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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434130/characterization-of-extracellular-membrane-vesicles-of-an-antarctic-bacterium-shewanella-livingstonensis-ac10-and-their-enhanced-production-by-alteration-of-phospholipid-composition
#1
Fumiaki Yokoyama, Jun Kawamoto, Tomoya Imai, Tatsuo Kurihara
A cold-adapted bacterium, Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10, which produces eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as a component of its membrane phospholipids, is useful as a model to study the function of EPA and as a host for heterologous production of thermolabile proteins at low temperatures. In this study, we characterized extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs) of this bacterium to examine the involvement of EPA in the biogenesis of EMVs and for the future application of EMVs to extracellular protein production. We found that this strain produced EMVs from the cell surface...
April 22, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434102/outcomes-following-surgical-management-of-cauda-equina-syndrome-does-race-matter
#2
Amit Jain, Emmanuel Menga, Addisu Mesfin
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a surgical emergency requiring urgent spinal decompression. Our objective is to analyze the association between race and in-hospital outcomes (complications, mortality, length of stay, and discharge disposition) in patients with CES. This is a retrospective cohort study of CES patients identified via the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2000 to 2010 in inpatient hospitalizations in the USA. The patient sample includes 46,017 patients ≥18 undergoing spine surgery for CES...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434033/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hyperglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-from-current-human-evidence-to-future-possibilities
#3
REVIEW
Louise Brunkwall, Marju Orho-Melander
The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433997/argon-delays-initiation-of-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-rats
#4
Tom Florian Ulmer, Athanassious Fragoulis, Henriette Dohmeier, Andreas Kroh, Anne Andert, Christian Stoppe, Hamid Alizai, Christian Klink, Mark Coburn, Ulf Peter Neumann
BACKGROUND: The liver can heal up to restitutio ad integrum following damage resulting from various causes. Different studies have demonstrated the protective effect of argon on various cells and organs. To the best of our knowledge, the organ-protective effects of the noble gas argon on the liver have not yet been investigated, although argon appears to influence signal paths that are well-known mediators of liver regeneration. We hypothesized that argon inhalation prior to partial hepatectomy (70%) has a positive effect on the initiation of liver regeneration in rats...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433995/effect-of-prophylactic-dialysis-on-morbidity-and-mortality-in-non-dialysis-dependent-patients-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-pilot-study
#5
Roghayeh Borji, Seyyed Hossein Ahmadi, Khosrow Barkhordari, Ali Pasha Meysami, Abbas Ali Karimi, Seyedeh Hamideh Mortazavi, Parinaaz Dadlani, Farah Ayatollah Zadeh Esfahani, Seyyed Mohammad Reza Khatami
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with pre-existing renal dysfunction. Numerous measures have been implemented to overcome this problem; however, no improvement in outcomes has been achieved. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of prophylactic dialysis on mortality and morbidity in these patients. METHODS: This randomized-controlled clinical trial enrolled 88 non-dialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease awaiting CABG surgery...
April 22, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433937/perturbation-effect-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-quantum-dots-rgoqds-on-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-pathway-in-zebrafish
#6
Jing-Hui Zhang, Tai Sun, Aping Niu, Yu-Mei Tang, Shun Deng, Wei Luo, Qun Xu, Dapeng Wei, De-Sheng Pei
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been widely used in enormous fields, however, the inherent molecular mechanism of GQDs for potential risks in biological system is still elusive to date. In this study, the outstanding reduced graphene quantum dots (rGOQDs) with the QY as high as 24.62% were successfully synthesized by the improved Hummers method and DMF hydrothermal treatment approach. The rGOQDs were N-doped photoluminescent nanomaterials with functional groups on the surface. The fluorescent bio-imaging was performed by exposing zebrafish in different concentrations of the as-prepared rGOQDs, and the distribution of rGOQDs was successfully observed...
April 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433935/distinct-on-off-fluorescence-signals-from-dual-responsive-activatable-nanoprobes-allows-detection-of-inflammation-with-improved-contrast
#7
Mathieu L Viger, Guillaume Collet, Jacques Lux, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Monica Guma, Alexandra Foucault-Collet, Jason Olejniczak, Shivanjali Joshi-Barr, Gary S Firestein, Adah Almutairi
Visualization of biochemical changes associated with disease is of great clinical significance, as it should allow earlier, more accurate diagnosis than structural imaging, facilitating timely clinical intervention. Herein, we report combining stimuli-responsive polymers and near-infrared fluorescent dyes (emission max: 790 nm) to create robust activatable fluorescent nanoprobes capable of simultaneously detecting acidosis and oxidative stress associated with inflammatory microenvironments. The spectrally-resolved mechanism of fluorescence activation allows removal of unwanted background signal (up to 20-fold reduction) and isolation of a pure activated signal, which enables sensitive and unambiguous localization of inflamed areas; target-to-background ratios reach 22 as early as 3 h post-injection...
March 28, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433934/amino-acid-functionalized-gadofullerene-nanoparticles-with-superior-antitumor-activity-via-destruction-of-tumor-vasculature-in%C3%A2-vivo
#8
Yue Zhou, Ruijun Deng, Mingming Zhen, Jie Li, Mirong Guan, Wang Jia, Xue Li, Ying Zhang, Tong Yu, Toujun Zou, Zhigao Lu, Jun Guo, Lei Sun, Chunying Shu, Chunru Wang
Researchers have been puzzled of the therapy of malignant tumors and the current therapeutic strategies are always accompanied by toxicity or side effects. Developing efficient nanodrugs could reduce the dosage and greatly improve the therapeutic effects in cancer treatments. Here we initially reported a novel kind of gadofullerene nanoparticles functionalized with amino acid (β-alanine), which exhibited a superior antitumor activity in hepatoma H22 models via a novel therapeutic mechanism. The involvement of β-alanine improved the tumor inhibition rate up to 76...
April 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433820/effects-of-punctal-occlusion-on-global-tear-proteins-in-patients-with-dry-eye
#9
Louis Tong, Lei Zhou, Roger Beuerman, Susan Simonyi, David A Hollander, Michael E Stern
PURPOSE: To investigate effects of punctal occlusion on global tear protein levels in patients with dry eye. METHODS: In this prospective, longitudinal, single-center study, nonabsorbable punctal plugs were inserted bilaterally into the lower punctum of 30 patients with moderate dry eye. Dry eye symptoms, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time, and safety were assessed in the more severe eye. Tear proteins at weeks 1 and 3 were quantified by iTRAQ relative to baseline preocclusion levels...
April 19, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433811/rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-salmonid-alphavirus-using-taqman-real-time-pcr
#10
Wen Shi, Aochen Song, Shuai Gao, Yuting Wang, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Tong Ren, Yijing Li, Min Liu
Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) infection has led to the spread of salmon pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) to salmonids in several countries in Europe, resulting in tremendous economic losses to the fish farming industry. Recently, with increases in the fish import trade, many countries in which SAV has been unreported, such as China, may be seriously threatened by these diseases. It is therefore necessary to develop efficient detection methods for the prevention and diagnosis of SAV infection. In this study, a rapid and sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR method was established and assessed for this purpose...
April 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433795/helicobacter-pylori-cagl-amino-acid-polymorphism-d58e59-pave-the-way-toward-peptic-ulcer-disease-while-n58e59-is-associated-with-gastric-cancer-in-north-of-iran
#11
Mina Rezaee Cherati, Javad Shokri-Shirvani, Ahmad Karkhah, Ramzan Rajabnia, Hamid Reza Nouri
The cagL protein of Helicobacter pylori involving in pathogenesis of gastroduodenal disorders. Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine the cagL amino acid polymorphisms in patients with gastric diseases. One hundred gastric biopsies were collected from gastritis, peptic ulcer (PUD) and gastric cancer (GC) patients and were screened for cagL using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Also, sequence variations of the cagL were assessed via sequence translation. The cagL geneopositivity was 71.6% in patients were infected with H...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433751/elevated-chaperone-proteins-are-a-feature-of-winter-freeze-avoidance-by-larvae-of-the-goldenrod-gall-moth-epiblema-scudderiana
#12
Guijun Zhang, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey
Winter survival for many insect species includes a need to maintain metabolic homeostasis and structural/functional integrity of macromolecules not only over a wide range of cold temperatures but also in response to rapid temperature change. Chaperones are well-known to protect/stabilize protein structure with regard to heat stress but less is known about their potential involvement in long-term protection of the proteome at subzero temperatures. The present study assessed the participation of chaperone proteins in the cold hardiness of larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae), monitoring changes in nine proteins over the winter months as well as their responses to laboratory cold acclimation or anoxia exposure...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433717/response-a-chronic-effects-of-pbde-47-up-regulations-of-hsp60-and-hsp70-expression-in-freshwater-bivalve-anodonta-woodiana
#13
Xichao Xia, Shipeng Xue, Xiying Wang, Qingyuan Zhang, Chuanfeng Huang, Lianghong Guo, Lunguang Yao
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in adaption of environmental stress by protein folding, membrane translocation, degradation of misfolded proteins and other regulatory processes. Our previous study showed oxidative stress generated from polybrominated diphenyl ether-47 (PBDE-47) could cause an acute toxicity on freshwater bivalve Anodonta Woodiana, but the effect of chronic toxicity need to be elucidated. In order to further investigate the chronic effect of PBDE-47, clams A. Woodiana were randomly divided into the PBDE-47 treated group administrated with PBDE-47 at a concentration 3...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433659/carbonic-anhydrase-xii-functions-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Abdul Waheed, William S Sly
Human CAXII was initially identified as a cancer marker in different cancers and tumors. Expression of CAXII is regulated by hypoxia and estrogen receptors. CAXII expression has been also detected in several tissues, whereas in cancer and tumor tissues its expression is several fold higher. In brain tumors, an alternatively spliced form of CAXII is expressed. Higher expression of CAXII in breast cancer is indicative of lower grade disease. CAXII plays a key role in several physiological functions. Mutation in the CAXII gene causes cystic fibrosis-like syndrome and salt wasting disease...
April 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433606/in-silico-methods-for-co-transcriptional-rna-secondary-structure-prediction-and-for-investigating-alternative-rna-structure-expression
#15
REVIEW
Irmtraud M Meyer
RNA transcripts are the primary products of active genes in any living organism, including many viruses. Their cellular destiny not only depends on primary sequence signals, but can also be determined by RNA structure. Recent experimental evidence shows that many transcripts can be assigned more than a single functional RNA structure throughout their cellular life and that structure formation happens co-transcriptionally, i.e. as the transcript is synthesised in the cell. Moreover, functional RNA structures are not limited to non-coding transcripts, but can also feature in coding transcripts...
April 19, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433477/novel-mutations-in-the-c-terminal-region-of-gmppb-causing-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-overlapping-with-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome
#16
Sushan Luo, Shuang Cai, Susan Maxwell, Dongyue Yue, Wenhua Zhu, Kai Qiao, Zhen Zhu, Lei Zhou, Jianying Xi, Jiahong Lu, David Beeson, Chongbo Zhao
Mutations in the GMPPB gene may underlie both limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS). Forty-one cases have been reported to date and hotspot mutations are emerging in the Caucasian population. Clinical and pathological features of 5 patients with compound heterozygous GMPPB mutations were collected and retrospectively reviewed. In vitro functional analysis was performed to investigate the pathogeneity of GMPPB variants. The patients presented with proximal limb weakness in their first to second decades...
March 10, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433472/the-influence-of-platelet-rich-plasma-on-synovial-fluid-volumes-protein-concentrations-and-severity-of-pain-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#17
Carl P C Chen, Chih-Hsiu Cheng, Chih-Chin Hsu, Hsin-Chin Lin, Yi-Rong Tsai, Jean-Lon Chen
Knee pain is commonly seen in orthopedic and rehabilitation outpatient clinical settings. Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are often complicated with joint soreness, swelling, weakness, and pain. These complaints are often caused by the excessive amount of synovial fluid (SF) accumulated in the bursae around the knee joint. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in treating patients with minor to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA) combined with supra-patellar bursitis using a proteomic approach and clinical evaluation tool...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433422/postnatal-choline-supplementation-selectively-attenuates-hippocampal-microrna-alterations-associated-with-developmental-alcohol-exposure
#18
Sridevi Balaraman, Nirelia M Idrus, Rajesh C Miranda, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation...
January 3, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433383/screening-for-chronic-kidney-disease-in-canadian-indigenous-peoples-is-cost-effective
#19
Thomas W Ferguson, Navdeep Tangri, Zhi Tan, Matthew T James, Barry D A Lavallee, Caroline D Chartrand, Lorraine L McLeod, Allison B Dart, Claudio Rigatto, Paul V J Komenda
Canadian indigenous (First Nations) have rates of kidney failure that are 2- to 4-fold higher than the non-indigenous general Canadian population. As such, a strategy of targeted screening and treatment for CKD may be cost-effective in this population. Our objective was to assess the cost utility of screening and subsequent treatment for CKD in rural Canadian indigenous adults by both estimated glomerular filtration rate and the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. A decision analytic Markov model was constructed comparing the screening and treatment strategy to usual care...
April 19, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433363/the-molecular-impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-hepatic-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-signaling
#20
George J Ventro, Yingkui Yang, Min Chen, Carroll M Harmon
PURPOSE: Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) develops in a subset of children receiving parenteral nutrition for intestinal failure. Omegaven™ is an omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3FA) lipid emulsion high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that can lessen PNALD. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, TGF-β) are elevated in PNALD and can decrease paraoxonase 1 protein expression (PON1). We sought to determine the effect of Omegaven™, EPA, and DHA on inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, and TGF-β via ERK1/2 and p-Smad2/3 signaling pathways as well as the changes in intracellular PON1 protein expression as a potential mechanism explaining the protective effects of Omegaven™ and Ω3FA...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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