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Ana Margarida Alho, Clara Lima, Vito Colella, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Domenico Otranto, Luís Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Qatar is one of the wealthiest and fastest growing economies in the world, experiencing a rapid increase in human and pet populations. Given the paucity of data on prophylactic measures against endo- and ectoparasites of pets in Qatar, as well as on the owners' awareness of zoonotic diseases, a questionnaire was conducted. METHODS: From July to November 2017, 150 multiple-choice questionnaires were administered to dog and/or cat owners who attended two veterinary clinics in Doha...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Charalampos Attipa, Laia Solano-Gallego, Kostas Papasouliotis, Francesca Soutter, David Morris, Chris Helps, Scott Carver, Séverine Tasker
BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean basin, Leishmania infantum is a major cause of disease in dogs, which are frequently co-infected with other vector-borne pathogens (VBP). However, the associations between dogs with clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL) and VBP co-infections have not been studied. We assessed the risk of VBP infections in dogs with ClinL and healthy controls. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study of dogs with ClinL (positive qPCR and ELISA antibody for L...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Maria Flaminia Persichetti, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Angela Vullo, Marisa Masucci, Antonella Migliazzo, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: Cats can be carriers of infected arthropods and be infected with several vector-borne pathogens (VBP) but there is limited knowledge about their pathogenic role in cats. RESULTS: A cross-sectional controlled study investigated the clinical status and antibody (Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti and Leishmania infantum) and/or blood PCR (Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Juan C Santos, Rebecca D Tarvin, Lauren A O'Connell, David C Blackburn, Luis A Coloma
Symbionts (e.g., endoparasites and commensals) play an integral role in their host's ecology, yet in many cases their diversity is likely underestimated. Although endoparasites are traditionally characterized using morphology, sequences of conserved genes, and shotgun metagenomics, host transcriptomes constitute an underused resource to identify these organisms' diversity. By isolating non-host transcripts from host transcriptomes, individual host tissues can now simultaneously reveal their endoparasite species richness (i...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Marina Amaral Xavier, Lucas Tirloni, Antônio F M Pinto, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Albert Mulenga, Carlos Logullo, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Adriana Seixas, Carlos Termignoni
Ticks are arthropod ectoparasites of importance for public and veterinary health. The understanding of tick oogenesis and embryogenesis could contribute to the development of novel control methods. However, to date, studies on the temporal dynamics of proteins during ovary development were not reported. In the present study we followed protein profile during ovary maturation. Proteomic analysis of ovary extracts was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using shotgun strategy, in addition to dimethyl labelling-based protein quantification...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ashley Jane Riner, Jaime L Rudd, Deana L Clifford, Brian L Cypher, Janet E Foley, Patrick Foley
The San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica Merriam (Carnivora, Canidae)) is an endangered small carnivore endemic to the San Joaquin Valley of California. Commercial and agricultural land expansion has contributed to the species' decline and invasion of more cosmopolitan species, providing means for potential ecological shifts in disease vector and host species. Fleas are common ectoparasites that can serve as important indicators of cross-species interactions and disease risk. We compared flea load and species composition on kit foxes inhabiting urban and nonurban habitats to determine how urbanization affects flea diversity and potential disease spillover from co-occurring species...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Benoit Talbot, Maarten J Vonhof, Hugh G Broders, Brock Fenton, Nusha Keyghobadi
Parasite-host relationships create strong selection pressures that can lead to adaptation and increasing specialization of parasites to their hosts. Even in relatively loose host-parasite relationships, such as between generalist ectoparasites and their hosts, we may observe some degree of specialization of parasite populations to one of the multiple potential hosts. Salivary proteins are used by blood-feeding ectoparasites to prevent hemostasis in the host and maximize energy intake. We investigated the influence of association with specific host species on allele frequencies of salivary protein genes in Cimex adjunctus, a generalist blood-feeding ectoparasite of bats in North America...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Habibeh Mirzadeh, Jamshid Mohammadi, Asghar Fazaeli
The human flea is an important ectoparasite causing serious public health problems worldwide. Planning and monitoring the control programs against this vector require the knowledge of population structure and vector competence. This study was carried out to identify molecular structure of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of ribosomal gene and its capability in the survey of Pulex irritans populations as well as to investigate Rickettsia infection in these populations. Flea samples were collected via human baits from animal farms in two districts of Zanjan Province, northwest of Iran...
March 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
Colleen Edith Archer, M Corrie Schoeman, Christopher Charles Appleton, Samson Mukaratirwa, Karen J Hope, Glenda Beverly Matthews
This study investigated associations between Trypanosoma lewisi; Xenopsylla cheopis, a common cyclical vector of T. lewisi; Polyplax spinulosa, a reported mechanical vector; and Laelaps ecidnina and L. lamborni, two rodent mites of Rattus norvegicus in Durban. Three hundred and seventy nine R. norvegicus were live-trapped at 48 sites in 4 locality types of Durban during a one year period. Rats were euthanized, cardiac blood was taken to check for hemoparasites and ectoparasites were removed for identification...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Bryony Sands, Neludo Mgidiswa, Casper Nyamukondiwa, Richard Wall
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control ectoparasites of livestock, particularly ticks and biting flies. Their use in African livestock systems is increasing, driven by the need to increase productivity and local food security. However, insecticide residues present in the dung after treatment are toxic to dung-inhabiting insects. In a semiarid agricultural habitat in Botswana, dung beetle adult mortality, brood ball production, and larval survival were compared between untreated cattle dung and cattle dung spiked with deltamethrin, to give concentrations of 0...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Maureen H Murray, Anjelika D Kidd, Shannon E Curry, Jeffrey Hepinstall-Cymerman, Michael J Yabsley, Henry C Adams, Taylor Ellison, Catharine N Welch, Sonia M Hernandez
Many wildlife species shift their diets to use novel resources in urban areas. The consequences of these shifts are not well known, and consumption of reliable-but low quality-anthropogenic food may present important trade-offs for wildlife health. This may be especially true for carnivorous species such as the American white ibis ( Eudocimus albus ), a nomadic wading bird which has been increasingly observed in urban parks in South Florida, USA. We tested the effects of anthropogenic provisioning on consumer nutrition (i...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Collin J Horn, Lien T Luong
Parasites are known to have direct negative effects on host fitness; however, the indirect effects of parasitism on host fitness sans infection are less well understood. Hosts undergo behavioural and physiological changes when in proximity to parasites. Yet, there is little experimental evidence showing that these changes lead to long-term decreases in host fitness. We aimed to determine if parasite exposure affects host fitness independent of contact, because current approaches to parasite ecology may underestimate the effect of parasites on host populations...
March 13, 2018: Parasitology
Sandra A Binning, Dominique G Roche, Alexandra S Grutter, Simona Colosio, Derek Sun, Joanna Miest, Redouan Bshary
Cleaning organisms play a fundamental ecological role by removing ectoparasites and infected tissue from client surfaces. We used the well-studied cleaning mutualisms involving the cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, to test how client cognition is affected by ectoparasites and whether these effects are mitigated by cleaners. Ambon damselfish ( Pomacentrus amboinensis) collected from experimental reef patches without cleaner wrasse performed worse in a visual discrimination test than conspecifics from patches with cleaners...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Noble I Egekwu, Francisco Posada, Daniel E Sonenshine, Steven Cook
Varroa destructor mites (varroa) are ectoparasites of Apis mellifera honey bees, and the damage they inflict on hosts is likely a causative factor of recent poor honey bee colony performance. Research has produced an arsenal of control agents against varroa mites, which have become resistant to many chemical means of their control, and other means have uncertain efficacy. Novel means of control will result from a thorough understanding of varroa physiology and behavior. However, robust knowledge of varroa biology is lacking; mites have very low survivability and reproduction away from their natural environment and host, and few tested protocols of maintaining mites in vitro are available as standardized methods for varroa research...
March 6, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
E M Abdelfattah, G Vezzoli, G Buczkowski, M M Makagon
The northern fowl mite (NFM), Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae), is the primary blood-feeding ectoparasite found on poultry in the U.S.A. Three experiments were conducted in vitro to test the acaricidal properties of cade, garlic, lavender, lemongrass, pine and thyme essential oils against NFM, and to evaluate whether these effects are altered by adjusting oil application rates and application modality (direct vs. vapour contact). Applied at the rate of 0.21 mg/cm2 , the essential oils of cade, thyme, lemongrass and garlic resulted in higher NFM mortality at 24 h post-application than lavender and pine oils, and the untreated and ethanol-treated controls...
March 2, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Anders P Møller
Barn swallows Hirundo rustica have white spots on their tail feathers, and they have been hypothesized to be a handicap because white spots are prone to feather breakage, ectoparasites are disproportionately common in white spots, and size of white spots increases with tail length. Here I test for attractiveness of narrow and long tail spots by manipulation of their shape while using complete painting of spots and an absence of treatment as a control. Female barn swallows are known to differentially invest in reproduction when mated to attractive males...
October 2017: Current Zoology
Mousa Khosravani
Historically, rodents-ectoparasites are responsible for many diseases in human and domestic animal communities because they are well-adapted to the environment and nutritional resources. In addition, ectoparasites can affect the reproductive rates, ecological fitness and the dispersal pattern of their hosts. Data was compiled through all publications relating to ectoparasites fauna from Iranian rodents. Host specificity, rodent-parasites interaction, geographical distribution, ecological trends as well as the medical or veterinary importance of ectoparasites are considered in this review...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Christopher H Taylor, Klara M Wanelik, Ida M Friberg, Ann Lowe, Amy J Hall, Catriona Ralli, Richard J Birtles, Mike Begon, Steve Paterson, Joseph A Jackson, Janette E Bradley
In contrast to the conditions in most laboratory studies, wild animals are routinely challenged by multiple infections simultaneously, and these infections can interact in complex ways. This means that the impact of a parasite on its host's physiology and fitness cannot be fully assessed in isolation, and requires consideration of the interactions with other co-infections. Here we examine the impact of two common blood parasites in the field vole (Microtus agrestis): Babesia microti and Bartonella spp., both of which have zoonotic potential...
February 21, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Irene Di Lecce, Chiara Bazzocchi, Jacopo G Cecere, Sara Epis, Davide Sassera, Barbara M Villani, Gaia Bazzi, Agata Negri, Nicola Saino, Fernando Spina, Claudio Bandi, Diego Rubolini
BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of vertebrates and frequently parasitize avian species that can carry them across continents during their long-distance migrations. Ticks may have detrimental effects on the health state of their avian hosts, which can be either directly caused by blood-draining or mediated by microbial pathogens transmitted during the blood meal. Indeed, ticks host complex microbial communities, including bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Midichloria bacteria (Rickettsiales) are widespread tick endosymbionts that can be transmitted to vertebrate hosts during the tick bite, inducing an antibody response...
February 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Zheguang Lin, Yao Qin, Paul Page, Shuai Wang, Li Li, Zhengsheng Wen, Fuliang Hu, Peter Neumann, Huoqing Zheng, Vincent Dietemann
The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor , shifted host from the eastern honeybee, Apis cerana , to the western honeybee, Apis mellifera . Whereas the original host survives infestations by this parasite, they are lethal to colonies of its new host. Here, we investigated a population of A. cerana naturally infested by the V. destructor Korea haplotype that gave rise to the globally invasive mite lineage. Our aim was to better characterize traits that allow for the survival of the original host to infestations by this particular mite haplotype...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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