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Lei Wu, Hua Feng, Jinhua Hu, Xiangguo Tian, Chunqing Zhang
Due to the low cost and favorable safety profile, valproic acid (VPA) has been considered as a potential candidate drug for therapy of various cancers. Our present study revealed that VPA, at the concentration (1mM) which has no effect on cell proliferation, can significantly increase the in vitro migration and invasion of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) HepG2 and Huh7 cells via induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). VPA treatment can significantly increase the mRNA and protein expression of Snail, the key transcription factor of EMT...
October 18, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Andrew Kl Goey, Tristan M Sissung, Cody J Peer, William D Figg
The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) has been used for many decades in neurology and psychiatry. The more recent introduction of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) belinostat, romidepsin and vorinostat for treatment of hematological malignancies indicates the increasing popularity of these agents. Belinostat, romidepsin and vorinostat are metabolized or transported by polymorphic enzymes or drug transporters. Thus, genotype-directed dosing could improve pharmacotherapy by reducing the risk of toxicities or preventing suboptimal treatment...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
Bandy X Lee, Peter D Donnelly, Larry Cohen, Shikha Garg
The Guest Editors introduce the Special Issue for the Journal of Public Health Policy on violence, health, and the 2030 Agenda. Emphasizing the importance of collaboration between scholars and practitioners, they outline the process of jointly imagining and designing the next generation of violence prevention strategies. They include representative works of members of the World Health Organization (WHO) Violence Prevention Alliance (VPA), including the World Bank, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Prevention Institute, the Danish Institute Against Torture, the University of Cambridge Institute of Criminology, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Gender Violence and Health Centre, and the Yale University Law and Psychiatry Division, among others...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Bandy X Lee, Finn Kjaerulf, Shannon Turner, Larry Cohen, Peter D Donnelly, Robert Muggah, Rachel Davis, Anna Realini, Berit Kieselbach, Lori Snyder MacGregor, Irvin Waller, Rebecca Gordon, Michele Moloney-Kitts, Grace Lee, James Gilligan
The United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes violence as a threat to sustainability. To serve as a context, we provide an overview of the Sustainable Development Goals as they relate to violence prevention by including a summary of key documents informing violence prevention efforts by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Violence Prevention Alliance (VPA) partners. After consultation with the United Nations (UN) Inter-Agency Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goal Indicators (IAEG-SDG), we select specific targets and indicators, featuring them in a summary table...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
U C Wieshmann, G Baker
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine (CBZ), sodium valproate (VPA), lamotrigine (LTG) and levetiracetam (LEV) using the UKAED register ( METHODS: Patients on CBZ (n=91), VPA (n=61), LTG (n=105), LEV (n=72) and healthy control subjects (CTR) on no medication (n=51) were extracted. All patients had anonymously provided information on seizure type and frequency and completed the Liverpool Adverse Event Profile (LAEP). RESULTS: The number of seizure-free patients in the last 4 weeks was overall CBZ/VPA/LTG/LEV=60%/79%/67%/67%, for generalized epilepsy was CBZ/VPA/LTG/LEV=67%/89%/65%/94%, and for localization-related epilepsy was CBZ/VPA/LTG/LEV=59%/71%/67%/57%...
October 18, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Garima Shukla, Anupama Gupta, Priya Agarwal, Shivani Poornima
PURPOSE: Levetiracetam (LEV) is often chosen early in the treatment of refractory epilepsy; however, its adverse effects have largely been studied as part of clinical trials. Oxcarbazepine and valproate (VPA) are the other commonly used AEDs and, hence, serve as good comparators. This study was conducted to evaluate behavioral abnormalities and somnolence among patients with epilepsy being treated with LEV and/or OXC compared with those receiving VPA. METHOD: Data of consecutive patients attending our intractable epilepsy clinic over a 2 1/2-year period were reviewed, and patients with at least one seizure a month, who had been initiated on either or a combination of LEV, VPA, or OXC, were included for analysis...
October 15, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
InKyeom Kim
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) act as co-repressors in gene transcription by erasing the acetylation of histones, resulting in epigenetic gene silencing. Recent studies revealed that HDAC inhibitors attenuated blood pressure of several hypertensive animal models such as spontaneously hypertensive rats, hyperaldosteronism rats, angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats and pulmonary hypertensive rats. Unexpectedly, microarray studies uncovered that administration of HDAC inhibitors decreased expression of some genes for example extracellular matrix proteins, oxidative stress-related proteins, cytokines, chemokines and ion transporters, mostly targets of corticoid receptors...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Raimondo Gelormini, Mariarosaria Flacco, Giuseppe Moriello, Marika Caruso, Eugenia Barone, Maria Golato, Elena Toniato, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
BACKGROUND: Valproate is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures as well as in partial seizures as a second-line drug. It has been widely demonstrated in the literature that the effect of valproate on type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors may reduce relapse to ethanol abuse. This retrospective study evaluated a 3-year period in which 42 patients from the Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (DASA) were treated with valproate...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Rosenda Murillo, Kathryn J Reid, Elva M Arredondo, Jianwen Cai, Marc D Gellman, Nathan M Gotman, David X Marquez, Frank J Penedo, Alberto R Ramos, Phyllis C Zee, Martha L Daviglus
We examined associations of mild and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; apnea-hypopnea index ≥5 and ≥15, respectively) with recommended amounts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) or vigorous physical activity (VPA) and by type of activity (i.e., recreational, transportation, and work activity). The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a multicenter population-based study, enrolled individuals from 2008 to 2011 from four U.S. metropolitan areas (Bronx, New York; Chicago, Illinois; Miami, Florida; San Diego, California)...
October 13, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Melissa L Barker-Haliski, Taylor D Heck, E Jill Dahle, Fabiola Vanegas, Timothy H Pruess, Karen S Wilcox, H Steve White
OBJECTIVE: Infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in C57Bl/6J mice induces acute seizures and development of spontaneous recurrent seizures and behavioral comorbidities weeks later. The present studies sought to determine whether acute therapeutic intervention with an anti-inflammatory-based approach could prevent or modify development of TMEV-induced long-term behavioral comorbidities. Valproic acid (VPA), in addition to its prototypical anticonvulsant properties, inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, which may alter expression of the inflammasome...
October 14, 2016: Epilepsia
Francesco Brigo, Nicola Bragazzi, Raffaele Nardone, Eugen Trinka
AIM: The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published studies to directly compare intravenous (IV) levetiracetam (LEV) with IV phenytoin (PHT) or IV valproate (VPA) as second-line treatment of status epilepticus (SE), to indirectly compare intravenous IV LEV with IV VPA using common reference-based indirect comparison meta-analysis, and to verify whether results of indirect comparisons are consistent with results of head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs) directly comparing IV LEV with IV VPA...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Bing Zhang, Jia-Wei Zhang, Wei-Ping Wang, Rui-Fang Dong, Shuang Tian, Chao Zhang
PURPOSE: Lamotrigine (LTG) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug that is widely used in clinic. However, the effect of LTG on cognition and neurodegeneration during epilepsy treatment remains controversial. In this study, we compared the cognitive effects of LTG and sodium valproate in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled animal model, and the dose dependency was tested for LTG. METHODS: PTZ-kindled animals were divided into the following treatment groups: control group, treated with 3...
October 12, 2016: Synapse
Haibin Jin, Xiaoming Guo
BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis, which is often caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), is a serious clinical disorder characterized by excessive myocardial inflammation. Valproic acid (VPA) is described as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has anti-inflammatory effects in several inflammatory diseases. However, the role and the detailed mechanism of VPA in viral myocarditis remain unclear. METHODS: Experimental CVB3-induced myocarditis was induced in mice by intraperitoneally (i...
October 10, 2016: Virology Journal
Sungji Ha, Hyunjun Park, Usman Mahmood, Jeong Chan Ra, Yoo-Hun Suh, Keun-A Chang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and patients often display co-occurring repetitive behaviors. Although the global prevalence of ASD has increased over time, the etiology and treatments for ASD are poorly understood. Recently, some researchers have suggested that stem cells have therapeutic potential for ASD. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs), a kind of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adipose tissue, on valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism model mice...
October 4, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Sameer Hassamal, Susan Waller, Kimberly Reese, Claudia Testa
Valproic acid (VPA) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder. VPA is also used off-label to treat other conditions in psychiatry such as impulse control disorders, major depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although VPA is mostly well-tolerated, common adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), neurological symptoms (sedation, ataxia, tremor), weight gain, and alopecia...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo, Maxime Gauberti, Denis Vivien
Tuning the endogenous fibrinolytic system to prevent excessive thrombus formation is a tempting prophylactic strategy for thrombosis-related disorders [1]. However, we currently lack approved treatments able to induce a sustained hyperfibrinolytic state in humans. In this regard, valproic acid (VPA), a widely used antiepileptic drug, may be of clinical interest. Besides its still not fully understood antiepileptic properties, VPA is a class I selective histodeacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and thus affects epigenetic regulation of gene expression [2]...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Bart A Ellenbroek, Caren August, Jiun Youn
There is ample evidence that prenatal exposure to valproate (or valproic acid, VPA) enhances the risk of developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In line with this, a single injection of VPA induces a multitude of ASD-like symptoms in animals, such as rats and mice. However, there is equally strong evidence that genetic factors contribute significantly to the risk of ASD and indeed, like most other psychiatric disorders, ASD is now generally thought to results from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
P Larsson, I Alwis, B Niego, M Sashindranath, P Fogelstrand, M C L Wu, L Glise, M Magnusson, M Daglas, N Bergh, S P Jackson, R L Medcalf, S Jern
BACKGROUND: The endogenous fibrinolytic system has rarely been considered as a target to prevent thrombotic disease. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is potently increased by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in endothelial cells in vitro, but whether this translates into increased vascular t-PA production and an enhanced fibrinolytic capacity in vivo is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) stimulates production of t-PA in the vasculature of mice, and further, if VPA pre-treatment affects fibrin deposition and clot formation after mechanical vessel injury...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Stephanie E Chappel, Brad Aisbett, Grace E Vincent, Nicola D Ridgers
Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a) quantify firefighters' physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods) and across planned burn shifts; and (b) examine whether firefighters' activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women) wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Elżbieta Płonka-Półtorak, Paweł Zagrodzki, Jadwiga Kryczyk-Kozioł, Tuomas Westermarck, Pekka Kaipainen, Markus Kaski, Faik Atroshi
BACKGROUND: We aimed to demonstrate the relationship between the valproate (VPA) treatment versus lipid and serum free fatty acids (FFAs) profiles to be the potential atherosclerosis risk factor in epileptic patients. METHODS: Fasting blood samples were taken from 21 adult VPA-treated patients and 21 controls. The profiles of lipids, FFAs, clinical parameters and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. RESULTS: No significant differences between the study group and controls were found for any of the studied parameters...
September 3, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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