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Inhibitory neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773979/efficient-coding-and-energy-efficiency-are-promoted-by-balanced-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-currents-in-neuronal-network
#1
Lianchun Yu, Zhou Shen, Chen Wang, Yuguo Yu
Selective pressure may drive neural systems to process as much information as possible with the lowest energy cost. Recent experiment evidence revealed that the ratio between synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I) in local cortex is generally maintained at a certain value which may influence the efficiency of energy consumption and information transmission of neural networks. To understand this issue deeply, we constructed a typical recurrent Hodgkin-Huxley network model and studied the general principles that governs the relationship among the E/I synaptic current ratio, the energy cost and total amount of information transmission...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773817/electrical-synapses-between-inhibitory-neurons-shape-the-responses-of-principal-neurons-to-transient-inputs-in-the-thalamus-a-modeling-study
#2
Tuan Pham, Julie S Haas
As multimodal sensory information proceeds to the cortex, it is intercepted and processed by the nuclei of the thalamus. The main source of inhibition within thalamus is the reticular nucleus (TRN), which collects signals both from thalamocortical relay neurons and from thalamocortical feedback. Within the reticular nucleus, neurons are densely interconnected by connexin36-based gap junctions, known as electrical synapses. Electrical synapses have been shown to coordinate neuronal rhythms, including thalamocortical spindle rhythms, but their role in shaping or modulating transient activity is less understood...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773103/-curcumin-alleviates-early-brain-injury-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-by-inhibiting-jnk-c-jun-signal-pathway
#3
Xia Li, Ji Zhu
Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of curcumin on early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by inhibiting JNK/ c-Jun signal pathway. Methods Sixty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation group (sham group), SAH group, SAH group treated with 100 mg/(kg.d) curcumin and SAH group treated with 200 mg/(kg.d) curcumin, with 15 rats in each group. Endovascular puncture was used to induce SAH model. Nissl staining was used to test whether neurons were broken...
March 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772958/arf6-and-rab11-as-intrinsic-regulators-of-axon-regeneration
#4
Bart Nieuwenhuis, Richard Eva
Adult central nervous system (CNS) axons do not regenerate after injury because of extrinsic inhibitory factors, and a low intrinsic capacity for axon growth. Developing CNS neurons have a better regenerative ability, but lose this with maturity. This mini-review summarises recent findings which suggest one reason for regenerative failure is the selective distribution of growth machinery away from axons as CNS neurons mature. These studies demonstrate roles for the small GTPases ARF6 and Rab11 as intrinsic regulators of polarised transport and axon regeneration...
May 17, 2018: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772344/the-expression-of-galanin-in-the-parafacial-respiratory-group-and-its-effects-on-respiration-in-neonatal-rats
#5
Tara G Bautista, Angelina Y Fong, Paul M Pilowsky, Keiko Ikeda, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Darko Spirovski, Hiroshi Onimaru
The inhibitory peptide galanin is expressed within the retrotrapezoidal nucleus (RTN) - a key central chemoreceptor site that also contains the active expiratory oscillator. It was previously reported that microinjection of galanin into pre-Bötzinger complex - containing the inspiratory oscillator - exerts inhibitory effects on inspiratory motor output and respiratory rhythm. In neonatal rats, the present study aimed to investigate: 1) expression of galanin within the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), which overlaps anatomically and functionally with the adult RTN, and; 2) effects of galanin on respiratory rhythm using the in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772203/the-dynamical-regime-of-sensory-cortex-stable-dynamics-around-a-single-stimulus-tuned-attractor-account-for-patterns-of-noise-variability
#6
Guillaume Hennequin, Yashar Ahmadian, Daniel B Rubin, Máté Lengyel, Kenneth D Miller
Correlated variability in cortical activity is ubiquitously quenched following stimulus onset, in a stimulus-dependent manner. These modulations have been attributed to circuit dynamics involving either multiple stable states ("attractors") or chaotic activity. Here we show that a qualitatively different dynamical regime, involving fluctuations about a single, stimulus-driven attractor in a loosely balanced excitatory-inhibitory network (the stochastic "stabilized supralinear network"), best explains these modulations...
May 16, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771287/term-or-preterm-cesarean-section-delivery-does-not-lead-to-long-term-detrimental-consequences-in-mice
#7
Morgane Chiesa, Damien Guimond, Roman Tyzio, Alexandre Pons-Bennaceur, Natalia Lozovaya, Nail Burnashev, Diana C Ferrari, Yehezkel Ben-Ari
Epidemiological studies have provided contradictory data on the deleterious sequels of cesarean section (C-section) delivery and their links with developmental brain disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders. To gain better insight on these issues, we have now compared physiological, morphological, and behavioral parameters in vaginal, term, and preterm C-section delivered mice. We report that C-section delivery does not lead to long-term behavioral alterations though preterm C-section delivery modifies communicative behaviors in pups...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770796/suppression-of-mif-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-may-underlie-the-therapeutic-effects-of-effective-components-of-fufang-danshen-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Cheng-Jie Liang, Jia-Huang Li, Zhen Zhang, Ju-Yan Zhang, Shu-Qun Liu, Jie Yang
Fufang Danshen (FFDS or Compound Danshen) consists of three Chinese herbs Danshen (Salviae miltiorrhizae radix et rhizome), Sanqi (Notoginseng radix et rhizome) and Tianranbingpian (Borneolum, or D-borneol), which has been show to significantly improve the function of the nervous system and brain metabolism. In this study we explored the possible mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of the combination of the effective components of FFDS (Tan IIA, NG-R1 and Borneol) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on network pharmacology...
May 17, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770521/nicotine-mediated-neuroprotection-of-rat-spinal-networks-against-excitotoxicity
#9
Jaspreet Kaur, Rossana Rauti, Andrea Nistri
Activation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine is reported to protect brain neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. We inquired whether a similar phenomenon can occur in the rat isolated spinal cord (or spinal slice culture) challenged by a transient (1 h) application of kainate (a powerful glutamate receptor agonist) to induce excitotoxicity mimicking spinal injury in vitro. We recorded spinal reflexes and fictive locomotion generated by the locomotor central pattern generator before and 24 h after applying kainate...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768258/multiple-actions-of-rotenone-an-inhibitor-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-on-ionic-currents-and-miniature-end-plate-potential-in-mouse-hippocampal-mhippoe-14-neurons
#10
Chin-Wei Huang, Kao-Min Lin, Te-Yu Hung, Yao-Chung Chuang, Sheng-Nan Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rotenone (Rot) is known to suppress the activity of complex I in the mitochondrial chain reaction; however, whether this compound has effects on ion currents in neurons remains largely unexplored. METHODS: With the aid of patch-clamp technology and simulation modeling, the effects of Rot on membrane ion currents present in mHippoE-14 cells were investigated. RESULTS: Addition of Rot produced an inhibitory action on the peak amplitude of INa with an IC50 value of 39...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766765/control-of-transitions-between-locomotor-like-and-paw-shake-like-rhythms-in-a-model-of-a-multistable-central-pattern-generator
#11
Jessica Rae Parker, Brain Bondy, Boris I Prilutsky, Gennady S Cymbalyuk
The ability of the same neuronal circuit to control different motor functions is an actively debated concept. Previously, we have shown in a model that a single multistable CPG could produce two different rhythmic motor patterns, slow and fast, corresponding to cat locomotion and paw-shaking. A locomotor-like rhythm (~2 Hz) and a paw-shake-like rhythm (~10 Hz) did coexist and, by applying a single pulse of current, we could switch the CPG from one regime to another (Bondy et al. 2016). Here, we investigate roles of slow intrinsic ionic currents in this multistability...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763638/effects-of-sc99-on-cerebral-ischemia-perfusion-injury-in-rats-selective-modulation-of-microglia-polarization-to-m2-phenotype-via-inhibiting-jak2-stat3-pathway
#12
Yiping Ding, Jinhong Qian, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Yan Kong, Zhuan Xu, Gang Chen
Inhibition of Janus kinases 2-Signal transducers and activators of transcription3 (JAK2-STAT3) pathway has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory actions. SC99, a novel specific inhibitor targeting JAK2-STAT3 pathway, has been verified to negatively modulate platelet activation and aggregation in vitro. In current study, a middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) model was established in Sprague Dawley rats and primary cultured microglia was exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD/R) in vitro...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763576/g-i-protein-functions-in-thalamic-neurons-to-decrease-orofacial-nociceptive-response
#13
Jennifer Strand, Crystal Stinson, Larry L Bellinger, Yuan Peng, Phillip R Kramer
Orofacial pain includes neuronal pathways that project from the trigeminal nucleus to and through the thalamus. What role the ventroposterior thalamic complex (VP) has on orofacial pain transmission is not understood. To begin to address this question an inhibitory G protein (Gi) designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD) was transfected in cells of the VP using adeno-associated virus isotype 8. Virus infected cells were identified by a fluorescent tag and immunostaining. Cells were silenced after injecting the designer drug clozapine-n-oxide, which binds the designer receptor activating Gi ...
May 12, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762123/identification-of-a-critical-sulfation-in-chondroitin-that-inhibits-axonal-regeneration
#14
Craig S Pearson, Caitlin P Mencio, Amanda C Barber, Keith R Martin, Herbert M Geller
The failure of mammalian CNS neurons to regenerate their axons derives from a combination of intrinsic deficits and extrinsic factors. Following injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) within the glial scar inhibit axonal regeneration, an action mediated by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CSPGs, especially those with 4-sulfated (4S) sugars. Arylsulfatase B (ARSB) selectively cleaves 4S groups from the non-reducing ends of GAG chains without disrupting other, growth-permissive motifs...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761601/postnatal-development-of-cholinergic-input-to-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-of-the-mouse
#15
Guela Sokhadze, Peter Whitney Campbell, William Guido
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a shell-like structure comprised of GABAergic neurons, gates signal transmission between thalamus and cortex. While TRN is innervated by axon collaterals of thalamocortical and corticothalamic neurons, other ascending projections modulate activity during different behavioral states such as attention, arousal, and sleep-wake cycles. One of the largest arise from cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and brainstem. Despite its integral role, little is known about how or when cholinergic innervation and synapse formation occurs...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760176/postnatal-ablation-of-synaptic-retinoic-acid-signaling-impairs-cortical-information-processing-and-sensory-discrimination-in-mice
#16
Esther Park, Michelle Tjia, Yi Zuo, Lu Chen
Retinoic acid (RA) and its receptors (RARs) are well-established essential transcriptional regulators during embryonic development. Recent findings in cultured neurons identified an independent and critical post-transcriptional role of RA and RARα in the homeostatic regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in mature neurons. However, the functional relevance of synaptic RA signaling in vivo has not been established. Here, using somatosensory cortex as a model system and the RARα conditional knockout mouse as a tool, we applied multiple genetic manipulations to delete RARα postnatally in specific populations of cortical neurons, and asked whether synaptic RA signaling observed in cultured neurons is involved in cortical information processing in vivo Indeed, conditional ablation of RARα in mice via a CaMKIIα-Cre or a layer 5-Cre driver line or via somatosensory cortex-specific viral expression of Cre-recombinase impaired whisker-dependent texture discrimination, suggesting a critical requirement of RARα expression in L5 pyramidal neurons of somatosensory cortex for normal tactile sensory processing...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760175/modulation-of-receptor-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-sigma-increases-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycan-degradation-through-cathepsin-b-secretion-to-enhance-axon-outgrowth
#17
Amanda Phuong Tran, Sapna Sundar, Meigen Yu, Bradley T Lang, Jerry Silver
Severed axon tips reform growth cones following spinal cord injury that fail to regenerate, in part, because they become embedded within an inhibitory extracellular matrix. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the major axon inhibitory matrix component that is increased within the lesion scar and in perineuronal nets around deafferented neurons. We have recently developed a novel peptide modulator (Intracellular Sigma Peptide or ISP) of the cognate receptor of CSPGs, protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ), which has been shown to markedly improve sensorimotor function, micturition, and coordinated locomotor behavior in spinal cord contused rats...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759144/tropisetron-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-sp-nk1r-signaling-pathway
#18
Yan Yu, Wanhu Zhu, Qing Liang, Jing Liu, Xu Yang, Guangchun Sun
Tropisetron, an antagonist of serotonin type 3 receptors (5-HT3 Rs), has been investigated in colonic inflammatory process. Since substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor (SP/NK1R) signaling pathway plays a key role in several sensory neuronal inflammatory. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of tropisetron in mice cerebral cortex, and discovered that it was a potential inhibitor in LPS-mediated neuron inflammation through SP/NK1R signaling pathway. We found that tropisetron significantly reduced the increased number of iba-1 positive microglia, down-regulated the gene transcription and protein expression of IL-1β,IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS stimulated cerebral cortex...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758356/the-influence-of-placebo-analgesia-manipulations-on-pain-report-the-nociceptive-flexion-reflex-and-autonomic-responses-to-pain
#19
Jamie L Rhudy, Yvette M Güereca, Bethany L Kuhn, Shreela Palit, Magne Arve Flaten
Expectations for pain relief and experience/conditioning are psychological factors that contribute to placebo analgesia, yet few studies have studied the physiological mechanisms underlying their effects. This study randomized 133 participants to 4 groups: an expectation only (E-only) group, a conditioning only (C-only) group, an expectation plus conditioning (E+C) group, and a natural history (NH) control group. Painful electric stimulations were delivered before and after an inert cream was applied to the site of stimulation...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758302/plasminogen-binding-inhibitors-demonstrate-unwanted-activities-on-gaba-a-and-glycine-receptors-in-human-ipsc-derived-neurons
#20
Lisbeth Kristensson, Anders Lundin, David Gustafsson, Jan Fryklund, Tomas Fex, Delsing Louise, Erik Ryberg
Plasminogen binding inhibitors (PBIs) reduce the risk of bleeding in hemorrhagic conditions. However, generic PBIs are also associated with an increased risk of seizures, an adverse effect linked to unwanted activities towards inhibitory neuronal receptors. Development of novel PBIs serve to remove compounds with such properties, but progress is limited by a lack of higher throughput methods with human translatability. Herein we apply human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived neurons in combination with dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) technology to demonstrate robust and reproducible modulation of both GABAA and glycine receptors...
May 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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