
#11
Misa Oyama, Seiya Kuraoka, Shun Watanabe, Takashi Iwai, Mitsuo Tanabe
To understand the synaptic and/or extrasynaptic mechanisms underlying pain relief by blockade of glycine transporter subtypes GlyT1 and GlyT2, whole-cell recordings were made from dorsal horn neurons in spinal slices from adult mice, and the effects of NFPS and ALX-1393, selective GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors, respectively, on phasic evoked or miniature glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs or mIPSCs) were examined. NFPS and ALX-1393 prolonged the decay phase of eIPSCs without affecting their amplitude...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301776/neurotransmitter-switching-in-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#12
Nicholas C Spitzer
Neurotransmitter switching is the gain of one neurotransmitter and the loss of another in the same neuron in response to chronic stimulation. Neurotransmitter receptors on postsynaptic cells change to match the identity of the newly expressed neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitter switching often appears to change the sign of the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or from inhibitory to excitatory. In these cases, neurotransmitter switching and receptor matching thus change the polarity of the circuit in which they take place...
March 6, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299833/unsupervised-pharmacophore-modeling-combined-with-qsar-analyses-revealed-novel-low-micromolar-sirt2-inhibitors
#13
Mohammad A Khanfar, Mutasem O Taha
Situin 2 (SIRT2) enzyme is a histone deacetylase that has important role in neuronal development. SIRT2 is clinically validated target for neurodegenerative diseases and some cancers. In this study, exhaustive unsupervised pharmacophore modeling was combined with quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis to explore the structural requirements for potent SIRT2 inhibitors using 146 known SIRT2 ligands. A computational workflow that combines genetic function algorithm with k-nearest neighbor or multiple linear regression was implemented to build self-consistent and predictive QSAR models based on combinations of pharmacophores and physicochemical descriptors...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299422/homeostatic-regulation-through-gaba-and-acetylcholine-muscarinic-receptors-of-motor-trigeminal-neurons-following-sleep-deprivation
#14
Hanieh Toossi, Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Barbara E Jones
Muscle tone is regulated across sleep-wake states, being maximal in waking, reduced in slow wave sleep (SWS) and absent in paradoxical or REM sleep (PS or REMS). Such changes in tone have been recorded in the masseter muscles and shown to correspond to changes in activity and polarization of the trigeminal motor 5 (Mo5) neurons. The muscle hypotonia and atonia during sleep depend in part on GABA acting upon both GABAA and GABAB receptors (Rs) and acetylcholine (ACh) acting upon muscarinic 2 (AChM2) Rs. Here, we examined whether Mo5 neurons undergo homeostatic regulation through changes in these inhibitory receptors following prolonged activity with enforced waking...
March 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295740/green-light-inhibits-gnrh-i-expression-by-stimulating-the-melatonin-gnih-pathway-in-the-chick-brain
#15
Liwei Zhang, Funing Chen, Jing Cao, Yulan Dong, Zixu Wang, Man Hu, Yaoxing Chen
To study the mechanism by which monochromatic light affects gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression in chicken hypothalamus, a total of 192 newly hatched chicks were divided into intact, sham-operated and pinealectomy groups and exposed to white (WL), red (RL), green (GL) and blue (BL) lights using a light-emitting diode (LED) system for 2 wk. In the GL intact group, the mRNA and protein levels of GnRH-I in the hypothalamus, the mean cell area and mean cell optical density (OD) of the GnRH-I-ir cells of the nucleus commissurae pallii (nCPa) were decreased by 13...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294153/calretinin-and-neuropeptide-y-interneurons-are-differentially-altered-in-the-motor-cortex-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-als
#16
Rosemary M Clark, Catherine A Blizzard, Kaylene M Young, Anna E King, Tracey C Dickson
Increasing evidence indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance may have a critical role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Impaired inhibitory circuitry is consistently reported in the motor cortex of both familial and sporadic patients, closely associated with cortical hyperexcitability and ALS onset. Inhibitory network dysfunction is presumably mediated by intra-cortical inhibitory interneurons, however, the exact cell types responsible are yet to be identified. In this study we demonstrate dynamic changes in the number of calretinin- (CR) and neuropeptide Y-expressing (NPY) interneurons in the motor cortex of the familial hSOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model, suggesting their potential involvement in motor neuron circuitry defects...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292736/increased-metalloproteinase-activity-in-the-hippocampus-following-status-epilepticus
#17
Deepti Dubey, Paulette A McRae, Elyse K Rankin-Gee, Esther Baranov, Luke Wandrey, Stephanie Rogers, Brenda E Porter
Increased neuronal plasticity and neuronal cell loss has been implicated in the development of epilepsy following injury. Parvalbumin fast spiking inhibitory interneurons have a robust extracellular matrix coating their cell bodies and the proximal dendrites called the perineuronal net (PNN). The role of the PNN is not clear but it has been implicated in closing of the critical period, altering seizure thresholds and providing neuronal protection from oxidative stress. The PNN is susceptible to degradation following a prolonged seizure and there is an increase in proteolytic-fragments of the PNN enriched proteoglycan aggrecan (Dzwonek et al...
March 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290150/extracellular-matrix-modulation-is-driven-by-experience-dependent-plasticity-during-stroke-recovery
#18
Miriana Jlenia Quattromani, Mathilde Pruvost, Carla Guerreiro, Fredrik Backlund, Elisabet Englund, Anders Aspberg, Tomasz Jaworski, Jakob Hakon, Karsten Ruscher, Leszek Kaczmarek, Denis Vivien, Tadeusz Wieloch
Following stroke, complete cellular death in the ischemic brain area may ensue, with remaining brain areas undergoing tissue remodelling to various degrees. Experience-dependent brain plasticity exerted through an enriched environment (EE) promotes remodelling after central nervous system injury, such as stroke. Post-stroke tissue reorganization is modulated by growth inhibitory molecules differentially expressed within the ischemic hemisphere, like chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans found in perineuronal nets (PNNs)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290133/the-effects-of-acute-gaba-treatment-on-the-functional-connectivity-and-network-topology-of-cortical-cultures
#19
Yao Han, Hong Li, Yiran Lang, Yuwei Zhao, Hongji Sun, Peng Zhang, Xuan Ma, Jiuqi Han, Qiyu Wang, Jin Zhou, Changyong Wang
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory transmitter, acting on receptor channels to reduce neuronal excitability in matured neural systems. However, electrophysiological responses of whole neuronal ensembles to the exposure to GABA are still unclear. We used micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) to study the effects of the increasing amount of GABA on functional network of cortical neural cultures. Then the recorded data were analyzed by the cross-covariance analysis and graph theory. Results showed that after the GABA treatment, the activity parameters of firing rate, bursting rate, bursting duration and network burst frequency in neural cultures decreased as expected...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289796/-neurobiological-foundations-underlying-normal-and-disturbed-sexuality
#20
T H C Krüger, J Kneer
BACKGROUND: Sexual functions are regulated by hormonal and neurochemical factors as well as neuronal networks. An understanding of these basic principles is necessary for the diagnostics, counselling and treatment of sexual problems. OBJECTIVE: Description of essential mechanisms of sexual function on a neurochemical and neuronal level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature search, selection and discussion of relevant studies. RESULTS: Analogous to the dual control model there are primary inhibitory (e...
March 13, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
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