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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711654/involvement-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-neurite-outgrowth-in-the-model-mice-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Koichi Kawada, Seisuke Mimori, Yasunobu Okuma, Yasuyuki Nomura
Neurodevelopmental disorders are congenital impairments, impeding the growth and development of the central nervous system. These disorders include autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. ASD is caused by a gene defect and chromosomal duplication. Despite numerous reports on ASD, the pathogenic mechanisms are not clear. The optimal methods to prevent ASD and to treat it are also not clear. Other studies have reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710230/the-tissue-reconstructing-ability-of-colon-cscs-is-enhanced-by-fk506-and-suppressed-by-gsk3-inhibition
#2
Ryo Ishida, Michiyo Koyanagi-Aoi, Nobu Oshima, Yoshihiro Kakeji, Takashi Aoi
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are capable of reconstructing cancer tissues, are involved in both recurrence and metastasis, and contribute to therapeutic resistance. Therefore, elucidating the molecular mechanism in CSCs is important to successfully treat unresectable cancers. Previously we observed that colon cancer stem-like cells can be induced from human colon cancer cell lines by retrovirally introducing OCT3/4, SOX2 and KLF4, and we have designated such cells as induced cancer stem cells (iCSCs). In the current study, we used iCSCs to evaluate the molecular mechanism of colon CSCs and developed new methods to control them...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700628/asiatic-acid-protects-against-cognitive-deficits-and-reductions-in-cell-proliferation-and-survival-in-the-rat-hippocampus-caused-by-5-fluorouracil-chemotherapy
#3
Pornthip Chaisawang, Apiwat Sirichoat, Wunnee Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wanassanun Pannangrong, Bungorn Sripanidkulchai, Peter Wigmore, Jariya Umka Welbat
The chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), has been reported to cause cognitive impairments in cancer patients. The drug also reduces cell proliferation and survival in the brain. Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpene compound found in Centella asiatica that can protect against reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus and memory deficits induced by valproic acid (VPA). In the present study, we investigated the preventive effects of AA on the deficits in spatial working memory and cell proliferation and survival caused by 5-FU chemotherapy in a rat model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700524/challenges-for-detecting-valproic-acid-in-a-nontargeted-urine-drug-screening-method
#4
Jeffrey D Pope, Marion J Black, Olaf H Drummer, Hans G Schneider
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely prescribed medicine, and acute toxicity is possible. As such, it should be included in any nontargeted urine drug screening method. In many published liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) methods, VPA is usually measured using a pseudo-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition. We investigate a simple ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (QTof) approach to detect the presence of VPA with more confidence...
August 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700449/development-of-a-simple-and-rapid-method-to-measure-free-fraction-of-valproic-acid-in-plasma-using-ultrafiltration-and-uhplc-ms-application-to-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#5
Shansen Xu, Yanan Chen, Mingming Zhao, Limei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used as an antiepileptic drug in children, and it is usually co-administered with other antiepileptic drugs. Due to its narrow therapeutic range and large variations in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behavior in different individuals, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the trough total VPA concentration is commonly used to guide dosing. However, as only the free fraction of VPA that exerts pharmacological and toxic effects, it may be more meaningful to determine the unbound VPA concentration in plasma...
July 8, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697014/valproic-acid-decreases-brain-lesion-size-and-improves-neurologic-recovery-in-swine-subjected-to-traumatic-brain-injury-hemorrhagic-shock-and-polytrauma
#6
Vahagn C Nikolian, Patrick E Georgoff, Manjunath P Pai, Isabel S Dehaney, Kiril Chtraklin, Hassan Eidy, Mohamed Ghandour, Yanyan Han, Ashok Srinivasan, Yongqing Li, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that treatment with valproic acid (VPA) decreases brain lesion size in swine models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and controlled hemorrhage. To translate this treatment into clinical practice, validation of drug efficacy and evaluation of pharmacologic properties in clinically realistic models of injury are necessary. In this study, we evaluate neurologic outcomes and perform pharmacokinetic analysis of a single dose of VPA in swine subjected to TBI, hemorrhagic shock, and visceral hemorrhage...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690671/association-between-the-blood-concentrations-of-ammonia-and-carnitine-amino-acid-of-schizophrenic-patients-treated-with-valproic-acid
#7
Masazumi Ando, Hideaki Amayasu, Takahiro Itai, Hisahiro Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Administration of valproic acid (VPA) is complicated with approximately 0.9% of patients developing hyperammonemia, but the pathogenesis of this adverse effect remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to search for mechanisms associated with VPA-induced hyperammonemia in the light of changes in serum amino acids concentrations associated with the urea cycle of schizophrenic patients. METHOD: Blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from 37 schizophrenic patients receiving VPA for the prevention of violent behaviors in the morning after overnight fast...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689437/the-effect-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-the-kidney-function-and-structure
#8
S Hamed
Abtract Introduction: Long-term use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is associated with number of somatic conditions. Data from experimental, cross-sectional and prospective studies have evidence for the deleterious effect of some AEDs on the kidney. Areas Covered: This review summarized the current knowledge of the effect of AEDs on the kidney including evidence and mechanisms. Fanconi syndrome was reported with valproate (VPA) therapy in severely disabled children with epilepsy. Renal tubular acidosis and urolithiasis were reported with acetazolamide, topirmate and zonisamide, drugs with carbonic anhydrase inhibition properties...
July 10, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688299/vertical-and-horizontal-assemblage-patterns-of-bacterial-communities-in-a-eutrophic-river-receiving-domestic-wastewater-in-southeast-china
#9
Yan Gao, Chengcheng Wang, Weiguo Zhang, Panpan Di, Neng Yi, Chengrong Chen
Bacterial communities in rivers receiving untreated domestic wastewater may show specific spatial assemblage patterns due to a wide range of physicochemical conditions created by periodic algal bloom. However, there are significant gaps in understanding environmental forces that drive changes in microbial assemblages in polluted rivers. In this study, we applied high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to perform comprehensive spatio-temporal profiling of bacterial community structure in a local river segment receiving domestic wastewater discharge in southeast China...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687613/valproic-acid-induces-aberrant-development-of-striatal-compartments-and-corticostriatal-pathways-in-a-mouse-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Hsiao-Ying Kuo, Fu-Chin Liu
The striatum comprises two neurochemical compartments: striosomes and the matrix. Striosomal and matrix compartments receive inputs from limbic-related and sensorimotor cortices, respectively. Here, we investigate the impact on the corticostriosomal pathway in the valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism spectrum disorder mouse model. VPA administration during the neurogenesis time windows of striosomes, but not the matrix, resulted in aberrant compartmentation [i.e., maternal VPA injections at embryonic day (E)12...
July 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682924/lamotrigine-drug-interactions-in-combination-therapy-and-the-influence-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-on-clinical-outcomes-of-adult-patients
#11
Milan Grundmann, Blanka Koristkova, Hana Brozmanova, Ivana Kacirova
BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) on patients on lamotrigine (LTG) therapy and the evaluation of possible drug interactions, especially in triple antiepileptic drug combinations. METHODS: During the period of 2001-2014, 3118 pre-dose samples were taken from 1137 patients >15 years of age as part of their routine TDM. Drug interactions were evaluated using calculation of LTG clearance. RESULTS: Valproic acid (VPA) decreased LTG clearance by 66% in bitherapy, and by 35% and 31% in triple therapy with carbamazepine (CBZ) and phenytoin (PHT) respectively...
July 3, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681096/anticonvulsant-effect-of-swertiamarin-against-pilocarpine-induced-seizures-in-adult-male-mice
#12
Xian-Hua Deng, Xiao Zhang, Jing Wang, Peng-Sheng Ma, Lin Ma, Yang Niu, Tao Sun, Ru Zhou, Jian-Qiang Yu
Epilepsy is one of the common and major neurological disorders, approximately a third of the individuals with epilepsy suffer from seizures and not able to successfully respond to available medications. Current study was designed to investigate whether Swertiamarin (Swe) had anticonvulsant activity in the pilocarpine (PILO)-treated mice. Thirty minutes prior to the PILO (280 mg/kg) injection, the mice were administrated with Swe (50, 150, and 450 mg/kg) and valproate sodium (VPA, 200 mg/kg) once. Seizures and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed, and then the mice were killed for Nissl, Fluoro-jade B (FJB) staining...
July 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677769/valproic-acid-enforces-the-priming-effect-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-on-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Jisun Lim, Seungun Lee, Hyein Ju, Yonghwan Kim, Jinbeom Heo, Hye-Yeon Lee, Kyung-Chul Choi, Jaekyoung Son, Yeon-Mok Oh, In-Gyu Kim, Dong-Myung Shin
Engraftment and homing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are modulated by priming factors including the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), by stimulating CXCR4 receptor signaling cascades. However, limited in vivo efficacy and the remaining priming molecules prior to administration of MSCs can provoke concerns regarding the efficiency and safety of MSC priming. Here, we showed that valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enforced the priming effect of S1P at a low dosage for human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs)...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670439/prenatal-exposure-to-valproic-acid-increases-mir-132-levels-in-the-mouse-embryonic-brain
#14
Yuta Hara, Yukio Ago, Erika Takano, Shigeru Hasebe, Takanobu Nakazawa, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Toshio Matsuda, Kazuhiro Takuma
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNAs, are highly expressed in the mammalian brain, and the dysregulation of microRNA levels may be involved in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the present study, we examined whether prenatal valproic acid (VPA) exposure affects levels of microRNAs, especially the brain specific and enriched microRNAs, in the mouse embryonic brain. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to VPA at E12.5 immediately increased miR-132 levels, but not miR-9 or miR-124 levels, in the male embryonic brain...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670399/valproic-acid-targets-papillary-thyroid-cancer-through-inhibition-of-c-met-signalling-pathway
#15
Yan-Tao Fu, Hai-Bo Zheng, Le Zhou, Da-Qi Zhang, Xiao-Li Liu, Hui Sun
Tyrosine kinase receptors such as c-Met and its ligands are interesting therapeutic targets that have been reported to be involved in the progression of several types of cancers. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA) is one such compound with promising anti-cancer properties. The current study was designed to evaluate the c-Met activity of VPA in thyroid carcinoma. A total 36 nu/nu mice with SW1736 cells-induced tumours were randomised into three treatment groups (5, 15, 30 mg/kg/day p.o. VPA; n = 9/group)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668269/valproic-acid-alters-the-content-and-function-of-the-cell-free-dna-released-by-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hepg2-cells-in-vitro
#16
Janine Aucamp, Hayley C Van Dyk, Abel J Bronkhorst, Piet J Pretorius
BACKGROUND: It has long been believed that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) actively released into circulation can serve as intercellular messengers, and their involvement in processes such as the bystander effect strongly support this. However, this intercellular messaging function of cfDNA may have clinical implications that have not yet been considered. METHODS: CfDNA was isolated from the growth medium of HepG2 cells treated with valproic acid (VPA). This cfDNA was then administered to untreated cells and cellular metabolic activity was measured...
June 28, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666638/a-study-on-the-bioequivalence-of-lithium-and-valproate-salivary-and-blood-levels-in-the-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder
#17
A Murru, M Torra, A Callari, I Pacchiarotti, S Romero, B Gonzalez de la Presa, C Varo, J M Goikolea, V Pérez-Sola, E Vieta, F Colom
Lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA) are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD), with narrow therapeutic window requiring periodic control of serum levels. This prevents intoxication, lack of efficacy due to low serum concentrations, and allows monitoring adherence. We aimed at evaluating the bioequivalence of salivary and blood levels of LI or VPA in a sample of adult BD patients. Secondarily, lithium bioequivalence was evaluated across different patients' lifespans. BD patients treated with either Li or VPA underwent contemporary standard serum and salivary measurements...
June 27, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663109/the-reinforcing-value-and-liking-of-resistance-training-and-aerobic-exercise-as-predictors-of-adult-s-physical-activity
#18
Kyle D Flack, LuAnn Johnson, James N Roemmich
OBJECTIVE: Reinforcing value (motivating value) is a stronger predictor than hedonic value (liking) for engaging in drug use, gambling, and eating. The associations of reinforcing value and liking with physical activity of adults have not yet been studied and may depend on the modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic/cardiovascular exercise, resistance training) under consideration. The purpose of this study was to test associations of the reinforcing value and liking of aerobic exercise training (AT) and resistance exercise training (RT) modes of exercise with usual participation in aerobic and resistance exercise in adults...
June 27, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662318/correlates-of-achieving-the-guidelines-of-four-forms-of-physical-activity-and-the-relationship-between-guidelines-achievement-and-academic-performance-undergraduate-students-in-finland
#19
Walid El Ansari, Sakari Suominen, Steve Draper
1S: We surveyed and compared, by gender, the levels and correlates of achieving the international guidelines of four forms of physical activity (PA): moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), moderate or vigorous PA (MVPA), and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA). The study assessed the associations between achieving the guidelines of the four PA forms and a range of socio-demographic, health and academic performance variables. METHODS: Data was collected across the seven faculties of the University of Turku (2013-2014 from a representative sample of 1,189 undergraduates)...
June 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655565/environmental-enrichment-attenuates-behavioral-abnormalities-in-valproic-acid-exposed-autism-model-mice
#20
Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Yuta Hara, Yukio Ago, Erika Takano, Shigeru Hasebe, Takanobu Nakazawa, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Toshio Matsuda, Kazuhiro Takuma
We recently demonstrated that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) at embryonic day 12.5 causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like phenotypes such as hypolocomotion, anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment in mice and that it decreases dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Previous studies show that some abnormal behaviors are improved by environmental enrichment in ASD rodent models, but it is not known whether environmental enrichment improves cognitive impairment...
June 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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