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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917989/cost-effective-control-strategies-for-animal-and-zoonotic-diseases-in-pastoralist-populations
#1
J Zinsstag, M F Abakar, M Ibrahim, R Tschopp, L Crump, B Bonfoh, E Schelling
Animal diseases and zoonoses abound among pastoralist livestock, which is composed of cattle, sheep, goats, yak, camels, llamas, reindeer, horses and donkeys. There is endemic and, periodically, epidemic transmission of highly contagious viral and bacterial diseases in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Pastoralist livestock is often multiparasitised with endo- and ectoparasites, as well as being affected by vectorborne viral and protozoal diseases. Pastoral livestock can be a reservoir of such diseases and can also, conversely, be at risk from exposure to wildlife reservoirs...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914935/laboratory-and-field-evaluation-of-brown-dog-tick-behavioral-responses-to-potential-semiochemicals
#2
Lucas P Carnohan, Phillip E Kaufman, Sandra A Allan, Salvador A Gezan, Emma N I Weeks
The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Parasitiformis: Ixodidae), is an ectoparasite of dogs that can be found worldwide. This tick poses unique difficulties in management because it can complete its entire life cycle indoors and has demonstrated acaricide resistance. The ability to monitor for tick presence and abundance is necessary for developing effective control programs. As such, an evaluation of adult brown dog tick behavioral responses to 16 potential semiochemicals was undertaken using Y-tube and straight-tube olfactometers...
November 9, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913248/no-evidence-of-local-adaptation-of-immune-responses-to-gyrodactylus-in-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#3
Shaun Robertson, Janette E Bradley, Andrew D C MacColl
Parasitism represents one of the most widespread lifestyles in the animal kingdom, with the potential to drive coevolutionary dynamics with their host population. Where hosts and parasites evolve together, we may find local adaptation. As one of the main host defences against infection, there is the potential for the immune response to be adapted to local parasites. In this study, we used the three-spined stickleback and its Gyrodactylus parasites to examine the extent of local adaptation of parasite infection dynamics and the immune response to infection...
November 29, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911903/transfected-babesia-bovis-expressing-a-tick-gst-as-a-live-vector-vaccine
#4
Daiane P Oldiges, Jacob M Laughery, Nelson Junior Tagliari, Ronaldo Viana Leite Filho, William C Davis, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Carlos Termignoni, Donald P Knowles, Carlos E Suarez
The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is a notorious blood-feeding ectoparasite of livestock, especially cattle, responsible for massive losses in animal production. It is the main vector for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and parasites, including Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan protozoan parasite responsible for bovine Babesiosis. This study describes the development and testing of a live B. bovis vaccine expressing the protective tick antigen glutathione-S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlGST)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910895/arabidopsis-thaliana-as-a-suitable-model-host-for-research-on-interactions-between-plant-and-foliar-nematodes-parasites-of-plant-shoot
#5
Dong-Wei Wang, Xiao-Fang Peng, Hui Xie, Chun-Ling Xu, De-Qiang Cheng, Jun-Yi Li, Wen-Jia Wu, Ke Wang
The rice white tip nematode (RWTN), Aphelenchoides besseyi and the chrysanthemum foliar nematode (CFN), Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi are migratory plant parasitic nematodes that infect the aboveground parts of plants. In this research, Arabidopsis thaliana was infected by RWTN and CFN under indoor aseptic cultivation, and the nematodes caused recognizable symptoms in the leaves. Furthermore, RWTN and CFN completed their life cycles and proliferated. Therefore, A. thaliana was identified as a new host of RWTN and CFN...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888129/iron-metabolism-modulation-in-atlantic-salmon-infested-with-the-sea-lice-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-and-caligus-rogercresseyi-a-matter-of-nutritional-immunity
#6
Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Sea lice are copepodid ectoparasites that produce high economic losses and environmental issues, thus impacting the salmon aquaculture worldwide. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from Northern and Southern Hemispheres are primarily parasitized by Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi, respectively. To cope L. salmonis infestation, studies suggest that Atlantic salmon can restrict iron availability as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. However, no molecular studies of iron regulation from salmonids infected with C...
November 22, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884170/first-report-of-rickettsia-raoultii-and-r-slovaca-in-melophagus-ovinus-the-sheep-ked
#7
Dan Liu, Yuan-Zhi Wang, Huan Zhang, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Ha-Zi Wureli, Shi-Wei Wang, Chang-Chun Tu, Chuang-Fu Chen
BACKGROUND: Melophagus ovinus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), a hematophagous ectoparasite, is mainly found in Europe, Northwestern Africa, and Asia. This wingless fly infests sheep, rabbits, and red foxes, and causes inflammation, wool loss and skin damage. Furthermore, this parasite has been shown to transmit diseases, and plays a role as a vector. Herein, we investigated the presence of various Rickettsia species in M. ovinus. METHODS: In this study, a total of 95 sheep keds were collected in Kuqa County and Alaer City southern region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China...
November 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876980/prevalence-of-external-parasites-of-pigeon-in-zabol-southeast-of-iran
#8
M Jahantigh, R Esmailzade Dizaji, Y Teymoori
External parasites or ectoparasites, are arthropods that live on or in the skin or feathers, using the host as both shelter and food source. Ectoparasites can have significant impacts on animal health and productivity. The aim of this research was to estimate the prevalence and ectoparasites diversity in pigeons of Zabol, southeast of Iran. A total of 264 pigeons were selected randomly (175 males and 89 females) to evaluate the presence of different ectoparasites. Ectoparasites were collected from different parts of the body and from walls and seams of cubbyholes, using hand lens, forceps, and flashlights to increasing the see sight...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876972/prevalence-and-seasonal-variation-of-ectoparasites-in-cultured-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-in-saudi-arabia
#9
El Amin M Suliman, Ahmed H Al-Harbi
The prevalence, mean intensity and abundance of ectoparasites (monogeneans and trichodinids) from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were investigated during different seasons of two consecutive years, from January 2011 to December 2012. A total of 360 O. niloticus was collected from three fish farms located in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of monogeneans on fish gills were found to be significantly (p < 0.01) higher in farm(C) (81.67, 495.23, 405.84 %) than farm (A) (7...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876963/ultrastructural-study-of-apiosoma-piscicola-blanchard-1885-subclass-peritrichia-on-tachysurus-fulvidraco-from-china
#10
Ming Li, Zongyi Sun, Chong Wang, Lin Zhang
This paper gave detailed description of the fine structure of Apiosoma piscicola Blanchard 1885. These parasites were collected from the fry of Tachysurus fulvidraco during parasite surveys of fish at Jiangxia Fish Hatchery in Wuhan, Hubei province in May 2011. Its pellicle, peristomial apparatus, nuclei, trochal band and scopula were described, respectively. The relationship between these peritrich ciliates and their hosts was well discussed herein. The scopula of A. piscicola did not adhere directly to the surface of the host epithelial cells, but by means of a secreted adhesive pad of material according to the present study...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876947/a-survey-on-parasites-of-long-eared-hedgehog-hemiechinus-auritus-in-northeast-of-iran
#11
Ali Moshaverinia, Hassan Borji, Mehrab Kameli, Sara Ghabdian, Reza Ghanei
As there appeared to be no data available on parasite infection of Hedgehogs in the region and considering the potential threat of Hedgehogs for animal and public health, the present study was carried out using biological samples and necropsy findings collected from long-eared hedgehog captured in Mashhad city in the northeast of Iran. During the study 23 dead hedgehogs were collected randomly from different regions of Mashhad County. Following autopsy of these animals, observation for enteric parasites was carefully done...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876921/ectoparasite-louse-mite-and-tick-infestations-on-female-turkeys-galliformes-phasianidae-meleagris-gallopavo-in-iran
#12
Maryam Rassouli, Mohammad Mahdi Darvishi, Seyed Rasoul Rosstami Lima
Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were evaluated as potential hosts of ectoparasites. Different lice, ticks and mites can infest turkeys and cause direct and/or indirect harms and in some cases can also be fatal. Samples (feathers) were collected from lateral parts of 15 and 7 female turkeys' body of two different turkey flocks, in Rasht, Gilan province and Piranshahr, Western Azerbaijan province, Iran, respectively. Feathers were inspected for ectoparasites, the collected ectoparasites were decolorized and mounted then identified by identification keys in parasitology laboratory...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876644/dinotefuran-induced-morphophysiological-changes-in-semi-engorged-females-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-latreille-1806-acari-ixodidae-ticks-ultra-structural-evaluation
#13
Patrícia Rosa de Oliveira, Luis Adriano Anholeto, Gerváso Henrique Bechara, Maria Izabel Camargo Mathias
The present study demonstrated the effects of dinotefuran (active ingredient of the acaricide Protetor Pet(®)) on the ovary and midgut cells of semi engorged R. sanguineus females exposed to different concentrations of this chemical. For this, 120 semi-engorged females were divided into four treatment groups with 30 individuals each: group I or control (distilled water), group II (5000ppm), groups III (6250ppm) and group IV (8334ppm of dinotefuran). All the ticks were immersed in the different concentrations of dinotefuran or in distilled water for 5min and then dried and kept in BOD incubator for 7days...
November 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876081/in-vitro-activity-of-ten-essential-oils-against-sarcoptes-scabiei
#14
Fang Fang, Kerdalidec Candy, Elise Melloul, Charlotte Bernigaud, Ling Chai, Céline Darmon, Rémy Durand, Françoise Botterel, Olivier Chosidow, Arezki Izri, Weiyi Huang, Jacques Guillot
BACKGROUND: The development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Essential oils have been demonstrated to exhibit fumigant and topical toxicity to a number of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei. METHODS: The major chemical components of the oils were identified by GC-MS analysis. Contact and fumigation bioassays were performed on Sarcoptes mites collected from experimentally infected pigs...
November 22, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870855/host-parasite-interactions-and-population-dynamics-of-rock-ptarmigan
#15
Ute Stenkewitz, Ólafur K Nielsen, Karl Skírnisson, Gunnar Stefánsson
Populations of rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Iceland fluctuate in multiannual cycles with peak numbers c. every 10 years. We studied the ptarmigan-parasite community and how parasites relate to ptarmigan age, body condition, and population density. We collected 632 ptarmigan in northeast Iceland in early October from 2006 to 2012; 630 (99.7%) were infected with at least one parasite species, 616 (98%) with ectoparasites, and 536 (85%) with endoparasites. We analysed indices for the combined parasite community (16 species) and known pathogenic parasites, two coccidian protozoans Eimeria muta and Eimeria rjupa, two nematodes Capillaria caudinflata and Trichostrongylus tenuis, one chewing louse Amyrsidea lagopi, and one skin mite Metamicrolichus islandicus...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860017/new-records-of-ectoparasitic-acari-arachnida-and-streblidae-diptera-from-bats-in-jalisco-mexico
#16
Maria M Ramírez Martínez, M Pilar Ibarra Lopez, Luis Ignacio Iñiguez-Dávalos, Thomas Yuill, Maria V Orlova, Will K Reeves
Ectoparasites of bats in the Neotropics are diverse and play numerous ecological roles as vectors of microbial pathogens and endoparasites and as food sources for other cave fauna living both on their hosts and in bat roosts. The ectoparasites of bats in Jalisco State of western Mexico have not been as well described as those of other states with recent checklists that have focused primarily on the Yucatan Peninsula. We captured bats from 2011-2015 on the south coast and Sierra de Amula, Jalisco using mist nets, and we removed ectoparasites by hand...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860010/detection-of-lyme-disease-and-anaplasmosis-pathogens-via-pcr-in-pennsylvania-deer-ked
#17
M Buss, L Case, B Kearney, C Coleman, J D Henning
Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are obligate intracellular parasites that maintain their life cycles in enzoonotic vector-host cycles with Ixodes scapularis as a vector. In addition to ticks, the hosts are commonly infested with insects from the Hippoboscidae family. This study confirms the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) removed from white-tailed deer using PCR. Detection of these pathogens in deer ked represents a potential novel susceptibility of wildlife and also suggests the risk of transmission of these pathogens to humans and animals alike through the bite of an infected ectoparasite...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859488/first-report-of-amitraz-and-cypermethrin-resistance-in-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-sensu-lato-infesting-dogs-in-mexico
#18
R I Rodriguez-Vivas, M M Ojeda-Chi, I Trinidad-Martinez, M E Bolio-González
Engorged female Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) were collected from dogs in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. Fourteen tick populations were collected from dogs at seven veterinary clinics, four residential homes and three cattle farms. The larval immersion test was used in the progeny of collected adult females to test susceptibility to amitraz and cypermethrin. Dose-mortality regressions, 50% lethal concentrations (LC50 ), confidence intervals and slope were estimated by probit analysis...
November 11, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858185/a-facultative-ectoparasite-attains-higher-reproductive-success-as-a-parasite-than-its-free-living-conspecifics
#19
Lien T Luong, Dewmi Subasinghe
Comparative and phylogenetic studies reveal that parasites evolved from free-living ancestors, but the underlying processes and mechanisms are not well understood. In order for selection to favor the evolution of parasitism, there must be pre-existing adaptations for host exploitation and a fitness advantage favoring the transition to parasitism. Here, we experimentally investigate the differential reproductive success of a facultative parasite, Macrocheles subbadius. Lifetime reproductive success was higher among female mites that fed on fruit fly hemolymph as parasites compared to free-living mites...
November 17, 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853128/chewing-lice-of-swan-geese-anser-cygnoides-new-host-parasite-associations
#20
Chang-Yong Choi, John Y Takekawa, Diann J Prosser, Lacy M Smith, Craig R Ely, Anthony D Fox, Lei Cao, Xin Wang, Nyambayar Batbayar, Tseveenmayadag Natsagdorj, Xiangming Xiao
Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius domesticus Arnold, 2005, and 1 Anaticola anseris (Linnaeus, 1758)...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
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