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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351083/transcriptional-analysis-of-immune-relevant-genes-in-the-mucus-of-labeo-rohita-experimentally-infected-with-argulus-siamensis
#1
Sonali Parida, Amruta Mohapatra, Banya Kar, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Pramoda Kumar Sahoo
The knowledge of mucosa-associated molecular events that occur during infections is scarce despite the well-established importance of mucus in fish immunity. Using qRT-PCR, we analyzed the immune gene expression patterns in mucus of Labeo rohita experimentally infected with an ectoparasite Argulus siamensis. Mucus samples were collected at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, 15 d, and 30 d post challenge of L. rohita with metanauplii of A. siamensis. All interleukins studied herein (IL 6, IL 15, and IL 1β) showed significant upregulation of expression levels in mucus of A...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351072/scanning-electron-microscopy-study-of-strabax-monstrosus-von-nordmann-1864-copepoda-chondracanthidae-from-tunisian-waters-and-histopathological-study-of-its-effects-on-host
#2
Myriam Garbouj, Bouchra Benmansour, Yann Quilichini, Sihem Bahri
Strabax monstrosus von Nordmann, 1864 (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae) is an ectoparasite and it was recently recorded from small red scorpionfish, Scorpaena notata Rafinesque, and red scorpionfish, Scorpaena scrofa L., collected from Tunisian coastal waters. Copepod females were found deeply embedded in the branchial cavity reaching the cardiac region with their mouth-parts. Observations of females and males using scanning electron microscopy showed a number of morphological features that have been previously overlooked or incompletely presented...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351069/metazoan-parasite-fauna-of-migrating-common-garfish-belone-belone-l-in-the-baltic-sea
#3
Patrick Unger, Kilian Neubert, Harry W Palm
A total of 35 common garfish, Belone belone (Linnaeus, 1761), were studied for metazoan parasites on their spawning grounds in the western Baltic Sea. Nine parasite species were found, and six new locality records could be established for German coastal waters (Axine belones, Monogenea; Proteocephalus sp., Cestoda; Anisakis simplex (s.s.), Contracaecum rudolphii A and Hysterothylacium aduncum, Nematoda; Echinorhynchus gadi, Acanthocephala). For the first time, the marine ectoparasite A. belones was recorded from the gills of garfish inside the Baltic Sea, indicating its ability to survive the spawning migration as well as the brackish water conditions at its reproduction grounds...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339745/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-asian-honeybee-apis-cerana-provides-novel-insights-into-honeybee-biology
#4
Qingyun Diao, Liangxian Sun, Huajun Zheng, Zhijiang Zeng, Shengyue Wang, Shufa Xu, Huoqing Zheng, Yanping Chen, Yuanyuan Shi, Yuezhu Wang, Fei Meng, Qingliang Sang, Lianfei Cao, Fang Liu, Yongqiang Zhu, Wenfeng Li, Zhiguo Li, Congjie Dai, Minjun Yang, Shenglu Chen, Runsheng Chen, Shaowu Zhang, Jay D Evans, Qiang Huang, Jie Liu, Fuliang Hu, Songkun Su, Jie Wu
The Asian honeybee Apis cerana is one of two bee species that have been commercially kept with immense economic value. Here we present the analysis of genomic sequence and transcriptomic exploration for A. cerana as well as the comparative genomic analysis of the Asian honeybee and the European honeybee A. mellifera. The genome and RNA-seq data yield new insights into the behavioral and physiological resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa the evolution of antimicrobial peptides, and the genetic basis for labor division in A...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339521/immunogenetic-novelty-confers-a-selective-advantage-in-host-pathogen-coevolution
#5
Karl P Phillips, Joanne Cable, Ryan S Mohammed, Magdalena Herdegen-Radwan, Jarosław Raubic, Karolina J Przesmycka, Cock van Oosterhout, Jacek Radwan
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is crucial to the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and is among the most polymorphic gene families known. Its high diversity is usually attributed to selection imposed by fast-evolving pathogens. Pathogens are thought to evolve to escape recognition by common immune alleles, and, hence, novel MHC alleles, introduced through mutation, recombination, or gene flow, are predicted to give hosts superior resistance. Although this theoretical prediction underpins host-pathogen "Red Queen" coevolution, it has not been demonstrated in the context of natural MHC diversity...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339508/human-ectoparasites-and-the-spread-of-plague-in-europe-during-the-second-pandemic
#6
Katharine R Dean, Fabienne Krauer, Lars Walløe, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Barbara Bramanti, Nils Chr Stenseth, Boris V Schmid
Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can spread through human populations by multiple transmission pathways. Today, most human plague cases are bubonic, caused by spillover of infected fleas from rodent epizootics, or pneumonic, caused by inhalation of infectious droplets. However, little is known about the historical spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic (14-19th centuries), including the Black Death, which led to high mortality and recurrent epidemics for hundreds of years. Several studies have suggested that human ectoparasite vectors, such as human fleas (Pulex irritans) or body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus), caused the rapidly spreading epidemics...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332150/ectoparasite-activity-during-incubation-increases-microbial-growth-on-avian-eggs
#7
G Tomás, D Martín-Gálvez, C Ruiz-Castellano, M Ruiz-Rodríguez, J M Peralta-Sánchez, M Martín-Vivaldi, J J Soler
While direct detrimental effects of parasites on hosts are relatively well documented, other more subtle but potentially important effects of parasitism are yet unexplored. Biological activity of ectoparasites, apart from skin injuries and blood-feeding, often results in blood remains, or parasite faeces that accumulate and modify the host environment. In this way, ectoparasite activities and remains may increase nutrient availability that may favour colonization and growth of microorganisms including potential pathogens...
January 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330449/lithium-chloride-effectively-kills-the-honey-bee-parasite-varroa-destructor-by-a-systemic-mode-of-action
#8
Bettina Ziegelmann, Elisabeth Abele, Stefan Hannus, Michaela Beitzinger, Stefan Berg, Peter Rosenkranz
Honey bees are increasingly important in the pollination of crops and wild plants. Recent reports of the weakening and periodical high losses of managed honey bee colonies have alarmed beekeeper, farmers and scientists. Infestations with the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor in combination with its associated viruses have been identified as a crucial driver of these health problems. Although yearly treatments are required to prevent collapses of honey bee colonies, the number of effective acaricides is small and no new active compounds have been registered in the past 25 years...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324085/hyperparasitism-of-an-avian-ectoparasitic-hippoboscid-fly-ornithomya-anchineuria-by-the-mite-myialges-cf-borealis-in-alberta-canada
#9
Cameron P Goater, Jayden Dyck, Heather Proctor, Kevin Floate
Hippoboscid flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) include species that are ectoparasites of birds in the Northern Hemisphere, but little is known regarding their taxonomy, parasites, avian host associations, or geographical distribution in North America. In late August of 2013 and 2014, we collected hippoboscid flies from live birds trapped in mist nets as part of a banding study in Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park in southeastern Alberta, Canada. A total of 113 birds comprising 9 species was examined in 2013. Of these, 18 individuals were infested with 1-3 Ornithomya anchineuria Speiser (n = 22 flies; prevalence = 15...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318996/a-case-report-of-real-time-in-vivo-demonstration-of-sarcoptes-scabiei
#10
Mehmet Salih Gürel, Aslı Vefa Turgut Erdemir, Burak Tekin
Scabies is a pruritic dermatosis caused by the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. The diagnosis of scabies is usually made on clinical grounds, but histopathological and/or dermoscopic examinations may sometimes be of assistance. However, these diagnostic modalities do not offer a detailed in vivo demonstration of the motile microorganism. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a relatively novel imaging modality that permits in vivo examination of the skin at a resolution similar to that used during similar to histopathologic resolution...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317477/first-evidence-of-resistance-to-macrocyclic-lactones-in-psoroptes-ovis-sheep-scab-mites-in-the-uk
#11
Emma Doherty, Stewart Burgess, Sian Mitchell, Richard Wall
Ovine psoroptic mange (sheep scab) is an infection of substantial economic and animal welfare concern in the UK. Its prevalence has increased rapidly over the last 20 years and management is dependent on a small number of acaricidal compounds, many of which are also used to control a range of other endoparasites and ectoparasites. Here, the effects of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) moxidectin was considered using in vitro assays against mites from four farm populations where persistent treatment failure had been reported: two in West Wales, one from the England/Wales border and one in Herefordshire...
January 9, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313064/genetic-diversity-of-bartonella-spp-in-wild-mammals-and-ectoparasites-in-brazilian-pantanal
#12
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Renan Bressianini do Amaral, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Filipe Martins Santos, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
The present work aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of Bartonella in mammals and ectoparasites in Pantanal wetland, Brazil. For this purpose, 31 Nasua nasua, 78 Cerdocyon thous, 7 Leopardus pardalis, 110 wild rodents, 30 marsupials, and 42 dogs were sampled. DNA samples were submitted to a quantitative real-time PCR assay (qPCR). Positive samples in qPCR were submitted to conventional PCR assays targeting other five protein-coding genes. Thirty-five wild rodents and three Polygenis (P.) bohlsi bohlsi flea pools showed positive results in qPCR for Bartonella spp...
January 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307121/fleas-of-dog-and-cat-species-biology-and-flea-borne-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Filomena Iannino, Nadia Sulli, Antonio Maitino, Ilaria Pascucci, Guglielmo Pampiglione, Stefania Salucci
Ectoparasitic insects play a major role in veterinary medicine. Fleas infest man and animals and are the most frequent external parasites of companion animals worldwide. Some species are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens. Dogs and cats may play an important role either as reservoir of some of the pathogens or as transport vehicles for infected eas between their natural reservoirs and human beings, thus playing a crucial step in the transmission cycle of ea-borne diseases. This article reviews relevant literature on morphology, classi cation, host speci city, geographical distribution, and seasonality of eas infesting dogs and cats in order to improve their timely identi cation, prevention, and control...
December 29, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288016/infestation-by-ergasilus-coatiarus-copepoda-ergasilidae-in-two-amazonian-cichlids-with-new-host-record-from-peru-an-ectoparasites-natural-control-approach
#14
Patrick D Mathews, Ana C M F Patta, Gabriella S Gama, Omar Mertins
The occurrence of copepods ergasilid was investigated in two species of cichlids of economic importance for aquaculture in the Amazon region: Cichla monoculus and Chaetobranchus semifasciatus. The fish were collected from a semi-intensive fish farm, near the city of Nauta, Loreto State, Peru. Copepods were found in the gill filaments of 44 of 85 specimens (51.7%) of C. monoculus and in eight of 30 (26.6%) specimens of C. semifasciatus. The parasite was identified as Ergasilus coatiarus based on its morphological features...
December 26, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282821/experimental-evolution-of-infectious-behaviour-in-a-facultative-ectoparasite
#15
Emily S Durkin, Lien T Luong
Parasitic lifestyles have evolved many times in animals, but how such life-history strategies evolved from free-living ancestors remains a great puzzle. Transitional symbiotic strategies, such as facultative parasitism, are hypothesized evolutionary stepping-stones towards obligate parasitism. However, to consider this hypothesis, heritable genetic variation in infectious behaviour of transitional symbiotic strategies must exist. In this study, we experimentally evolved infectivity and estimated the additive genetic variation in a facultative parasite...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279082/spatial-multi-criteria-decision-analysis-for-modelling-suitable-habitats-of-ornithodoros-soft-ticks-in-the-western-palearctic-region
#16
L Vial, E Ducheyne, S Filatov, A Gerilovych, D S McVey, I Sindryakova, S Morgunov, A A Pérez de León, D Kolbasov, E M De Clercq
Ticks are economically and medically important ectoparasites due to the injuries inflicted through their bite, and their ability to transmit pathogens to humans, livestock, and wildlife. Whereas hard ticks have been intensively studied, little is known about soft ticks, even though they can also transmit pathogens, including African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) affecting domestic and wild suids or Borrelia bacteria causing tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in humans. We thus developed a regional model to identify suitable spatial areas for a community of nine Ornithodoros tick species (O...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273327/quantitative-proteomics-reveals-divergent-responses-in-apis-mellifera-worker-and-drone-pupae-to-parasitization-by-varroa-destructor
#17
Carla Surlis, James C Carolan, Mary Coffey, Kevin Kavanagh
Varroa destructor is a haemophagous ectoparasite of honeybees and is considered a major causal agent of colony losses in Europe and North America. Although originating in Eastern Asia where it parasitizes Apis cerana, it has shifted hosts to the western honeybee Apis mellifera on which it has a greater deleterious effect on the individual and colony level. To investigate this important host-parasite interaction and to determine whether Varroa causes different effects on different castes we conducted a label free quantitative proteomic analysis of Varroa-parasitized and non-parasitized drone and worker Apis mellifera pupae...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259257/coinfection-takes-its-toll-sea-lice-override-the-protective-effects-of-vaccination-against-a-bacterial-pathogen-in-atlantic-salmon
#18
Carolina Figueroa, Paulina Bustos, Débora Torrealba, Brian Dixon, Carlos Soto, Pablo Conejeros, José A Gallardo
Vaccination is considered crucial for disease prevention and fish health in the global salmon farming industry. Nevertheless, some aspects, such as the efficacy of vaccines, can be largely circumvented during natural coinfections. Sea lice are ectoparasitic copepods that can occur with a high prevalence in the field, are frequently found in co-infection with other pathogens, and are highly detrimental to fish health. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the interaction between the detrimental effects of coinfection and the protective effects of vaccination in fish...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248015/plant-extracts-as-a-natural-treatment-against-the-fish-ectoparasite-neobenedenia-sp-monogenea-capsalidae
#19
A G Trasviña-Moreno, F Ascencio, C Angulo, K S Hutson, A Avilés-Quevedo, R B Inohuye-Rivera, J C Pérez-Urbiola
The toxicity of water-ethanol extracts of garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), basil (Ocimum basilicum), bitter chaparro (Castela tortuousa), onion (Allium cepa) and papaya (Carica papaya) against adults, eggs and oncomiracidia of Neobenedenia spp. parasites was examined. Parasites were exposed to continuous immersion and treated as follows: extracts were tested at three dilutions: 1:10, 1:50 and 1:100 made with filtered seawater (35 g l-1); ethanol (70%) was evaluated at the same dilutions of 1:10 (7% ethanol), 1:50 (1...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243242/cross-sectional-survey-of-health-management-and-prevalence-of-vector-borne-diseases-endoparasites-and-ectoparasites-in-samoan-dogs
#20
R J Carslake, K E Hill, K Sjölander, S F Hii, D Prattley, E Acke
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of selected canine vector-borne diseases (Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis) and endo- and ectoparasites in Samoan dogs presenting for surgical sterilisation and to report on the general health management of the dogs. METHODS: This study was a prospective serological cross-sectional survey. Management data were obtained for 242 dogs by interview with their owners...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
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