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Hao Chen, Xiaopeng Zhang, Xudong Jia, Zhaoping Liu
Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis is generally recognized superior to generate a point of departure (PoD) to conduct risk assessment on environmental toxicants, comparing with the traditionally employed no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) methods. However, only a few studies compared the two on producing PoD of thyroid toxicity caused by environmental chemicals. Here, we presented BMD analyses on several thyroid toxicity endpoints caused by a model chemical - propylthiouracil (PTU)...
June 18, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Cheng Li, Binay Kumar Adhikari, Lu Gao, Shuai Zhang, Quan Liu, Yonggang Wang, Jian Sun
A number of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are used illicitly to improve muscle strength by the bodybuilders. The misuse of these drugs is associated with serious adverse effects to different organs. A previously healthy 22-year-old male bodybuilder after taking stanozolol, clenbuterol, and triiodothyronine for 10 days presented to the hospital with symptoms of icteric sclera, progressive dyspnea, intermittent cough, and bloody sputum. He was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy and acute hepatic injury...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Kun Guo, Huabin Cao, Yuanjun Zhu, Tiancheng Wang, Guoliang Hu, Bunlue Kornmatitsuk, Junrong Luo
This study was aimed to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (RP-GABA) on apparent nutrient digestibility, growth performance and health status in heat stressed beef cattle. Fifty Jinjiang Yellow cattle were randomly assigned to 5 treatments (10 animals/treatment). Treatments 1 to 5 were basal diets affixed with 0 (control), 8, 16, 24 and 32 mg of RP-GABA/kg of body weight (BW) respectively. The trial lasted 45 days. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF) and calcium (Ca) quadratically increased with increasing RP-GABA (p < ...
June 20, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Ahmed A Abd El-Ghany, Refaat R Mohamed
The etiology of vitiligo is still unclear. The aim is to investigate a neural and hormonal etio-pathology of vitiligo. Sixty acrofacial vitiligo patients were divided into two subgroups as active vitiligo patients group (AVPs; n  = 35) and stable vitiligo patients group (SVP; n  = 25). Forty healthy subjects without any systemic or dermatological disease were used as controls. Blood samples were collected, and the samples were used for measurement of free triiodothyronine (fT3 ), free thyroxine (fT4 ), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, melatonin, and prolactin levels by ELISA, while norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), dopamine (DA), homo-vanillic acid (HVA), serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) by high-pressure liquid chromatography...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Michael Rosenbaum, Rochelle L Goldsmith, Fadia Haddad, Kenneth M Baldwin, Richard Smiley, Dympna Gallagher, Rudolph L Leibel
Subjects maintaining a 10% or greater dietary weight loss exhibit decreased circulating concentrations of bioactive thyroid hormones and increased skeletal muscle work efficiency largely due to increased expression of more efficient myosin heavy chain isoforms (MHCI) and significantly mediated by the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of triiodothyronine (T3) repletion on energy homeostasis and skeletal muscle physiology in weight-reduced subjects and to compare these results with the effects of leptin repletion...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Wen-Yao Wang, Kuo Zhang, Wei Zhao, A Martin Gerdes, Giorgio Iervasi, Yi-Da Tang
Background: Although thyroid hormone (TH) has important effects on lipid metabolism, the relationship between TH and statin responsiveness has never been investigated. We hypothesize that TH plays an important role in statin responsiveness in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Consecutive 1091 hospitalized AMI patients in Fuwai hospital (Beijing, China) were enrolled into this current study. The study population was divided into three groups based on the intensity of statin treatment: low-intensity ( n = 221), moderate-intensity ( n = 712) and high-intensity ( n = 158)...
April 2018: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Kazuko Yonezaki, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Hitomi Imachi, Takuo Yoshimoto, Fumi Kikuchi, Kensaku Fukunaga, Seisuke Sato, Tomohiro Ibata, Nao Yamaji, Jingya Lyu, Tao Dong, Koji Murao
BACKGROUND: Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have widely been used for the management of advanced melanoma. However, high-grade immune-related adverse events can occur, particularly with combination immunotherapy. We report a case of a patient with melanoma who developed thyroid storm following treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab. CASE PRESENTATION: An 85-year-old Japanese man with a history of malignant melanoma presented to our department with severe thyrotoxicosis and poor blood glucose control...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Lucas A Zena, Danielle Dillon, Kathleen E Hunt, Carlos A Navas, Kênia C Bícego, C Loren Buck
The tegu lizard Salvator merianae is a large, widely distributed teiid lizard endemic to South America that exhibits annual cycles of high activity during the spring and summer, and hibernation during winter. This pattern of activity and hibernation is accompanied by profound seasonal changes in physiology and behavior, including endothermy during the austral spring. The unusual combination of seasonal endothermy, hibernation and oviparity, in a non-avian, non-mammalian species, makes S. merianae an interesting subject for study of comparative aspects of endocrine regulation of seasonal changes in physiology...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Flavia F Bloise, Thamires S Oliveira, Aline Cordeiro, Tania M Ortiga-Carvalho
Skeletal muscle maintains posture and enables movement by converting chemical energy into mechanical energy, further contributing to basal energy metabolism. Thyroid hormones (thyroxine, or T4, and triiodothyronine, or T3) participate in contractile function, metabolic processes, myogenesis and regeneration of skeletal muscle. T3 classically modulates gene expression after binding to thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. Thyroid hormone effects depend on nuclear receptor occupancy, which is directly related to intracellular T3 levels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Fatiha Mekircha, Samira Chebab, Rosita Gabbianelli, Essaid Leghouchi
This study aimed to verify whether Olea europaea L. (olive) oil (OEO) exerted a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by deltamethrin (DM) and alterations of pituitary, thyroid and gonadal hormones in adult female rats. DM (0,00256 g/kg body weight),OEO (0,6 g/kg body weight) and DM with OEO were administered to rats orally for 28 days. Volatile compounds present in olive oil were analysed by GC-MS. Estradiol (E2 ), Thyroxine (T4),Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronine (T3), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Progesterone (Pg) were measured in serum using Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA)...
June 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
X-R Chang, Y-L Yao, D Wang, H-T Ma, P-H Gou, C-Y Li, J-L Wang
Thyroid hormone deficiency can impair testicular function. However, knowledge of the effects of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways on testicular mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by hypothyroidism is still rudimentary. This study aims to explore the possible mechanisms of testicular mitochondrial oxidative damage in hypothyroidism rats. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into control (C), low- (L), and high-hypothyroidism (H) groups (1 ml/100 g body weights (BWs)/day 0, 0.001% and 0.1% propylthiouracil, respectively) by intragastric gavage for 60 days...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Qin Shu-Lan, He Chun-Yan, He Qi, Chen Juan, Jiang Cheng-Fang, Young Charlotte Aimee, Sheng Xia, Li Zhi-Hong, Xiong Long-Xin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is often accompanied by increased oxidative stress and euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS). The cause of ESS is unknown, and it is unknown whether there exists a link between oxidant stress and ESS in CRF patients. Therefore, we aim to investigate oxidative stress and type 1 deiodinase (DIO1) expression, which plays the key role in the ESS in CRF patients. METHODS: In-patients with CRF were divided into the two group: Group 1 is ESS patients consisting of 60 patients with low free triiodothyronine (FT3) and Group 2 consisting of 60 patients with normal FT3...
June 7, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Shristi Rawal, Michael Y Tsai, Stefanie N Hinkle, Yeyi Zhu, Wei Bao, Yuan Lin, Pranati Panuganti, Paul S Albert, Ronald C W Ma, Cuilin Zhang
CONTEXT: Triiodothyronine (T3) is the biologically-active thyroid hormone involved in glucose metabolism. fT3:fT4 ratio, a marker indicating conversion of free thyroxine (fT4) to free T3 (fT3), is also implicated in glucose homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of fT3 and fT3:fT4 ratio with gestational diabetes (GDM). DESIGN: In a case-control study, thyroid markers (fT3, fT4, TSH) were measured and fT3:fT4 ratio was derived across four visits in pregnancy, including first (gestational weeks 10-14) and second (weeks 15-26) trimester...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jianxin Xue, Lei Zhang, Zhiqiang Qin, Ran Li, Yi Wang, Kai Zhu, Xiao Li, Xian Gao, Jianzhong Zhang
RATIONALE: Thyrotoxicosis from an overdose of medicinal thyroid hormone is a condition that may be associated with a significant delay in onset of toxicity. However, limited literature is available regarding thyrotoxicosis attributed to excessive ingestion of exogenous thyroid hormone and most cases described were pediatric clinical researches. Herein, we presented the course of a patient who ingested a massive amount of levothyroxine with no obvious sympathetic excited symptoms exhibited and reviewed feasible treatment options for such overdoses...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Susanne Fischer, Charlotte Markert, Jana Strahler, Johanna M Doerr, Nadine Skoluda, Mattes Kappert, Urs M Nater
Objective: Fatigue is a core feature of functional somatic syndromes (FSS). Fatigue is also prominent in patients with thyroid diseases, which is unsurprising given the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in regulating physiological energy demands. Research in healthy women has shown that early life adversity is linked with alterations in the HPT axis. In view of the substantial prevalence of early life adversity in patients with FSS, our aim was to investigate whether HPT functioning is related to (a) fatigue, and (b) early life adversity in these patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Fan Yang, Hongwei Ma, Michael R Butler, Xi-Qin Ding
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling has been shown to regulate cone photoreceptor viability. Suppression of TH signaling with antithyroid drug treatment or by targeting iodothyronine deiodinases and TH receptors preserves cones in mouse models of retinal degeneration, including the Leber congenital amaurosis Rpe65-deficient mice. This work investigates the cellular mechanisms underlying how suppressing TH signaling preserves cones in Rpe65-deficient mice, using mice deficient in type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2), the enzyme that converts the prohormone thyroxine to the active hormone triiodothyronine (T3)...
June 6, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
V F Koehler, M Reincke, C Spitzweg
The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is primarily based on clinical signs and symptoms as well as measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by elevated TSH with normal serum free thyroxine (fT4 ) and triiodothyronine (fT3 ) levels, while in manifest hypothyroidism serum fT4 and fT3 levels are reduced. Common causes of primary hypothyroidism are autoimmune thyroiditis as well as therapeutic interventions, such as thyroid surgery or radioiodine therapy...
June 5, 2018: Der Internist
Patricia D Walshaw, Laszlo Gyulai, Michael Bauer, Mark S Bauer, Brian Calimlim, Catherine A Sugar, Peter C Whybrow
OBJECTIVES: This report describes the first comparative double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of levothyroxine (L-T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ) as adjunctive treatments in rapid cycling bipolar disorder. METHODS: Thirty-two treatment-resistant, rapid cycling patients who had failed a trial of lithium were randomized into three treatment arms: L-T4 , T3 , or placebo. They were followed for ≥4 months with weekly clinical and endocrine assessments. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in age, gender, duration of illness, or thyroid status...
June 4, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Anam Tariq, Yijin Wert, Pramil Cheriyath, Renu Joshi
OBJECTIVES: Hypothyroidism results in decreased mood and neurocognition, weight gain, fatigue, and many other undesirable symptoms. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American Thyroid Association (ATA), and The Endocrine Society recommend levothyroxine (LT4) monotherapy as the treatment for hypothyroidism; however, after years of monotherapy, some patients continue to experience impaired quality of life. Combination LT4 and synthetic liothyronine (LT3) therapy or the use of desiccated thyroid extract (DTE), has not been suggested for this indication based on short-duration studies with no significant benefits...
June 2018: Southern Medical Journal
Tania Vitalis, Jean Mariani
The retinoid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) is thought to act as a constitutive activator of transcription by binding to the ROR response element (RORE) of target genes. Several mouse models in which RORα is defective have revealed the decisive roles of RORα on the development, maturation and neuroprotection of various cerebral regions including the cerebellar and somatosensory systems. We have recently shown that RORα is needed for accurate thalamic sensory system organization and somatosensory cortex development...
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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