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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033637/cognitive-functioning-in-euthymic-bipolar-patients-on-monotherapy-with-novel-antipsychotics-or-mood-stabilizers
#1
Vesile Şentürk Cankorur, Hilal Demirel, Cem Atbaşoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is associated with cognitive dysfunction in several domains. Medication effect is a potential confounder that can only be statistically controlled in many studies. The cognitive profile in bipolar disorder during remission on maintenance antipsychotics or mood stabilizers medication has not been compared before. METHODS: We compared the cognitive profile of bipolar disorder patients euthymic for 2 month or more on monotherapy with novel antipsychotics (AP) (n=16), lithium carbonate (Li) (n=25) or valproic acid (VPA; n=26)...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030176/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-disposition-and-drug-drug-interactions-for-valproic-acid-and-divalproex
#2
Todd M Conner, Vahagn C Nikolian, Patrick E Georgoff, Manjunath P Pai, Hasan B Alam, Duxin Sun, Ronald C Reed, Tao Zhang
Valproic acid (VPA) is an older first-line antiepileptic drug with a complex pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, currently under investigation for several novel neurologic and non-neurologic indications. Our study objective was to design and validate a mechanistic model of VPA disposition in adults and children; and evaluate its predictive performance of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This study expands upon existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for VPA by incorporating UGT enzyme kinetics and an advanced dissolution, absorption, and metabolism (ADAM) model for extended-release (ER) formulation...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024862/4-phenylbutyrate-and-valproate-treatment-attenuates-the-progression-of-atherosclerosis-and-stabilizes-existing-plaques
#3
Aric Huang, Tayler L Young, Vi T Dang, Yuanyuan Shi, Cameron S McAlpine, Geoff H Werstuck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling through glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3α/β is involved in the activation of pro-atherosclerotic processes. In this study, we examined the effects of small molecules that interfere with ER stress-GSK3α/β signaling on the progression and regression of atherosclerosis in a mouse model. METHODS: To examine atherosclerotic progression, low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated with the chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA, 3...
September 29, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023358/wrist-acceleration-cut-points-for-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-in-youth
#4
Christiana M T van Loo, Anthony D Okely, Marijka J Batterham, Trina Hinkley, Ulf Ekelund, Søren Brage, John J Reilly, Stewart G Trost, Rachel A Jones, Xanne Janssen, Dylan P Cliff
PURPOSE: To examine the validity of wrist acceleration cut-points for classifying moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. METHODS: Fifty-seven children (5-12y) completed 15 semi-structured activities. Three sets of wrist cut-points (>192mg, >250mg, >314mg), previously developed using Euclidian norm minus one (ENMO192+), GENEActiv software (GENEA250+) and Bandpass Filtered followed by Euclidian Norm (BFEN314+), were evaluated against indirect calorimetry...
October 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023137/sexual-vs-nonsexual-currently-most-upsetting-trauma-a-fresh-look-at-attenuation-of-sexual-response-alcohol-intoxication-and-post-traumatic-stress
#5
Elizabeth R Bird, Martin Seehuus, Julia R Heiman, Kelly Cue Davis, Jeanette Norris, William H George
This study examined the dependence of sexual response (vaginal pulse amplitude [VPA] and subjective sexual arousal) on alcohol intoxication (.10% breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] versus no alcohol) and the nature of a woman's currently most upsetting traumatic event (C-MUTE), whether it was sexual (e.g., rape) or nonsexual (e.g., combat). Self-reported sexual outcomes were also compared by C-MUTE type. A total of 117 women completed background measures and either drank alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017950/the-synergistic-effects-of-valproic-acid-and-fluvastatin-on-apoptosis-induction-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-cell-lines
#6
Yung-Lung Chang, Li-Chun Huang, Ying-Chuan Chen, Yi-Wen Wang, Dueng-Yuan Hueng, Shih-Ming Huang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary central nervous system malignant tumor. It responds poorly to standard therapies, such as surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Many chemotherapeutic drugs are focused on apoptosis induction and radiation sensitivity. Inhibition of histone acetylation via histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) is one such strategy. Statins (or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors) are classical drugs used to lower cholesterol but also inhibitors of histone deacetylation activity...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992869/valproic-acid-overdose-review-of-a-case-with-electrocardiographic-changes
#7
Antonio E Muñiz
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is increasingly used to treat a variety of medical disorders, such as seizures, psychiatric disorders, and headaches. Therefore, accidental and intentional ingestions with valproic acid are increasing. OBJECTIVES: A case is presented in an adolescent with ischemic electrocardiographic changes after an acute overdose with VPA. DISCUSSION: Major features of a valproic acid overdose include respiratory depression, progressive coma, hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, and hemodynamic instability...
September 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988516/quinine-and-carbenoxolone-enhance-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-some-classical-antiepileptic-drugs
#8
Javier Franco-Pérez, Joaquín Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Cesar Rodríguez-Balderas, Nelly Castro, Paola Ballesteros-Zebadua
Objective Quinine (QUIN) and carbenoxolone (CNX) elicit anticonvulsant effects typically characterized by the reduction of the epileptiform activity as well as changes in behavioral parameters related to seizures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of these molecules on the anticonvulsant activity of some classical antiepileptic drugs. Methods Male Wistar rats were used. Valproate (VPA), phenytoin (PHT), or carbamazepine (CBZ) was administered at sub-therapeutic doses for intraperitoneal via...
October 8, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982843/targeting-histone-deacetylases-in-malignant-melanoma-a-future-therapeutic-agent-or-just-great-expectations
#9
REVIEW
Nikolaos Garmpis, Christos Damaskos, Anna Garmpi, Dimitrios Dimitroulis, Eleftherios Spartalis, Georgios-Antonios Margonis, Dimitrios Schizas, Irini Deskou, Chrysoula Doula, Eleni Magkouti, Nikolaos Andreatos, Efstathios A Antoniou, Afroditi Nonni, Konstantinos Kontzoglou, Dimitrios Mantas
BACKGROUND/AIM: Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with increasing frequency and mortality. Melanoma is characterized by rapid proliferation and metastases. Malignant transformation of normal melanocytes is associated with imbalance between oncogenes' action and tumor suppressor genes. Mutations or inactivation of these genes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. Many target-specific agents improved progression-free survival but unfortunately metastatic melanoma remains incurable, so new therapeutic strategies are needed...
October 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974841/effects-of-carbamazepine-and-valproate-on-serum-aspartate-aminotransferase-alanine-aminotransferase-and-gamma-glutamyltransferase-in-children
#10
Feriha Hadzagic-Catibusic, Edo Hasanbegovic, Melika Melunovic, Smail Zubcevic, Sajra Uzicanin
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in childhood and adolescence. Carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VPA) have been widely used as the first generation of antiepileptic drugs (AED). AIM: The aim of the study has been to evaluate and compare the effect of CBZ and VPA monotherapy on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) serum levels in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study has included 100 patients (boys 57/girls 43, age range 1 to 18 years), who have been treated with CBZ or VPA, as initial monotherapy, for at least 12 months...
August 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967098/epigenetic-regulation-of-melatonin-receptors-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Sarra G Bahna, Lennard P Niles
Melatonin, the primary indoleamine hormone of the mammalian pineal gland, is known to have a plethora of neuroregulatory, neuroprotective and other properties. Melatonergic signaling is mediated by its two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2 , which are widely expressed in the mammalian CNS. Melatonin levels and receptor expression often show a decrease during normal aging, and this reduction may be accelerated in some disease states. Depleted melatonergic signaling has been associated with neuropsychiatric dysfunction and impairments in cognition, memory, neurogenesis and neurorestorative processes...
October 2, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958730/correlations-between-ugt2b7%C3%A2-2-gene-polymorphisms-and-plasma-concentrations-of-carbamazepine-and-valproic-acid-in-epilepsy-patients
#12
Hui Zhang, Wenfang Zhang, Yuechun Li, Jie Yan, Jinfeng Zhang, Baojun Wang
PURPOSE: The study aims to detect the polymorphisms in uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UGT) 2B7∗2 and investigate the corresponding effects on the blood concentrations of valproic acid (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ). METHODS: A chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer was used to detect the plasma concentrations of VPA or CBZ in patients. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used to analyze UGT2B7∗2 gene polymorphisms...
September 25, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954936/different-schedule-dependent-effects-of-epigenetic-modifiers-on-cytotoxicity-by-anticancer-drugs-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#13
Mika Hosokawa, Shota Tanaka, Kumiko Ueda, Seigo Iwakawa
Limited information is currently available on how to apply epigenetic modifiers to current colorectal cancer (CRC) chemotherapy. The purpose of this study is to clarify the schedule-dependent effects of combined treatment with conventional anticancer drugs and epigenetic modifiers in human CRC cells. Cytotoxicity in 4 CRC cell lines (SW480, HT29, SW48, and HCT116) was measured using the WST-8 assay. As epigenetic modifiers, 3 DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors such as decitabine (DAC), azacytidine (AC), and zebularine (Zeb), and 3 histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors including trichostatin A (TSA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and valproic acid (VPA) were used...
September 28, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950817/specific-patient-features-affect-antiepileptic-drug-therapy-decisions-focus-on-gender-age-and-psychiatric-comorbidities
#14
Pisani Laura Rosa, Nikanorova Marina, Johannessen Landmark Cecilie, Johannessen Svein Ivor, Pisani Francesco
BACKGROUND: Patient features, apart from the type of seizues/epilepsy, affect markedly antiepileptic drug (AED) choice and dosage. The present review focuses on gender, age and psychiatric comorbidities which play a leading role in influencing antiepileptic treatment. METHODS: Reviews with large population of patients, controlled clinical trials, observational investigations, experimental studies and experimental reviews of experimental data, where appropriated, were analysed and illustrated to produce the most homogeneous indications possible...
September 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947378/valproic-acid-and-its-congener-propylisopropylacetic-acid-reduced-the-amount-of-soluble-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-released-from-7pa2-cells
#15
Robin S B Williams, Clive Bate
The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease suggests that synaptic degeneration and pathology is caused by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Subsequently, soluble Aβ oligomers cause the loss of synaptic proteins from neurons, a histopathological feature of Alzheimer's disease that correlates with the degree of dementia. In this study, the production of toxic forms of Aβ was examined in vitro using 7PA2 cells stably transfected with human APP...
September 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947065/enhanced-neuroprotective-effect-of-mild-hypothermia-with-vpa-against-ethanol-mediated-neuronal-injury
#16
Sandeep Kumar Vishwakarma, Avinash Bardia, L Chandrakala, Sana Arshiya, Syed Ameer Basha Paspala, Vishnupriya Satti, Aleem Ahmed Khan
INTRODUCTION: Progress in understanding pathophysiological mechanisms and the development of targeted regenerative strategies have been hampered by the lack of predictive disease models, specifically for the conditions to which affected cell types are inaccessible. The present study has aimed to unearth the role of valproic acid (VPA) and mild hypothermia (MH) as promising strategy to enhance the neuroprotective mechanisms in undifferentiated and differentiated human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) against ethanol-induced damage...
September 14, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945187/vpa-does-not-enhance-platinum-binding-to-dna-in-cisplatin-resistant-neuroblastoma-cancer-cells
#17
Martina Raudenska, Ludmila Krejcova, Lukas Richtera, Zbynek Heger, Jan Hrabeta, Tomas Eckschlager, Marie Stiborova, Vojtech Adam, Monika Kratochvilova, Michal Masarik, Jaromir Gumulec
Neuroblastoma represents a malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system characteristic by biological heterogeneity. Thus, chemotherapy exhibits only low effectivity in curing high-risk forms. Previous studies revealed the cytotoxic potential of valproate on neuroblastoma cells. Nevertheless, these studies omitted effects of hypoxia, despite its undeniable tumorigenic role. In this study, we addressed the question whether valproate promotes binding of platinum-based anti-cancer drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin) to DNA and role of hypoxia, cellular antioxidant capacity and cisplatin resistance in this process...
September 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942000/oxytocin-attenuates-deficits-in-social-interaction-but-not-recognition-memory-in-a-prenatal-valproic-acid-induced-mouse-model-of-autism
#18
Yuta Hara, Yukio Ago, Momoko Higuchi, Shigeru Hasebe, Takanobu Nakazawa, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Toshio Matsuda, Kazuhiro Takuma
Recent studies have reported that oxytocin ameliorates behavioral abnormalities in both animal models and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the mechanisms underlying the ameliorating effects of oxytocin remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of intranasal oxytocin on impairments in social interaction and recognition memory in an ASD mouse model in which animals are prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA). We found that a single intranasal administration of oxytocin restored social interaction deficits for up to 2h in mice prenatally exposed to VPA, but there was no effect on recognition memory impairments...
September 28, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940083/efficacy-and-safety-of-antiepileptic-drugs-for-refractory-partial-onset-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Qingting Hu, Fang Zhang, Wenhui Teng, Fangfang Hao, Jing Zhang, Mingxiao Yin, Naidong Wang
The optimal combination of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for the treatment of refractory partial-onset epilepsy is a perpetual point of debate. While several network meta-analyses (NMAs) have been published, conclusions remain controversial, especially since newer AEDs have been introduced. In our review, we included the newer AEDs to evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of AEDs for the treatment of refractory partial-onset epilepsy. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2017, Issue 1) from their inception to February 18, 2017...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935977/zebrafish-in-vivo-screening-for-compounds-amplifying-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-preclinical-validation-in-human-cd34-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#20
Guruchandar Arulmozhivarman, Martin Kräter, Manja Wobus, Jens Friedrichs, Elham Pishali Bejestani, Katrin Müller, Katrin Lambert, Dimitra Alexopoulou, Andreas Dahl, Martin Stöter, Marc Bickle, Nona Shayegi, Jochen Hampe, Friedrich Stölzel, Michael Brand, Malte von Bonin, Martin Bornhäuser
The identification of small molecules that either increase the number and/or enhance the activity of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (hHSPCs) during ex vivo expansion remains challenging. We used an unbiased in vivo chemical screen in a transgenic (c-myb:EGFP) zebrafish embryo model and identified histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), particularly valproic acid (VPA), as significant enhancers of the number of phenotypic HSPCs, both in vivo and during ex vivo expansion. The long-term functionality of these expanded hHSPCs was verified in a xenotransplantation model with NSG mice...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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