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Sodium MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090447/quantitative-sodium-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-cartilage-muscle-and-tendon
#1
REVIEW
Neal K Bangerter, Grayson J Tarbox, Meredith D Taylor, Joshua D Kaggie
Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or imaging of the 23Na nucleus, has been under exploration for several decades, and holds promise for potentially revealing additional biochemical information about the health of tissues that cannot currently be obtained from conventional hydrogen (or proton) MRI. This additional information could serve as an important complement to conventional MRI for many applications. However, despite these exciting possibilities, sodium MRI is not yet used routinely in clinical practice, and will likely remain strictly in the domain of exploratory research for the coming decade...
December 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048911/su-g-iep1-06-estimating-relative-tissue-density-from-quantitative-mr-images-a-novel-perspective-for-mri-only-heterogeneity-corrected-dose-calculation
#2
A Soliman, M Hashemi, H Safigholi, E Tchistiakova, W Song
PURPOSE: To explore the feasibility of extracting the relative density from quantitative MRI measurements as well as estimate a correlation between the extracted measures and CT Hounsfield units. METHODS: MRI has the ability to separate water and fat signals, producing two separate images for each component. By performing appropriate corrections on the separated images, quantitative measurement of water and fat mass density can be estimated. This work aims to test this hypothesis on 1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047321/tu-ab-bra-04-an-investigation-of-metal-artifact-effects-in-multi-modalities-development-of-mri-ct-heterogeneous-head-and-neck-phantom-for-mri-ct-registration
#3
M Lee, K Song, B Choe, T Suh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to develop an CT-MR head and neck phantom which can investigate dose calculation differences between density-assigned MRI and CT, and to compare non-implant inserted registered MR-CT registered image with artifact reduced image of MR-CT registered image. It is to identify potential limitations related to dental implants of MR image and CT image and maximize the advantages to find interactive method to use registered image. METHODS: The phantom comprises half-circled shape which shaped to simulated the anatomical structures of a human head and neck...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019053/prestructural-cartilage-assessment-using-mri
#4
Thomas M Link, Jan Neumann, Xiaojuan Li
: Cartilage loss is irreversible, and to date, no effective pharmacotherapies are available to protect or regenerate cartilage. Quantitative prestructural/compositional MR imaging techniques have been developed to characterize the cartilage matrix quality at a stage where abnormal findings are early and potentially reversible, allowing intervention to halt disease progression. The goal of this article is to critically review currently available technologies, present the basic concept behind these techniques, but also to investigate their suitability as imaging biomarkers including their validity, reproducibility, risk prediction and monitoring of therapy...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012127/fluorescein-sodium-guided-resection-of-cerebral-metastases-an-update
#5
Julius Höhne, Christoph Hohenberger, Martin Proescholdt, Markus J Riemenschneider, Christina Wendl, Alexander Brawanski, Karl-Michael Schebesch
BACKGROUND: Cerebral metastasis (CM) is the most common malignancy affecting the brain. In patients eligible for surgery, complete tumor removal is the most important predictor of overall survival and neurological outcome. The emergence of surgical microscopes fitted with a fluorescein-specific filter have facilitated fluorescein-guided microsurgery and identification of tumor tissue. In 2012, we started evaluating fluorescein (FL) with the dedicated microscope filter in cerebral metastases (CM)...
February 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997033/brain-mechanisms-of-abnormal-temperature-perception-in-cold-allodynia-induced-by-ciguatoxin
#6
Anneka Eisenblätter, Richard Lewis, Arnd Dörfler, Clemens Forster, Katharina Zimmermann
OBJECTIVE: Cold allodynia occurs as a major symptom of neuropathic pain states. It remains poorly treated with current analgesics. Ciguatoxins (CTXs), ichthyosarcotoxins that cause ciguatera, produce a large peripheral sensitization to dynamic cold stimuli in Aδ-fibers by activating sodium channels without producing heat or mechanical allodynia. We used CTXs as surrogate model of cold allodynia to dissect the framework of cold allodynia activated central pain pathways. METHODS: Reversible cold allodynia was induced in healthy male volunteers by shallow intracutaneous injection of low nM concentrations of CTX into the dorsal skin of the forefoot...
December 20, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994718/new-technology-in-imaging-cartilage-of-the-ankle
#7
REVIEW
Markus M Schreiner, Vladimir Mlynarik, Štefan Zbýň, Pavol Szomolanyi, Sebastian Apprich, Reinhard Windhager, Siegfried Trattnig
The incidence of osteochondral lesions, as well as osteoarthritis of the ankle joint following osteochondritis dissecans and trauma, has been reappraised in recent years. Consequently, an increasing number of surgical interventions using different cartilage repair techniques is performed in the ankle joint, which has resulted in a growing demand for repetitive and objective assessment of cartilage tissue and its repair. While morphological imaging does enable monitoring of macroscopic changes with increasing precision, it fails to provide information about the ultrastructural composition of cartilage...
January 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989912/sex-differences-in-sodium-deposition-in-human-muscle-and-skin
#8
Ping Wang, Muge Serpil Deger, Hakmook Kang, T Alp Ikizler, Jens Titze, John C Gore
The aim of this work was to investigate possible sex differences in the patterns of sodium deposition between muscle and skin using sodium MRI. A total of 38 subjects were examined for comparisons: 20 males, aged 25-79years with a median age of 51; 18 females, aged 38-66years, median age 53. All subjects underwent sodium MRI scans of the calf muscles together with cross sections through four calibration standards containing known sodium contents (10mM, 20mM, 30mM, and 40mM). Tissue sodium concentrations (TSC) in muscle and skin were then calculated by comparing signal intensities between tissues and reference standards using a linear analysis...
February 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980288/a-case-of-central-pontine-and-extrapontine-myelinolysis-after-surgery-for-a-pituitary-tumor
#9
Takanobu Ishiguro, Tomohiko Ishihara, Yuya Hatano, Takahiro Abe, Takayoshi Shimohata, Masatoyo Nishizawa
A 21-year-old woman underwent surgery for a pituitary tumor. On the 11th postoperative day, blood examination revealed severe hyponatremia, with a serum sodium level of 111 mEq/l, and two days later this increased rapidly to 137 mEq/l. On the 20th postoperative day, the patient developed dysarthria and gait disturbance. Head MRI on the 30th postoperative day demonstrated intense high-signal lesions in the pons and bilateral corpus striatum on FLAIR and DWI, and central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis was diagnosed...
December 16, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974643/increased-total-sodium-concentration-in-gray-matter-better-explains-cognition-than-atrophy-in-ms
#10
Adil Maarouf, Bertrand Audoin, Fanelly Pariollaud, Soraya Gherib, Audrey Rico, Elisabeth Soulier, Sylviane Confort-Gouny, Maxime Guye, Lothar Schad, Jean Pelletier, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Wafaa Zaaraoui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether brain total sodium accumulation assessed by (23)Na MRI is associated with cognitive deficit in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Eighty-nine participants were enrolled in the study (58 patients with RRMS with a disease duration ≤10 years and 31 matched healthy controls). Patients were classified as cognitively impaired if they failed at least 2 tasks on the Brief Repeatable Battery. MRI was performed at 3T using (23)Na MRI to obtain total sodium concentration (TSC) in the different brain compartments (lesions, normal-appearing white matter [NAWM], gray matter [GM]) and (1)H- magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo to assess GM atrophy (GM fraction)...
December 14, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966875/multifunctional-polymeric-platform-of-magnetic-ferrite-colloidal-superparticles-for-luminescence-imaging-and-hyperthermia-applications
#11
Zacharoula Iatridi, Kosmas Vamvakidis, Ioannis Tsougos, Katerina Vassiou, Catherine Dendrinou-Samara, Georgios Bokias
Adequately designed multiresponsive water-soluble graft copolymers were used to serve as a multifunctional polymeric platform for the encapsulation and transfer in aqueous media of hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The backbone of the graft copolymers was composed of hydrophilic sodium methacrylate units, hydrophobic dodecyl methacrylate units, and luminescent quinoline-based units, while either the homopolymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) or a poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) copolymer was used as thermosensitive pendent side chains...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939250/-molecular-mr-imaging-at-high-fields
#12
John C Gore, Zhongliang Zu, Ping Wang, Hua Li, Junzhong Xu, Richard Dortch, Daniel F Gochberg
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) have contributed considerably to clinical radiology, and a variety of MR techniques have been developed to evaluate pathological processes as well as normal tissue biology at the cellular and molecular level. However, in comparison to nuclear imaging, MRI has relatively poor sensitivity for detecting true molecular changes or for detecting the presence of targeted contrast agents, though these remain under active development. In recent years very high field (7T and above) MRI systems have been developed for human studies and these provide new opportunities and technical challenges for molecular imaging...
December 8, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929465/using-multi-fluorinated-bile-acids-and-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-bile-acid-transport
#13
Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Anan Said, Aaron C Shang, Su Xu, Diana Vivian, Melissa Metry, James E Polli, Jean-Pierre Raufman
Along with their traditional role as detergents that facilitate fat absorption, emerging literature indicates that bile acids are potent signaling molecules that affect multiple organs; they modulate gut motility and hormone production, and alter vascular tone, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy utilization. Changes in fecal bile acids may alter the gut microbiome and promote colon pathology including cholerrheic diarrhea and colon cancer. Key regulators of fecal bile acid composition are the small intestinal Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927188/investigating-potentially-salvageable-penumbra-tissue-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-transient-ischemic-stroke-using-sodium-diffusion-and-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Friedrich Wetterling, Eva Chatzikonstantinou, Laurent Tritschler, Stephen Meairs, Marc Fatar, Lothar R Schad, Saema Ansar
BACKGROUND: Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current-state-of-the-art technique to clinically investigate acute (0-24 h) ischemic stroke tissue. However, reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-considered a marker of tissue damage-was observed to reverse spontaneously during the subacute stroke phase (24-72 h) which means that low ADC cannot be used to reflect the damaged tissue after 24 h in experimental and clinical studies. One reason for the change in ADC is that ADC values drop with cytotoxic edema (acute phase) and rise when vasogenic edema begins (subacute phase)...
December 7, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904971/mutations-in-slc5a6-associated-with-brain-immune-bone-and-intestinal-dysfunction-in-a-young-child
#15
Veedamali S Subramanian, Alexandru R Constantinescu, Paul J Benke, Hamid M Said
The human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (hSMVT) is a product of the SLC5A6 gene and mediates biotin, pantothenic acid, and lipoate uptake in a variety of cellular systems. We report here the identification of mutations R94X, a premature termination, and R123L, a dysfunctional amino acid change, both in exon 3 of the SLC5A6 gene in a child using whole genome-scanning. At 15 months of age, the child showed failure to thrive, microcephaly and brain changes on MRI, cerebral palsy and developmental delay, variable immunodeficiency, and severe gastro-esophageal reflux requiring a gastrostomy tube/fundoplication, osteoporosis, and pathologic bone fractures...
November 30, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826248/slow-conduction-in-the-border-zones-of-patchy-fibrosis-stabilizes-the-drivers-for-atrial-fibrillation-insights-from-multi-scale-human-atrial-modeling
#16
Ross Morgan, Michael A Colman, Henry Chubb, Gunnar Seemann, Oleg V Aslanidi
Introduction: The genesis of atrial fibrillation (AF) and success of AF ablation therapy have been strongly linked with atrial fibrosis. Increasing evidence suggests that patient-specific distributions of fibrosis may determine the locations of electrical drivers (rotors) sustaining AF, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aims to elucidate a missing mechanistic link between patient-specific fibrosis distributions and AF drivers. Methods: 3D atrial models integrated human atrial geometry, rule-based fiber orientation, region-specific electrophysiology, and AF-induced ionic remodeling...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823946/clinically-mild-encephalitis-encephalopathy-with-a-reversible-splenial-lesion-of-corpus-callosum-in-chinese-children
#17
Qiong Fang, Lang Chen, Qiaobin Chen, Zhi Lin, Fang Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and etiology of mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) in Chinese children. METHODS: We collected ten pediatric MERS patients from local hospital and enrolled another nineteen patients by reviewing the available literatures. The information of enrolled patients about clinical features, laboratory data, treatment strategies and prognoses were collected for further analysis. RESULTS: A total of 29 children, the median age of twenty-nine patients was (4...
November 4, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805423/the-potential-of-multiparametric-mri-of-the-breast
#18
Katja Pinker, Thomas H Helbich, Elizabeth A Morris
MRI is an essential tool in breast imaging, with multiple established indications. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is the backbone of any breast MRI protocol and has an excellent sensitivity and good specificity for breast cancer diagnosis. DCE-MRI provides high-resolution morphological information, as well as some functional information about neoangiogenesis as a tumour-specific feature. To overcome limitations in specificity, several other functional MRI parameters have been investigated and the application of these combined parameters is defined as multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the breast...
January 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770643/1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-of-glutamate-related-abnormality-in-bipolar-disorder
#19
Hiroko Kubo, Masahito Nakataki, Satsuki Sumitani, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shusuke Numata, Naomi Kameoka, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Hidehiro Umehara, Makoto Kinoshita, Masatoshi Inoshita, Mai Tamaru, Masashi Ohta, Chiaki Nakayama-Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Funakoshi, Masafumi Harada, Tetsuro Ohmori
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown neurophysiological abnormalities related to the glutamate (Glu)-glutamine (Gln) cycle, membrane turnover, and neuronal integrity, although the results were neither consistent nor conclusive. Recently it has been reported the Gln/Glu ratio is the most useful index, quantifying neuronal-glial interactions and the balance of glutamatergic metabolites In this MRS study, we elucidated the abnormalities of metabolites in a larger sample of patients with BD with a high-field MRI system...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758813/tuberculous-meningitis-in-an-immunocompetent-male-complicated-by-hydrocephalus
#20
Louise Dunphy, Prashanth Shetty, Rabinder Randhawa, Kharil Amir Rani, Yaw Duodu
A 39-year-old man, born in India but resident in the UK for 10 years, was travelling in America when he became feverish with an altered mentation. He reported a 10-day history of fever, photophobia, headache and fatigue. His medical history included hypothyroidism and migraine. He was a non-smoker, did not consume alcohol and denied a history of drug use. He was transferred to the emergency department. Laboratory investigations confirmed hyponatraemia (sodium 128 mmol/L). A chest radiograph confirmed no focal consolidation...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
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