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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527205/moderate-physical-activity-is-associated-with-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-adults-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Ryan J Dougherty, Stephanie A Schultz, Taylor K Kirby, Elizabeth A Boots, Jennifer M Oh, Dorothy Edwards, Catherine L Gallagher, Cynthia M Carlsson, Barbara B Bendlin, Sanjay Asthana, Mark A Sager, Bruce P Hermann, Bradley T Christian, Sterling C Johnson, Dane B Cook, Ozioma C Okonkwo
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) and glucose metabolism in asymptomatic late-middle-aged adults. Ninety-three cognitively healthy late-middle-aged adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this cross-sectional study. They underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) to measure free-living PA. Accelerometer data yielded measures of light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) intensity PA...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527108/increased-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-transcripts-i-and-vi-camp-response-element-binding-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-cortex-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
G A Martínez-Levy, L Rocha, F Rodríguez-Pineda, M A Alonso-Vanegas, A Nani, R M Buentello-García, M Briones-Velasco, D San-Juan, J Cienfuegos, C S Cruz-Fuentes
A body of evidence supports a relevant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Magnetic resonance data reveal that the cerebral atrophy extends to regions that are functionally and anatomically connected with the hippocampus, especially the temporal cortex. We previously reported an increased expression of BDNF messenger for the exon VI in the hippocampus of temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to an autopsy control group. Altered levels of this particular transcript were also associated with pre-surgical use of certain psychotropic...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521116/efficacy-of-anticonvulsant-substances-in-the-6hz-seizure-test-comparison-of-two-rodent-species
#3
Elise Esneault, Guillaume Peyon, Vincent Castagné
Usually performed in the mouse, the 6Hz seizure test is used for screening potential new anticonvulsant substances against complex partial seizures. Nevertheless, advanced models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are more often performed in rats, so that possible species-related differences may complicate the development of anticonvulsant substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the 6Hz test in the rat. We first compared the effects of increasing current intensities for inducing seizures in the mouse and in the rat...
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511695/absolute-and-relative-accelerometer-thresholds-for-determining-the-association-between-physical-activity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-the-older-adults-the-generation-100-study
#4
Nina Zisko, Javaid Nauman, Silvana Bucher Sandbakk, Nils Petter Aspvik, Øyvind Salvesen, Trude Carlsen, Hallgeir Viken, Jan Erik Ingebrigtsen, Ulrik Wisløff, Dorthe Stensvold
BACKGROUND: When assessing population adherence to physical activity (PA) recommendation using accelerometers, absolute intensity threshold definition is applied despite having limited validity in those with low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), who are unable to reach them (e.g older adults). Thus, PA thresholds relative to CRF may be an alternative approach. We compared the proportion of the older adults meeting the PA recommendation when PA is assessed using absolute versus sex-and-CRF-adjusted (relative) accelerometer thresholds and determined the association between relative versus absolute moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
May 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508994/disease-modifying-effects-of-neural-regeneration-peptide-2945-in-the-gaers-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#5
Gabi Dezsi, Frank Sieg, Mark Thomas, Terence J O'Brien, Marieke van der Hart, Nigel C Jones
Epilepsy is a common neurological condition characterised by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Current anti-epileptic drugs are only effective and tolerated in ~70% of patients, leaving a substantial proportion of patients untreated. As such, there is a pressing need to develop new therapies. We assessed the anti-seizure activity of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 (NRP 2945) in the GAERS model of absence epilepsy. Drug effects on seizures were assessed using two study designs. Male adult GAERS were implanted with EEG electrodes to measure seizure frequency...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508174/preclinical-comparison-of-mechanistically-different-antiseizure-antinociceptive-and-or-antidepressant-drugs-in-a-battery-of-rodent-models-of-nociceptive-and-neuropathic-pain
#6
Misty D Smith, Jose H Woodhead, Laura J Handy, Timothy H Pruess, Fabiola Vanegas, Erin Grussendorf, Joel Grussendorf, Karen White, Karolina K Bulaj, Reisa K Krumin, Megan Hunt, Karen S Wilcox
The series of experiments herein evaluated prototype drugs representing different mechanisms of antiseizure, antinociceptive or antidepressant action in a battery of preclinical pain models in adult male CF#1 mice (formalin, writhing, and tail flick) and Sprague Dawley rats partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). In the formalin assay, phenytoin (PHT, 6 mg/kg), sodium valproate (VPA, 300 mg/kg), amitriptyline (AMI, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg), gabapentin (GBP, 30 and 70 mg/kg), tiagabine (TGB, 5 and 15 mg/kg), and acetominophen (APAP, 250 and 500 mg/kg) reduced both phases of the formalin response to ≤ 25% of vehicle-treated mice...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500975/valnoctamide-which-reduces-rat-brain-arachidonic-acid-turnover-is-a-potential-non-teratogenic-valproate-substitute-to-treat-bipolar-disorder
#7
Hiren R Modi, Kaizong Ma, Lisa Chang, Mei Chen, Stanley I Rapoport
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA), used for treating bipolar disorder (BD), is teratogenic by inhibiting histone deacetylase. In unanaesthetized rats, chronic VPA, like other mood stabilizers, reduces arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in brain phospholipids, and inhibits AA activation to AA-CoA by recombinant acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl-4) in vitro. Valnoctamide (VCD), a non-teratogenic constitutional isomer of VPA amide, reported effective in BD, also inhibits recombinant Acsl-4 in vitro...
April 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498322/valproic-acid-induces-endocytosis-mediated-doxorubicin-internalization-and-shows-synergistic-cytotoxic-effects-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#8
Subbroto Kumar Saha, Yingfu Yin, Kyeongseok Kim, Gwang-Mo Yang, Ahmed Abdal Dayem, Hye Yeon Choi, Ssang-Goo Cho
Valproic acid (VPA), a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, is used as an anti-cancer drug for various cancers, but the synergistic anti-cancer effect of VPA and doxorubicin (DOX) combination treatment and its potential underlying mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain to be elucidated. Here, we evaluate the mono- and combination-therapy effects of VPA and DOX in HCC and identify a specific and efficient, synergistic anti-proliferative effect of the VPA and DOX combination in HCC cells, especially HepG2 cells; this effect was not apparent in MIHA cells, a normal hepatocyte cell line...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494938/pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-mediates-valproic-acid-induced-neuronal-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-through-epigenetic-modifications
#9
Xi Zhang, Xiaosong He, Qingqing Li, Xuejian Kong, Zhenri Ou, Le Zhang, Zhuo Gong, Dahong Long, Jianhua Li, Meng Zhang, Weidong Ji, Wenjuan Zhang, Liping Xu, Aiguo Xuan
Although valproic acid (VPA), has been shown to induce neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs), the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated if and how mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is involved in the neuronal differentiation of VPA-induced NSCs. Our data demonstrated that mTOR activation not only promoted but also was necessary for the neuronal differentiation of NSCs induced by VPA. We further found that inhibition of mTOR signaling blocked demethylation of neuron-specific gene neurogenin 1 (Ngn1) regulatory element in induced cells...
May 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493077/lung-protective-effects-of-low-volume-resuscitation-and-pharmacologic-treatment-of-swine-subjected-to-polytrauma-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#10
Vahagn C Nikolian, Baihong Pan, Tomaz Mesar, Isabel S Dennahy, Patrick E Georgoff, Xiuzhen Duan, Baoling Liu, Xizi Wu, Michael J Duggan, Hasan B Alam, Yongqing Li
Hemorrhage is a common cause of death in the battlefield. Valproic acid (VPA) has been associated with improved outcomes in multiple models of trauma, when combined with isotonic fluid resuscitation. However, isotonic fluid administered in this setting is logistically impractical and may be associated with complications. In this study, we sought to evaluate the feasibility and immunologic impact of combining VPA treatment with low-volume hypertonic saline (HTS). In vivo: female Yorkshire swine were subjected to hemorrhage (40% total blood volume) and polytrauma (rib fracture and delayed liver injury)...
May 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490005/opposing-effects-of-valproic-acid-treatment-mediated-by-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-activity-in-four-transgenic-x-laevis-models-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#11
Ruanne Y J Vent-Schmidt, Runxia H Wen, Zusheng Zong, Colette N Chiu, Beatrice M Tam, Christopher G May, Orson L Moritz
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal degeneration (RD) that leads to blindness for which no treatment is available. RP is frequently caused by mutations in Rhodopsin; in some animal models, RD is exacerbated by light. Valproic acid (VPA) is a proposed treatment for RP and other neurodegenerative disorders, with a phase II trial for RP under way. However, the therapeutic mechanism is unclear, with minimal research supporting its use in RP. We investigated the effects of VPA on Xenopus laevis models of RP expressing human P23H, T17M, T4K, and Q344ter rhodopsins, which are associated with RP in humans...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489060/the-effect-of-vpa-on-increasing-radiosensitivity-in-osteosarcoma-cells-and-primary-culture-cells-from-chemical-carcinogen-induced-breast-cancer-in-rats
#12
Guochao Liu, Hui Wang, Fengmei Zhang, Youjia Tian, Zhujun Tian, Zuchao Cai, David Lim, Zhihui Feng
This study explored whether valproic acid (VPA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) could radiosensitize osteosarcoma and primary-culture tumor cells, and determined the mechanism of VPA-induced radiosensitization. The working system included osteosarcoma cells (U2OS) and primary-culture cells from chemical carcinogen (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats; and clonogenic survival, immunofluorescence, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosome aberrations, and comet assays were used in this study. It was found that VPA at the safe or critical safe concentration of 0...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486989/postnatal-treatment-using-curcumin-supplements-to-amend-the-damage-in-vpa-induced-rodent-models-of-autism
#13
Maha Al-Askar, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Manar Selim, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Afaf El-Ansary
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is used as a first-line antiepileptic agent and is undergoing clinical trials for use as a treatment for many disorders. Mothers undergoing VPA treatment during early pregnancy reportedly show increased rates of autism among their offspring. The benefits of curcumin supplementation were investigated using an animal model of VPA-induced autism. METHODS: The study was performed using a rodent model of autism by exposing rat fetuses to valproic acid (VPA) on the 12...
May 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486946/thymic-epithelial-tumors-phenotype-relies-on-mir-145-5p-epigenetic-regulation
#14
Teresa Bellissimo, Federica Ganci, Enzo Gallo, Andrea Sacconi, Claudia Tito, Luciana De Angelis, Claudio Pulito, Silvia Masciarelli, Daniele Diso, Marco Anile, Vincenzo Petrozza, Felice Giangaspero, Edoardo Pescarmona, Francesco Facciolo, Federico Venuta, Mirella Marino, Giovanni Blandino, Francesco Fazi
BACKGROUND: Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are the most frequent subtypes of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). A relevant advance in TET management could derive from a deeper molecular characterization of these neoplasms. We previously identified a set of microRNA (miRNAs) differentially expressed in TETs and normal thymic tissues and among the most significantly deregulated we described the down-regulation of miR-145-5p in TET. Here we describe the mRNAs diversely regulated in TETs and analyze the correlation between these and the miRNAs previously identified, focusing in particular on miR-145-5p...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481454/severe-acute-valproic-acid-intoxication-successfully-treated-with-liver-support-therapy
#15
Yongchun Ge, Bin Xu, Chuan Li, Qunpeng He, Tingting Zhu, Rong Fan, Dehua Gong
Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used for treatment of epilepsy. However, its overdose can cause intoxication and could be life-threatening. Due to lack of specific antidote and poorness of endogenous clearance, extracorporeal treatment for severe intoxication cases is indicated. Here, we report a case of severe intoxication of VPA which was successfully treated with liver support therapy. A previously healthy woman was admitted due to coma and hypotension after intentional ingestion of 20 g of sodium valproate...
May 8, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479797/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#16
Bhanu Pratap Rathaur, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Praveen Kumar Sharma, Rajesh Verma, Ravi Uniyal
OBJECTIVES: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a catastrophic epileptic encephalopathy. In Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, seizures are resistant to pharmacological treatment. In this prospective study, we evaluated the clinical features, neuroimaging, and response to treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three consecutive newly diagnosed patients of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were enrolled in the study. Baseline clinical assessment included seizure semiology, seizure frequency, electroencephalography, and neuroimaging...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472621/the-valproic-acid-induced-rodent-model-of-autism
#17
REVIEW
Chiara Nicolini, Margaret Fahnestock
Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction and by repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities. While autism has a strong genetic component, environmental factors including toxins, pesticides, infection and drugs are known to confer autism susceptibility, likely by inducing epigenetic changes. In particular, exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been demonstrated to increase the risk of autism in children...
May 2, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471989/valproic-acid-treatment-inhibits-vasopermeability-and-improves-survival-in-rats-with-lethal-scald-injury
#18
Fu-Bo Tang, Yue-Long Dai, Guo-Yong Zhou, Wen-Hua Zhang, Hai-Bin Wang, Yan-Guang Li, Rui-Liu, Hong-Min Luo, Sen Hu
The aim of this study was to examine whether administration of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, inhibits proinflammatory mediators and ameliorate visceral vasopermeability both in a rat model of major burn, and also in rat cultured endothelial cells stimulated with permeability evoking mediators. SD rats were subjected to a 50% TBSA full-thickness scald injury, and treated with either saline or VPA (300 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Pulmonary vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), myeloperoxidase (MPO), pulmonary microvascular permeability, water content, and acetylation of histone H3K9 of lungs were evaluated...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471494/body-mass-index-and-vigorous-physical-activity-in-children-and-adolescents-an-international-cross-sectional-study
#19
Irene Braithwaite, Alistair W Stewart, Robert J Hancox, Rinki Murphy, Clare R Wall, Richard Beasley, Edwin A Mitchell
AIM: To examine the relationship between reported vigorous physical activity (VPA) and body mass index (BMI) in children (6-7 years) and adolescents (13-14 years). METHODS: In the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase Three, 75,895 children's parents and 199,502 adolescents answered questions relating to VPA, height and weight. The association between VPA and BMI was analysed using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index...
May 4, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466144/comparative-analysis-of-background-eeg-activity-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy-during-valproate-treatment-a-standardized-low-resolution-brain-electromagnetic-tomography-sloreta-study
#20
Jung-Hyun Shin, Tae-Hoon Eom, Young-Hoon Kim, Seung-Yun Chung, In-Goo Lee, Jung-Min Kim
Valproate (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug (AED) used for initial monotherapy in treating childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). EEG might be an alternative approach to explore the effects of AEDs on the central nervous system. We performed a comparative analysis of background EEG activity during VPA treatment by using standardized, low-resolution, brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) to explore the effect of VPA in patients with CAE. In 17 children with CAE, non-parametric statistical analyses using sLORETA were performed to compare the current density distribution of four frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) between the untreated and treated condition...
May 2, 2017: Neurological Sciences
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