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Yazmin Alcala-Canto, Juan Antonio Figueroa-Castillo, Froylán Ibarra-Velarde, Yolanda Vera-Montenegro, María Eugenia Cervantes-Valencia, Abdelfattah Z M Salem, Jorge Alfredo Cuéllar-Ordaz
The tick genus Ripicephalus (Boophilus), particularly R. microplus, is one of the most important ectoparasites that affects livestock health and considered an epidemiological risk because it causes significant economic losses due, mainly, to restrictions in the export of infested animals to several countries. Its spatial distribution has been tied to environmental factors, mainly warm temperatures and high relative humidity. In this work, we integrated a dataset consisting of 5843 records of Rhipicephalus spp...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
D S S Valentim, J L Duarte, A E M F M Oliveira, R A S Cruz, J C T Carvalho, C Solans, C P Fernandes, M Tavares-Dias
Monogeneans are ectoparasites that may cause losses in production and productivity in the aquaculture of Colossoma macropomum. Chemotherapeutics used in aquaculture usually have major adverse effects on fish; hence, the use of essential oils has been considered advantageous, but these are not soluble in water. Thus, the use of nanostructures to enhance water solubility of compounds and improve bioactivity may be very promising. This study investigated the antiparasitic activity of nanoemulsion prepared with Copaifera officinalis oleoresin (50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mg/L), against monogenean parasites from the gills of C...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Melissa Oddie, Ralph Büchler, Bjørn Dahle, Marin Kovacic, Yves Le Conte, Barbara Locke, Joachim R de Miranda, Fanny Mondet, Peter Neumann
In eusocial insect colonies nestmates cooperate to combat parasites, a trait called social immunity. However, social immunity failed for Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) when the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor switched hosts from Eastern honey bees (Apis cerana). This mite has since become the most severe threat to A. mellifera world-wide. Despite this, some isolated A. mellifera populations are known to survive infestations by means of natural selection, largely by supressing mite reproduction, but the underlying mechanisms of this are poorly understood...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Panuwan Chantawannakul, Samuel Ramsey, Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Patcharin Phokasem
The risk of transmission of honey bee parasites has increased substantially as a result of trade globalization and technical developments in transportation efficacy. Great concern over honey bee decline has accelerated research on newly emerging bee pests and parasites. These organisms are likely to emerge from Asia as it is the only region where all 10 honey bee species co-occur. Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite, is a classic example of a pest that has shifted from A. cerana, a cavity nesting Asian honey bee to A...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Alexander K Brazenor, Terry Bertozzi, Terrence L Miller, Ian D Whittington, Kate S Hutson
Accurate identification of parasite species and strains is crucial to mitigate the risk of epidemics and emerging disease. Species of Neobenedenia are harmful monogenean ectoparasites that infect economically important bony fishes in aquaculture worldwide, however, the species boundaries between two of the most notorious taxa, N. melleni and N. girellae, has been a topic of contention for decades. Historically, identifications of Neobenedenia isolates have overwhelmingly been attributed to N. melleni, and it has been proposed that N...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Paula Lado, Barbara Qurollo, Cathy Williams, Randall Junge, Hans Klompen
Lemurs are primate species that are endemic to Madagascar. At present, about 90% of lemur species are endangered, and 5 species are among the 25 most endangered primates worldwide. Health status is a major factor impacting the viability of wild populations of many endangered species including lemurs. Given this context, we analyzed the microbiome of 24 specimens of Haemaphysalis lemuris, the most common tick parasitizing lemurs in their native habitats. Ticks were collected from 6 lemur species and microbiomes analyzed using next-generation sequencing...
May 2, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Scott Hamilton, Kevin McLean, Sean J Monaghan, Carol McNair, Neil F Inglis, Hazel McDonald, Sandra Adams, Randolph Richards, William Roy, Patrick Smith, James Bron, Alasdair J Nisbet, David Knox
BACKGROUND: The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is an ectoparasitic copepod which feeds on the mucus, skin and blood of salmonid fish species. The parasite can persist on the surface of the fish without any effective control being exerted by the host immune system. Other ectoparasitic invertebrates produce compounds in their saliva, excretions and/or secretions which modulate the host immune responses allowing them to remain on or in the host during development. Similarly, compounds are produced in secretions of L...
May 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Hao Hao Zhang, Zhen Guo Liu, You Hui Gong, Qing Yun Diao
Varroa destructor is a virulent ectoparasitic mite of western honeybee (Apis mellifera), and considered the greatest threat to apiculture around the world. Chemical method is widely used for the management of this mite. However, this method can easily induce the resistance of V. destructor to acaricides, toxicity of acaricides to honeybee and the residues in bee products. Therefore, many safe preventions and control techniques were developed to treat mite in recent years. Using pheromones of honeybee to control V...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jaakko Lumme, Marek S Zietara
In the parthenogenetic monogeneans of the genus Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832, the genetic diversity within or between hosts is determined by the relative roles of lateral transmission and clonal propagation. Clonality and limited transmission lead to high-amplitude metapopulation dynamics and strong genetic drift. In Baltic populations of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, the local mitochondrial diversity of Gyrodactylus arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933 is very high, and spatial differentiation weak...
April 19, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
Tian-Yin Cheng, Zhen Chen, Zhong-Bo Li, Guo-Hua Liu
Ticks are obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites that infect a wide range of animals and humans, causing a variety of both human and animal diseases around the world. Ixodes nipponensis is the most commonly reported tick in Korea and Japan, but it is very rare in China. In this study, six I. nipponensis samples were collected from three black goats in Hunan province, China. Ticks identified morphologically as I. nipponensis were then examined by PCR with two different molecular markers: mitochondrial cox1 and the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA genes...
May 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Boris R Krasnov, Georgy I Shenbrot, Luther van der Mescht, Elizabeth M Warburton, Irina S Khokhlova
We tested whether geographic range position of fleas parasitic on small mammals in the Palearctic is affected by environmental niche conservatism or geographic range conservatism by measuring phylogenetic signal in range centroids and boundaries. We predicted that stronger phylogenetic signal in latitudinal than longitudinal range positions would indicate the important role of niche conservatism as a driver of the evolution of fleas' geographic ranges. Phylogenetic signals in geographic range positions were measured across 120 species, as well as within five flea lineages (subfamily/family rank) of different evolutionary ages...
May 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Venkataramana Kandi
Tungiasis is an infection/infestation of the flea Tunga penetrans . These are bloodsucking ectoparasitic insects belonging to the phylum Arthropoda, and they do not possess wings, but they have long legs enabling them to jump up to 30 cm high. The fleas are usually present on the skin and in the hair of domestic and wild animals and are prevalent throughout the world. They may also be present in an environment consisting of dry sandy soils, and they infect people who walk barefoot and reside in flea-infested areas...
March 5, 2018: Curēus
Jamie Bojko, Paul D Stebbing, Alison M Dunn, Kelly S Bateman, Fraser Clark, Rose C Kerr, Sarah Stewart-Clark, Ása Johannesen, Grant D Stentiford
The green crab Carcinus maenas is an invader on the Atlantic coast of Canada and the USA. In these locations, crab populations have facilitated the development of a legal fishery in which C. maenas is caught and sold, mainly for use as bait to capture economically important crustaceans such as American lobster Homarus americanus. The paucity of knowledge on the symbionts of invasive C. maenas in Canada and their potential for transfer to lobsters poses a potential risk of unintended transmission. We carried out a histological survey for symbionts of C...
May 7, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Maria Regina Lucas da Silva, Felipe Fornazari, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Alícia Giolo Hippólito, Luna Scarpari Rolim, Jacqueline Muniz Bisca, Carlos Roberto Teixeira, Lucia Helena O'Dwyer
Hemoparasites are vector-borne parasites that infect wild carnivores worldwide. Since data on hemoparasite infections in Nasua nasua from Brazil are lacking, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of hemoparasites and ectoparasites in N. nasua from different areas of Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites from 83 N. nasua were collected in Botucatu, Palmital, and São Paulo municipalities. Samples were screened via microscopy and molecular methods to detect hemoparasites. Tissues from two N...
May 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
Ilka Ute Emmerich
In 2017, no new active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for horses or food-producing animals. Four established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients became available for additional species: the ectoparasitic Fluralaner (Exzolt®) of the isoxazoline group was additionally authorized for chickens, the macrolide antibiotics Gamithromycin (Zactran®) and Tulathromycin (Draxxin®) for sheep and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Tolfenamic Acid (Tolfedol®) from the fenamate group for cattle and pigs...
April 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Tomáš Pakosta, Lukáš Vetešník, Andrea Šimková
Carassius gibelio is an extraordinary cyprinid species exhibiting both sexual and asexual reproduction. We hypothesized that parasitism selection is one of the potential mechanisms contributing to the coexistence of the two reproductive forms of C. gibelio living in the same habitat. We performed a four-year study to investigate the dynamics of parasite infection in C. gibelio . According to the Red Queen prediction, the asexual form is a target of parasite adaptation due to its low genetic variability. Both sexual and gynogenetic forms of C...
2018: BioMed Research International
Dennis S Petersen, Nils Kreuter, Lars Heepe, Sebastian Büsse, Arndt H J Wellbrock, Klaudia Witte, Stanislav N Gorb
The louse fly Crataerina pallida is an obligate blood-sucking ecto-parasite of the common swift Apus apus Due to reduction of the wings, C. pallida is unable to fly, thus an effective and reliable attachment to their host's plumage is of outmost importance. Its attachment system shows several modifications in comparison to other calyptrate flies. The most prominent ones are the large tridentate claws and the dichotomously shaped setae located on the pulvilli. Based on data from morphological analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, cryo-scanning electron microscopy and traction force experiments, performed on native (feathers) as well as artificial substrates (glass, epoxy-resin and silicone rubber), we showed that the entire attachment system is highly adapted to the fly's lifestyle as an ectoparasite...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Attila D Sándor, Mihály Földvári, Aleksandra I Krawczyk, Hein Sprong, Alexandra Corduneanu, Levente Barti, Tamás Görföl, Péter Estók, Dávid Kováts, Sándor Szekeres, Zoltán László, Sándor Hornok, Gábor Földvári
Bats are important zoonotic reservoirs for many pathogens worldwide. Although their highly specialized ectoparasites, bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea), can transmit Bartonella bacteria including human pathogens, their eco-epidemiology is unexplored. Here, we analyzed the prevalence and diversity of Bartonella strains sampled from 10 bat fly species from 14 European bat species. We found high prevalence of Bartonella spp. in most bat fly species with wide geographical distribution. Bat species explained most of the variance in Bartonella distribution with the highest prevalence of infected flies recorded in species living in dense groups exclusively in caves...
April 29, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Julius A Tabin, Ariel Aspiras, Brian Martineau, Misty Riddle, Johanna Kowalko, Richard Borowsky, Nicolas Rohner, Clifford J Tabin
Little is known about the genetic basis of behavioral choice, such as temperature preference, especially in natural populations. Thermal preference can play a key role in habitat selection, for example in aquatic species. Examining this behavior on a genetic level requires access to individuals or populations of the same species that display distinct temperature preferences. Caves provide a uniquely advantageous setting to tackle this problem, as animals colonizing caves encounter an environment that generally has a different, and far more stable, annual temperature than what is encountered on the outside...
April 25, 2018: Developmental Biology
Vikram B Baliga, Rita S Mehta
Phenotypic convergence is a macroevolutionary pattern that need not be consistent across life history. Ontogenetic transitions in dietary specialization clearly illustrate the dynamics of ecological selection as organisms grow. The extent of phenotypic convergence among taxa that share a similar ecological niche may therefore vary ontogenetically. Because ontogenetic processes have been shown to evolve, phylogenetic comparative methods can be useful in examining how the scaling of traits relates to ecology...
May 2018: American Naturalist
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