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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139069/piloting-the-effectiveness-of-pig-health-education-in-combination-with-oxfendazole-treatment-on-prevention-and-or-control-of-porcine-cysticercosis-gastrointestinal-parasites-african-swine-fever-and-ectoparasites-in-ang%C3%A3-nia-district-mozambique
#1
A G Chilundo, M V Johansen, A Pondja, R Miambo, S Afonso, S Mukaratirwa
A community-based intervention combining health education (HE) and treatment of pigs for control of porcine cysticercosis (PC), gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, African swine fever (ASF) and external parasites was tested involving six villages of resource-poor smallholder pig farmers. Farmers and pigs of six rural villages were randomly allocated into group 1 (HE), which served as controls, and group 2 (HE + OFZ) pigs received a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg OFZ. Farmers were trained in pig health, housing and feeding...
November 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134754/a-decrease-in-the-abundance-and-strategic-sophistication-of-cleaner-fish-after-environmental-perturbations
#2
Zegni Triki, Sharon Wismer, Elena Levorato, Redouan Bshary
Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide and under foreseeable threat due to climate change, resulting in significant changes in reef communities. It is unknown, however, how such community changes impact interspecific interactions. Recent extreme weather events affecting the Great Barrier Reef, that is, consecutive cyclones and the 2016 El Niño event, allowed us to explore potential consequences in the mutualistic interactions involving cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaner"). After the perturbations, cleaner densities were reduced by 80%, disproportionally compared to the variety of reef fish clients from which cleaners remove ectoparasites...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127990/bartonella-bats-and-bugs-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Matthew J Stuckey, Bruno B Chomel, Eloi Claret de Fleurieu, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Chao-Chin Chang
Ecological, immunological, and epidemiological factors enable bats to transmit an increasingly recognized spectrum of zoonotic agents, and bartonellae are among those emerging pathogens identified in bats and their arthropod ectoparasites. Current data reveal a multifaceted disease ecology where diverse host species distributed around the world interact with a number of Bartonella spp. and several potential vectors. This review summarizes the methods and findings of studies conducted since 2005 to illustrate that Bartonella bacteremia varies by bat species, location, and other potential variables, such as diet with a very high prevalence in hematophagous bats...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126839/the-epidemic-typhus-and-trench-fever-are-risk-for-public-health-due-to-increased-migration-in-southeast-of-turkey
#4
Fadime Eroglu, Nilgün Ulutasdemir, Mustafa Tanrıverdi, Eda Icbay Dagli, Ismail Soner Koltas
Pediculus humanus capitis is a small ectoparasitic insect that has lived and feds on human beings for thousands of years. Molecular techniques have been used for Pediculus species identification and evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological studies. A total of 23 adults of P. h. capitis were collected in Gaziantep, located in southeast Turkey, and DNA was isolated from all P. h. capitis using DNA extraction kit. All DNA samples were screened for investigate of Ricettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana and Borrelia recurrentis with real-time polymerase chain reaction...
November 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124413/assessment-of-bacterial-diversity-in-hyalomma-aegyptium-h-marginatum-and-h-excavatum-ticks-through-tag-encoded-pyrosequencing
#5
Adem Keskin, Ahmet Bursali, David E Snow, Scot E Dowd, Saban Tekin
Ticks are among the most significant human-biting ectoparasites and they play a major role in transmission of many pathogenic agents to humans. In the present study, three species of Hyalomma ticks, Hyalomma aegyptium, H. marginatum and H. excavatum, were examined for the presence of zoonotic bacteria, both male and female ticks alike. Examination of microbial diversity with tag-encoded pyrosequencing indicates that H. marginatum and H. excavatum were more diversity rich than H. aegyptium. Although numerous pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial genera were detected, including Acidovorax, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Bdellovibrio, Clostridium, Curvibacter, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, Limnohabitans, Paenibacillus, Ralstonia, Sarcina, Sediminibacterium, Segetibacter Stenotrophomonas and Variovorax, the predominant zoonotic bacteria represented in these ticks were genera Borrelia, Francisella, and Rickettsia...
November 9, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114144/impact-of-epidemiological-factors-on-the-prevalence-intensity-and-distribution-of-ectoparasites-in-pigeons
#6
Haroon Ahmed, Mehmoona Naz, Irfan Mustafa, Mobushir Riaz Khan, Saira Asif, Muhammad Sohail Afzal, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naveed, Shahzad Ali, Sami Simsek
This study was carried out on domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from September (2014) to June (2015) to determine the prevalence, intensity and species of ectoparasites in Sargodha region, east of Pakistan. A total of 200 domestic pigeons were inspected from the study area. Parasites were collected by forceps and stored in 70% ethanol. The epidemiological information e.g. health condition, color of plumage, mode of living, breed, intensity etc. were recorded in the form of questionnaire. The overall prevalence of ectoparasites in pigeon was 90...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114125/prevalence-of-amblyomma-gervaisi-ticks-on-captive-snakes-in-tamil-nadu
#7
B R Catherine, M G Jayathangaraj, C Soundararajan, C Bala Guru, D Yogaraj
Ticks are the important ectoparasites that occur on snakes and transmit rickettsiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis. A total of 62 snakes (Reticulated python, Indian Rock Python, Rat snakes and Spectacled cobra) were examined for tick infestation at Chennai Snake Park Trust (Guindy), Arignar Anna Zoological Park (Vandalur) and Rescue centre (Velachery) in Tamil Nadu from September, 2015 to June, 2016. Ticks from infested snakes were collected and were identified as Amblyomma gervaisi (previously known as Aponomma gervaisi)...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113892/screening-behaviorally-active-compounds-based-on-fluorescence-quenching-in-combination-with-binding-mechanism-analyses-of-sspobp7-an-odorant-binding-protein-from-sclerodermus-sp
#8
Shi-Yu Yi, Dong-Zhen Li, Chang-Xiang Zhou, Yan-Long Tang, Hazem Elewa Abdelnabby, Man-Qun Wang
Reverse chemical ecology approaches based on the recognition and transport function of odorant binding proteins (OBPs) have been used to screen behaviorally active compounds of insects. In the first place, behaviorally active compounds from Sclerodermus sp., an important ectoparasite of Monochamus alternatus Hope, were screened by SspOBP7. The Fluorescence quenching assays revealed that only six of 19 ligands that had binding affinities in fluorescence competition-binding assays formed complexes with SspOBP7...
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113619/parasite-mediated-host-behavioural-modifications-gyrodactylus-turnbulli-infected-trinidadian-guppies-increase-contact-rates-with-uninfected-conspecifics
#9
Michael Reynolds, Elisavet A Arapi, Jo Cable
While group formation provides antipredatory defences, increases foraging efficiency and mating opportunities, it can be counterintuitive by promoting disease transmission amongst social hosts. Upon introduction of a pathogen, uninfected individuals often modify their social preferences to reduce infection risk. Infected hosts also exhibit behavioural changes, for example, removing themselves from a group to prevent an epidemic. Conversely, here we show how Trinidadian guppies infected with a directly transmitted ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, significantly increase their contact rates with uninfected conspecifics...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113603/identification-of-a-novel-pyp-1-gene-in-sarcoptes-scabiei-and-its-potential-as-a-serodiagnostic-candidate-by-indirect-elisa
#10
Jing Xu, Xing Huang, Manli He, Yongjun Ren, Nengxing Shen, Chunyan Li, Ran He, Yue Xie, Xiaobin Gu, Bo Jing, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Scabies is a parasitic disease caused by the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting different mammalian species, including rabbits, worldwide. In the present study, we cloned and expressed a novel inorganic pyrophosphatase, Ssc-PYP-1, from S. scabiei var. cuniculi. Immunofluorescence staining showed that native Ssc-PYP-1 was localized in the tegument around the mouthparts and the entire legs, as well as in the cuticle of the mites. Interestingly, obvious staining was also observed on the fecal pellets of mites and in the integument of the mites...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113602/cattle-and-rainfall-affect-tick-abundance-in-central-kenya
#11
Felicia Keesing, Richard S Ostfeld, Truman P Young, Brian F Allan
East Africa is a global hot spot for the diversity of ixodid ticks. As ectoparasites and as vectors of pathogens, ticks negatively affect the well-being of humans, livestock and wildlife. To prevent tick infestations, livestock owners and managers typically treat livestock with acaricides that kill ticks when they attempt to feed on livestock hosts. Because of the costs of preventing and mitigating tick parasitism, predicting where and when ticks will be abundant is an important challenge in this region. We used a 7-year monthly record of tick abundance on large experimental plots to assess the effects of rainfall, wildlife and cattle on larvae, nymphs and adults of two common tick species, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Rhipicephalus praetextatus...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111373/rickettsia-spp-among-wild-mammals-and-their-respective-ectoparasites-in-pantanal-wetland-brazil
#12
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Francisco Borges Costa, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
The genus Rickettsia comprises obligatory intracellular bacteria, well known to cause zoonotic diseases around the world. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Rickettsia spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular and serological techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, serum, whole blood and/or spleen samples were collected from 31 coatis, 78 crab-eating foxes, seven ocelots, 42 dogs, 110 wild rodents, and 30 marsupials...
October 27, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110169/ticks-acari-ixodidae-infesting-some-small-mammals-from-northern-turkey-with-new-tick-host-associations-and-locality-records
#13
Adem Keskin, Ahmet Yesari Selçuk, Haluk Kefelioğlu
Ticks are obligate ectoparasites of a vast range of terrestrial vertebrates which may play an important role in the transmission of many zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals. In the current study, we performed an investigation on ticks infesting some small mammals captured from Samsun and Tokat provinces, Northern Turkey. One hundred forty-five mammalian samples belonging to four species, namely Cricetulus migratorius (n = 1), Apodemus flavicollis (n = 17), Crocidura suaveolens (n = 102) and Sorex volnuchini (n = 25), were examined for the presence of tick infestations...
November 6, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103397/anaplasmataceae-agents-among-wild-mammals-and-ectoparasites-in-brazil
#14
K C M DE Sousa, A C Calchi, H M Herrera, J S Dumler, D M Barros-Battesti, R Z Machado, M R André
Anaplasmataceae agents comprise obligate intracellular bacteria that can cause disease in humans and animals. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 Nasua nasua (coati), 78 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), seven Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 110 wild rodents, 30 marsupials, and 42 dogs were sampled in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. In addition, ectoparasites found parasitizing the animals were collected and identified. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Anaplasmataceae agents in wild mammals, domestic dogs and ectoparasites, by molecular and serological techniques...
November 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099114/d%C3%A3-pteros-ectopar%C3%A3-sitos-hemat%C3%A3-fagos-%C3%A2-reservorios-potenciales-del-virus-del-dengue
#15
Álvaro Aguilar Setién, Anahí García Baltazar, Ignacio Olave Leyva, Mónica Salas Rojas, Vadim Pérez Koldenkova, Mariem Pérez-Peña García, Nidia Aréchiga Ceballos, Guillermo Gálvez Romero, Edgar Olivier López Villegas, Juan Bibiano Morales Malacara, Cenia Almazán Marín
Recently, the presence of antibodies and dengue virus (DV) RNA in neotropical wild mammals, including Desmodus rotundus, was reported. In a previous study, DV was also found in a high percentage (39.6%) of ectoparasitic hematophagous dipters specifics of these hematophagous bats. In order to verify the susceptibility of these ectoparasites to DV, in this work experimental infections with VD2 of organs explants of Strebla wiedemanni and of Melophagus ovinus were performed using C6/36 cells as control. Viral titers (UFP/mL) were determined at 0, 48 and 96 hrs pi...
2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094355/th1-th2-immune-responses-and-oxidative-stress-in-caprine-flea-allergy-dermatitis
#16
Y Ajith, Umesh Dimri, A Gopalakrishnan, E Madhesh, Ricky Jhambh, Vivek Joshi, Devi Gopinath
Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is the common, often neglected skin disease of goats caused mainly by Ctenocephalides felis. The present study aimed to evaluate the immuno-oxidative pathobiology of FAD in goats. Twelve goats from the same herd were divided into two groups of six animals each. The group I (FAD) included animals with natural flea infestation and severe dermatitis lesions. The group II (Healthy control) animals were free from any parasitic infestation. To assess the pathological changes, the markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity), and immune status (Tumour necrosis factor alpha, Interleukin 10, Transforming growth factor beta 1 and Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio) were evaluated from the blood and the serum samples...
November 2, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089066/assessment-of-the-onset-of-lotilaner-credelio%C3%A2-speed-of-kill-of-fleas-on-dogs
#17
Daniela Cavalleri, Martin Murphy, Wolfgang Seewald, Jason Drake, Steve Nanchen
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner (Credelio™) is the newest member of the novel isoxazoline chemical class to be developed to treat canine ectoparasitism. Administered orally, lotilaner is rapidly absorbed with peak blood levels occurring within 2 h post-treatment. A study was undertaken to determine the earliest onset of lotilaner's efficacy against existing flea infestations. METHODS: From 72 Beagles, 64 qualifying dogs were ranked in descending order of flea counts from a Day -8 infestation and placed into eight blocks...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089046/the-novel-isoxazoline-ectoparasiticide-lotilaner-credelio%C3%A2-a-non-competitive-antagonist-specific-to-invertebrates-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-gated-chloride-channels-gabacls
#18
Lucien Rufener, Vanessa Danelli, Daniel Bertrand, Heinz Sager
BACKGROUND: The isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and, to a lesser extent, of inhibitory glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls). Lotilaner (Credelio™), a novel representative of this chemical class, is currently evaluated for its excellent ectoparasiticide properties. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the molecular mode of action and pharmacology of lotilaner...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080753/anthelmintic-activity-of-rosmarinus-officinalis-against-dactylogyrus-minutus-monogenea-infections-in-cyprinus-carpio
#19
M A Zoral, K Futami, M Endo, M Maita, T Katagiri
Monogenean parasites are important ectoparasites of fish, and are responsible for severe economic impacts in the aquaculture industry. They are usually treated with chemicals, but the chemicals can have harmful side effects in the fish and may pose threats to human health. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a common medicinal herb, with antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Here, we examined the anthelmintic activity of rosemary extract against the monogenean (Dactylogyrus minutus) in vitro and in vivo using bath treatment and oral administration...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077073/the-biology-and-ecology-of-cat-fleas-and-advancements-in-their-pest-management-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Michael K Rust
The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas...
October 27, 2017: Insects
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